Alexandria, cited by Evagrius (H. E. iv. 10) and Nicephorus Callisti (H. E. xvii. 8), the Xuvočuká, Synodica, or 'Etruatoxal avvočukas, Epistolue Synodicae, or 'Emiotoxal évôpoviarukai, Epistolae Inaugurales, issued by him on his promotion to the patriarchate, in which he anathematized the council of Chalcedon, and all who supported the doctrine of the two natures of Christ. (Evagr. H. E. iii. 33, 34; Niceph. Callist. H. E. xvii. 2.) Of his other works the following are cited in various MSS.: 12."rrakom eis rows uáptupas, Hypacile in Martyres, or simply "Trakosi, Hypacóe. 13. IIpós 'Avaardatov Šid. Aoyos, Dialogus ad (s. Contra) Anastasium. 14. Ilpos EUmpd{lov kovštrovadpwy amokpíoets, Responsiones ad Euprarium Cubicularium. 15. Eis to &yios d Oeds,” advrayua, Syntagma in illud, “Sanctus Deus; " and, 16. BiéAos Táv Uroanuetw8évrww ióloxeipws blaspápwy kepaxatav, Liber capitum variorum manu propria subsignatorum, of which Joannes Damascenus cites a passage in the Appendia to his De Jejuniis (Le Quien's ed. l. c.). Several citations of the works of Severus are given in the Hodegus s. Dur Viae of Anastasius Sinaita, and by Photius (Biblioth. Cod. 230) and in the Concilia; but they are chiefly, if not wholly, from his Sermones and Epistolae. A work, Liber de Ritibus Baptismi et Sacrae Synaaris apud Syros receptis, published in Syriac, with a Latin version, 4to. Antwerp, 1572, under the name of Severus, patriarch of Alexandria", is ascribed in some MSS. to our Severus ; and Cave inclines to assign it to him. Dionysius Bar Salibi, a Syriac writer, cites a work of “Severus patriarcha oecumenicus,” which he entitles Canticum Crucis (Assemani, Bibl. Orient. vol. ii. p. 205). The works of Severus are enumerated imperfectly by Cave (Hist. Litt. ad ann. 513, vol. i. p. 499, and more fully by Montfaucon (Biblioth. Coislin. p. 53, &c.), and Fabricius (Biblioth. Graec. vol. x. p. 616, &c.). 3. ENCRATITA. There were two Severi emiment as leaders of bodies accounted heretical. The earlier was a leader of one of the divisions of the Gnostic body; the latter, and far more celebrated was the Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch [See No. 2..] We speak here of the former, who appears to have lived in the latter part of the second century. Little is known of his personal history. Eusebius (H.E. iv. 29), speaking of the sect of the Encratitae and their founder Tatian [TATIANUs], says that a certain person named Severus having strengthened the sect, gave occcasion to their being called, after his own name, Severiani. Theodoret also makes Severus posterior to Tatian (Haeret. Fabul. Comp. i. 21). Epiphanius, on the other hand, makes Severus anterior to Tatian. But the silence of Irenaeus, who mentions Tatian, but not Severus, makes it probable that Tatian was the earlier. Our account of the opinions of the Severiani is very obscure. According to Eusebius they admitted the Law and the Prophets (Euseb. H. E. iv. 29), while according to Augustin they rejected them (De Haeres. c. xxiv.). It is not improbable that they admitted them as an

* The Severus of Alexandria, to whom this Liturgy is ascribed, is apparently Severus surnamed Bar Maschi, who lived in the tenth century after the Saracen conquest had surperseded both the Greek government and the Greek language in Egypt; so that he comes not within the limits of our work.


authentic record of the Old or Mosaic Dispensation, promulgated by the Demiurgos, and as such may have used them, and argued from them ; but yet denied their authority as binding upon themselves, who had embraced the New Dispensation, which rested not on the authority of the Demiurgos, but on the higher and opposite authority of the Supreme and All-merciful God. This explanation of two apparently opposite statements is at any rate consistent with the leading principles of Gnosticism. The curious opinions of Severus, at least of the Severiani, as to the genealogy of the Devil, and the origin of the vine, and of the formation of woman and man, are noticed elsewhere [TAT1ANUs]. Severus denied the apostolic office of Paul, and consequently the authority of his writings; going in these respects beyond Tatian. His followers also denied, according to Augustin, the resurrection of the body, which is likely enough. It is not impossible that these differences may have led to the temporary division of the sect of the Encratitae to which Severus and Tatian both belonged, and to the formation of separate bodies under the respective names of Tatiani and Severiani, who afterwards reunited under the old and generic name of Encratitae. The ascetic features, abstinence from marriage and from the use of animal food and wine, appear to have been common to the whole body, whether designated Tatiani, Severiani, or Encratitae. [TATIANUs]. (Euseb. l.c.; Epiphan. Haeres. xlv. ; Augustin. l.c.; Theodoret. l.c.; Ittigius, De Haeresiarchis, sect. ii. c. xii. § xv. 3 Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. ii. p. 414 ; Neander, Church History (by Rose), vol. ii. p. 111 ; and (by Torrey) vol. ii. p. 167, note 3.)

4. HAERESIARCHA. [Nos. 2, 3.]

5. MonophysitA. [No. 2.]

6. RhEToR. Of this writer nothing certain is known. Fabricius is disposed to identify him with the Xesipos gotiatos ‘Pauasos, Severus Sophista Romanus, mentioned by Suidas (s. v.) and by Photius, in his abstract of the life of Isidorus by Damascius (Biblioth. Cod. 242). The Severus of Photius resided at Alexandria in the latter part of the fifth century, in the enjoyment of an ample library, and of literary leisure, and was a great patron and encourager of learned men, circumstances which bespeak him to have been a man of fortune. The prospect of the revival of the Western Empire during the brief reign of the Emperor Anthemius [ANTHEMIUs], led him to visit Rome, where he obtained the honour of the consulship (A. D. 470), which honour, according to Damascius, was portended by the circumstance, deemed a prodigy, that his horse, when rubbed down, emitted from his skin an abundance of sparks. Severus, the rhetorician, wrote the following works: — I. 'Hôorostal, Ethopoeiae, a series of fictitious speeches, supposed to be uttered by various historical or poetical personages at particular conjunctures. There are extant eight of these Ethopoeiae. Some of them were first printed, with a Latin version, by Fed. Morel, 8vo." Paris, 1616: viz., l. Herculis, Periclymeno in certamine sese commutante. 2. Menelai, rapta a Paride Helena. 3. (but in an imperfect form) Hectoris, quum comperisset Priamum apud inferos cum Achille convivatum ; and, 4. with title merely of Fragmentum allerius Ethopoeiae, a fragment of a fourth, which was afterwards given in a complete form by Allatius; viz. Pictoris, depictae a sepuellae amore correpti. Morel himself published it complete, under the name of the sophist Aristides; 5. Achillis, apud inforos edoct; captam a Pyrrho Trojam esse. The foregoing, but in a more ample form and in a different order, were included, with a new Latin version, in the Ercerpta varia Graecorum

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Sophistarum ac Rhetorum of Allatius, 8vo. Paris,

1641. Gale included those already published, with these additional ones, 6. Aeschinis, cum deprehenderet Philippi imaginem apud Demosthenem, 7. Ejusden, inerilium aleuntis, cum ei Demosthenes viaticum daret. 8. Briséïs, cum Praecomes eam abducerent; in his Rhetores Selecti, 8vo. Oxford, 1676. No. 7 had been published in the collection of Allatius, but under the name of Theodorus Cynopolites. Gale added a new Latin version of his own, and gave a revised, at least a different, text. The whole eight are included in the Rhetores Graeci of Walz, vol. i. p. 539, 8vo. Stuttgard and Tubingen, 1832. II. Amofuata, Narrationes. 1. De Viola; 2. De Hyacintho; 3. De Narcisso; 4. De Arione; 5. De Icaro; 6. De Oto et Ephialte. These were first published by Iriarte. (Regiae Biblioth. Matritensis Codd. Graeci MSti, vol. i. p. 462, fol. Madrid, 1769), and are reprinted by Walz in the collection just cited, p. 357. They are very short. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 53.) [J. C. M.] SEVERUS, bishop of Mileum in Numidia, the friend and ardent admirer of St. Augustine, composed in the fervour of overflowing affection a panegyrical epistle still extant, inscribed Venerabili ac desiderabili et toto sinu charitatis amplectendo episcopo Augustino. It will be found among the correspondence of the bishop of Hippo, m. cik, ed. Bened. From Ep. cx. of the same collection it appears that Severus died before the object of his love and reverence. [W. R.] SEVERUS, was bishop of Minorca in the early part of the fifth century, at a time when a great number of the Jews settled in that island

served some rather large extracts from the writings of Severus. These may possibly belong to the other Severus; but upon the whole it seems better to attribute them to this one, and to suppose that those passages where mention is made of Archigenes (iii. 1. 34, pp. 480, 481), Oribasius (ii. 3. 102, iii. 1. 34. pp. 348, 481), and Severus (ii. 3. 43, 98, 102, pp. 319, 341, 342, 347), were written by Aëtius himself. If the places where Antonius Musa (ii. 3.30. p. 312), Apollonius (ibid. and ii. 3.43, p. 319), and Asclepiades Pharmacion (ii. 3. 85, p. 334), are quoted, belong to Severus, he must have lived towards the end of the first century after Christ. One of his medical formulae is quoted by Alexander Trallianus (ii.5, p. 174.). Fabricius mentions (Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 394, ed. vet.) a physician named Severianus, as quoted by Aëtius; but this is probably a mistake either in the Greek text or in the Latin translation. He also mentions a physician named Theodosius Severus; but “Theodotium” is only the title given by Severus to one of his medicines. (See Bibl. Gr. vol. viii. p. 329.) 2. The author of a short Greek treatise IIepl 'Evertipw ito KAvarsipov, De Cysleribus, which was first published by F. R. Dietz, 8vo. Regim. Pruss. 1836. He is called by the title of Iatrosophista, and from some of the words he uses (e.g. dakanmiaouds) may be supposed to have lived in the sixth or seventh century after Christ. There is nothing in the work itself that deserves particular"notice here. [W. A. G.] SEWE/RUS, the architect, with Celer, of Nero's golden house. (Tac. Ann. xv.42; Suet. Ner. 31; CELER) [P.S.] SEWE’RUS, ACI’LIUS, consul A. D. 323, with Vettius Rufinus, in the reign of Constantius. (Fasti.) SEVERUS, T.ALLEDIUS, a Roman eques, married his own niece to please Agrippina, because she married her uncle the emperor Claudius. (Tac.

were suddenly converted to Christianity. This Ann. xii. 7; comp. Suet. Claud. 26.)

happy change was ascribed by the prelate to the presence of the relics of St. Stephen, the protomartyr, which had been deposited in the * at Mago (Mahon) by Orosius, upon his return from the East [ORosius], and the event was solemnly announced to all ecclesiastics throughout the world in a circular letter written A. D. 218, and inscribed Epistola ad omnes orbis terrarum Episcopos, Presbyteros, et Diacomos. This piece was first brought to light from among the MSS. in the Vatican by Baronius, who published it in his annals, and it will be found also in the Appendix to the seventh volume of the Benedictine edition of St. Augustine, under the title of Severi Epistola ad omnem Ecclesiam de Virtutibus in Mimoricensi insula factis per reliquias Sancti Stephani Martyris. [W. R.] SEVERUS (ześńpos or >evipos), the name of two physicians, who have been supposed to be the same person by Bandini, in his excellent catalogue of the Library at Florence (see the Inder), and one of whom (probably the former) is mentioned in a list of those who were most eminent in medical science. (Cramer's Anecd. Graeca Paris, vol. iv.) 1. A physician who is mentioned by Archigenes (ap. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Loc. iii. 1. vol.xii. p. 623), and in terms which seem to imply that he was dead when Archigenes wrote. The name occurs several times in Aëtius, who has pre

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SEWE’RUS, A/NNIUS, father of Fabia Orestilla, who was great grand-daughter of Antoninus, and wife of the elder Gordian. (Capitolin. Gordian. tres, c. 6.) [W. R.]

SEWE'RUS, AQUILLIUS, a Spaniard, lived under Valentian, and wrote a work, partly in prose and partly in poetry, which is thus described by Hieronymus (de Vir. Ill. c. 3): “volumen, quasi 'Obotropików, totius suae vitae statum continens, tam prosa, quam versibus, quod vocavit kataarpophy, sive IIespaw.” (Wernsdorf, Pottae Latini Minores, vol. v. p. 1491.)

SEVERUS, M. AURELIUS ALEXANDER, usually called ALEXANDER SEVERUS, Roman emperor, A. p. 222–235, the son of Gessius Marcianus and Julia Mamaea, and first cousin of Elagabalus [see genealogy under CARAcALLA], was born at Arce, in Phoenicia, in the temple of Alexander the Great, to which his parents had repaired for the celebration of a festival. There is some doubt as to the year and day of his birth; but the 1st of October, A. D. 205, is probably the correct date, although Herodian places the event so low as A. D. 208. His original name appears to have been Alexianus Bassianus, the latter appellation having been derived from his maternal grandfather. Upon the elevation of Elagabalus, he accompanied his mother and the court to Rome, a report having been spread abroad, and having gained credit, that he also, as well as the emperor, was the son of Caracalla. This connection was afterwards recognised by himself, for he publicly spoke of the divine Antoninus as his sire; and the same fact is asserted by the genealogy recorded on ancient monuments. In A. D. 221 he was adopted by Elagabalus and created Caesar, pontiff, consul elect, and princeps juventutis, at the instigation of the acute and politic Julia Maesa, who, foreseeing the inevitable destruction of one grandson, resolved to provide beforehand for the quiet succession of the other. The names Aleaianus and Bassianus were now laid aside, and those of M. Aurelius Alerander substituted; M. Aurelius in virtue of his adoption ; Alerander in consequence, as was asserted, of a direct revelation on the part of the Syrian god. Elagabalus speedily repented of his choice, and made many efforts to remove one upon whom he now looked with jealousy as a dangerous rival; but his repeated efforts, open as well as secret, being frustrated by the vigilance of Mamaea and the affection of the soldiers, eventually led to his own death, as has been related elsewhere. [ELAGABALUs ; MAESA ; MAMAEA..] Alexander was forthwith acknowledged emperor by the praetorians, and their choice was upon the same day confirmed by the senate, who voted all the customary distinctions; and thus he ascended the throne, on the l l th of March, A. D. 222, in his seventeenth year, adding Severus to his other designations, in order to mark more explicitly the descent which he claimed from the father of Caracalla. For the space of nine years the sway of the new monarch was unmarked by any great event; but a gradual reformation was effected in the various abuses which had so long preyed upon the state ; men of learning and virtue were promoted to the chief dignities, while the city and the empire at large began to recover a healthier tone in religion, morals, and politics. But during the period of tranquillity in Italy, a great revolution had taken place in the East, whose effects were soon felt in the Roman provinces, and gave rise to a series of convulsions which shook the world for centuries. The Persians, after having submitted to the sway of Alexander the Great, of the Seleucidae, and of the Parthians in turn, had made a desperate effort to regain their independence: after a protracted and sanguinary struggle, their chief, Artaxerxes, overcame the warlike Artabanus, and the sovereignty of Central Asia passed for ever from the hands of the Arsacidae. The conquerors, flushed with victory. now began to form more ample schemes, and fondly hoped that the time had now arrived when they might thrust forth the Western tyrants from the regions they had so long usurped, and, recovering the vast dominion once swayed by their ancestors, again rule supreme over all Asia, from the Indus to the Aegaean. Accordingly, as early as A. D. 229. Mesopotamia and Syria were threatened by the victorious hordes; and Alexander, finding that peace could no longer be maintained, set forth from Rome in A. D. 231 to assume in person the command of the Ro: man legions. The opposing hosts met in the level Plain beyond the Euphrates, in A. p. 232. Artaxerxes was overthrown in a great battle, and driven across the Tigris; but the emperor did not prose, Sute his advantage, for intelligence having reached him of a great movement among the German tribes, he hurried back to the city, where he celebrated a "ph in the autumn of A. d. 233.


Such is the account given of the result of this campaign by all ancient writers, with the exception of Herodian, who draws a frightful picture of the losses sustained by the sword and by disease, and represents Severus as having been obliged to retreat ingloriously into Syria, with the mere skeleton of an army. But the well known hostility of this historian to Severus would, in itself, throw discredit upon these statements, unless corroborated by more impartial testimony: and the character of the prince forbids us to suppose that he would have deliberately planned and executed a fraud which could have imposed upon no one, and would have commemorated by speeches to the senate and people, by medals, by inscriptions, and finally by a gorgeous triumph, that which in reality was a shameful and most disastrous defeat. Although little doubt, therefore, can be entertained with regard to the main facts of the expedition, the determination of the dates is a matter of considerable difficulty, and has given rise to much controversy among chronologers; for the evidence is both complicated and uncertain. On the whole, the opinion of Eckhel (vol. vii. p. 274) seems the most probable. He concludes that Severus left the city for the Persian war, at the end of A. D. 230, or the beginning of A. D. 231 ; that the battle with Artaxerxes was fought in A. D. 232; and that the triumph was celebrated towards the end of A. D. 233.

Meanwhile, the Germans having crossed the Rhine, were now devastating Gaul. Severus quitted the metropolis with an army, in the course of A. D. 234; but before he had made any progress in the campaign, he was waylaid by a small band of mutinous soldiers, instigated, it is said, by Maximinus, and slain, along with his mother, in the early part of A. D. 235, in the 30th year of his age, and the 14th of his reign.

All ranks were plunged in the deepest grief by the intelligence of his death, and their sorrow was rendered more poignant by the well-known coarseness and brutality of his successor [ MAxiMINUs]. Never did a sovereign better merit the regrets of his people. His noble and graceful presence, the gentleness and courtesy of his manners, and the ready access granted to persons of every grade, produced, at an early period, an impression in his favour, which became deeply engraven on the hearts of all by the justice, wisdom, and clemency which he uniformly displayed in all public transactions, and by the simplicity and purity which distinguished his private life. The formation of his character must, in a great measure, be ascribed to the high principles instilled by his mother, who not only guarded his life with watchful care against the treachery of Elagabalus, but was not less vigilant in preserving his morals from the contamination of the double-dyed profligacy with which he was surrounded. The son deeply felt the obligations which he owed to such a parent, and repaid them by the most respectful tenderness and dutiful submission to her will. The implicit reliance which he reposed on her judgment, is said to have led to his untimely end ; for Mamaea inculcated excessive and ill-timed parsimony, which conjoined with the strict discipline enforced, at length alienated the affections of the troops, who were at one time deeply attached to his person. So sensible was he of this fatal error, that he is said to have reproached his mother, with his dying breath, as the cause of the catastrophe. (Herodian. v. o wi.


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SEWE’RUS, CA'SSIUS, a celebrated orator and satirical writer, in the time of Augustus and Tiberius, is supposed by Weichert to have been born about B. c. 50. He is called in the Index of Authors to the thirty-fifth book of Pliny Longulanus, that is, a native of Longula, a town of Latium. He was a man of low origin and dissolute character, but was much feared by the severity of his attacks upon the Roman nobles. He must have commenced his career as a public slanderer very early, if he is the person against whom the sixth epode of Horace is directed, as is supposed by many ancient and modern commentators. He attracted particular attention by accusing of poisoning, in B. c. 9, Nonius Asprenas, the friend of Augustus, who was defended by Asinius Pollio (Suet. Aug. 56; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 12. s.46; Quintil. x. l. § 23; Dion Cass.lv. 4). Towards the latter end of the reign of Augustus, Severus was banished by Augustus to the island of Crete on account of his libellous verses-against the distinguished men and women at Rome; but as he still continued to write libels, he was deprived of his property in the reign of Tiberius, A. D. 24, and removed to the desert island of Seriphos, where he died in great poverty in the twenty-fifth year of his exile. Hieronymus places his death in A. D. 33, and if this be correct he was banished in A. D. 8. Cassius Severus introduced a new style of oratory, and is said, by the author of the Dialogue on Orators (cc. 19, 26), to have been the first who deserted the style of the ancient orators; and accordingly Meyer observes, that dividing the history of Roman oratory into three epochs, Cato would be the chief of the older school, Cicero of the middle period, and Severus of the later. The works of Severus were proscribed, but were permitted by Caligula to be read again. (Tac. Ann. i. 72, iv. 21, de Orat. 19, 26; Senec. Controv. iii. init.: Quintil. x. l. § 116; Suet. Calig. 16, Vitell. 2; Plin. H. N. vii. 10. s. 12; Macrob. Sat. ii. 4; Hieron. in Euseb. Chron. 2048; Weichert, De Lucii Varii et Cassii Parmensis Vita, Grimae, 1836, pp. 190—212, where the reader will find every thing that is known about Cassius Severus ; Drumann, Geschichte Roms, vol. ii. p. 161 ; Meyer, Oratorum Romanorum Fragmenta, pp. 545–551, 2d ed.)

SEWE’RUS, CATI’LIUS. 1. Consul in A. D. 120, was made by Hadrian governor of Syria, and subsequently praefectus urbi, but was removed from the latter post in A. D. 138, because he expressed disapprobation at the adoption of An.


toninus Pius, in consequence of his being anxious to gain the empire for himself. He was the maternal great-grandfather of the emperor M. Aurelius [see Vol. I. p. 439]. Severus was a friend of the younger Pliny, several of whose letters are addressed to him. (Capitolin. Spart. 5, 15, 24, M. Anton. l ; Plin. Ep. i. 22, iii. 6, v. 1, et alibi.) 2. A relation of the emperor Alexander Severus, and a member of his consilium, is described as vir omnium doctissimus. (Lamprid. Aler. Sever. 68.) SEWE’RUS, CESTIUS. [CEstius, No. 5.] SEWE'RUS, CI'NCIUS, slain by the emperor Septimius Severus (Spartian. Sever. 13), is probably the same as the pontifex Cingius Severus. who is mentioned in connection with the burial of Commodus. (Lamprid. Commod. 20.) SEWE’RUS, CLAU’DIUS. I. The leader of the Helvetii, A. D. 69. (Tac. Hist. i. 68.) 2. CN. Claudius SevKR Us, consul with Sex. Erucius Clarus, in A. d. 146, in which year the emperor Severus was born. (Spartian. Sever. 1; Cod. Just. 6. tit. 26. s.l.) 3. TI. Claudius Sever Us, consul A. D. 200, with C. Aufidius Victorinus. (Cod. Just. 8. tit. 45. s.l.. et alibi.) SEWE’RUS, CORNELIUS, according to the criticism of Quintilian, more distinguished as a verse-maker than as a poet, was contemporary with Ovid, by whom he is addressed in one of the Epistles written from Pontus. He was the author of a poem entitled Bellum Siculum, which he was prevented by death from completing. Seneca has preserved (Suasor. vii.) a fragment by Severus, on the death of Cicero ; and in one of his Epistles he speaks of him as having written upon Aetna; but whether this was an independent piece or was included in the Sicilian War, we cannot tell. [See Lucilius JUNIoR.] The above-mentioned fragments, and a few inconsiderable scraps, collected chiefly from the grammarians, will be found in Wernsdorf, Poët. Lat. Min. vol. iv. pt. i. pp. 217, 225, comp. vol. iv. pt. i. p. 33, vol. v. pt. iii. p. 1469. (Ovid, Ep. er Pont. iv. 2. 2; Senec. Suasor. vii. Epist. lxxix.; Quintil. x. 1. § 89.) [W. R.] SEWE’RUS, CU'RTIUS, a Roman officer in Syria, in A. D. 52. (Tac. Ann. xii. 55.) SEWE’RUS, FLAVIUS WALE’RIUS, Roman emperor, A. D. 306–307. After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, followed by the elevation of Galerius with Constantius Chlorus to the rank of Augusti, it became necessary, in order to maintain the scheme of the empire, to appoint new Caesars [DiocletiaNUs]. The right of nomination was conceded to Galerius, who selected two creatures of his own, devoted, as he believed, to his interests, Maximinus Daza and Severus. The latter, an obscure Illyrian adventurer, altogether unknown, save as the dissolute, although faithful, adherent of his patron, was invested with the insignia of his new dignity at Milan, on the lst of May, A.D. 305, by Herculius in person, and obtained Italy, and probably Africa and Upper Pannonia also, as his provinces. But as soon as intelligence was received of the death of Constantius Chlorus, which happened at York, in July, A. D. 306, Severus was forthwith proclaimed Augustus in his stead, by Galerius, and soon after was instructed to quell the disturbances excited by the usurpation of Maxentius. The details of this disastrous campaign, the advance of Severus upon the capital, the defection of his troops, his hasty retreat, and his surrender at Ravenna to Herculius, upon the most solemn assurances of ample protection, have been related in a former article [MAxENTIUs]. In spite, however, of all the promises of the conqueror, the vanquished prince was conveyed as a prisoner of war to the vicinity of Rome, and detained in captivity at Tres Tabernae, on the Appian road, where, upon receiving intimation that he might choose the manner of his death, he opened his veins, and was entombed in the sepulchre of Gallienus, A. D. 307. (Panegr. Wet. i. v.; Auct. De Mort. Persec. 18, 19, 20, 25, 26; Victor, de Caes. 40, Epit. 40; Eutrop. x. 2; Excerpta Walesian. 5–10; Zosim. ii. 8, 10.) [W. R.]



SEWE’RUS, HERENNIUS, a friend of the younger Pliny, who speaks of him as “vir doctissimus.” (Plin. Ep. iv. 28.) SEVERUS, JU'LIUS, a legatus of Hadrian, was first governor of Britain, from which he was summoned by the emperor to take the command of the war against the Jews. After the conclusion of this war he was placed over Bithynia, which he governed with great wisdom and justice. He must not be confounded with the Severus, whom Pliny addresses in several of his letters, as Glandorp has done in his Onomasticon; for the friend of Pliny was Catilius Severus, as has been shown above. (Dion Cass. lxix. 13, 14.) SEVE'RUS, JU'LIUS, a Roman grammarian, of whom nothing is known, is the author of a small treatise entitled De Pedibus Expositio, which was first published by Heusinger, together with the work of Flavius Mallius Theodorus on the same subject, Guels. 1755, and Lugd. Bat. 1766. It is also included in Gaisford's Script. Lat. Itei Metric. Oxon. 1837. SEVERUS, LI'BIUS, Roman emperor from A. D. 461–465. He was a Lucanian by birth, and owed his accession to Ricimer, who placed him on the throne of Rome after the assassination of Majorian. His proclamation took place at Ravenna, on the 19th or 20th of November, 461, and the Roman senate confirmed the election soon afterwards. He was an obscure man, and his name is not mentioned previous to the murder of Majorian, of which he was one of the principal agents. No acts of his reign are recorded but one, namely his condemnation of Agrippinus, and the subsequent pardon which he granted to him in 462. Leo, the Eastern emperor, declined to acknowledge him, but afterwards complied with the wishes of the powerful Ricimer, to whom we refer for the political events of the time. Severus died in Rome on the 15th of August, 465, or perhaps some weeks later.

(Idatius, Chronicon; Chronicon Alexandr.; Evagr. ii. 7; Theoph. p. 97; Jornand. De Reb. Goth. c. 45.) [W. P.]


SEWE’RUS SANCTUS, the writer of an amoebaean pastoral of considerable merit, extending to 132 lines, in choriambic metre, first published by P. Pithou in his “Veterum aliquot Galliae Theologorum Scripta” (4to. Paris, 1586) as, Severi Rhetoris et Poetae Christiani Carmen Bucolicum. The subject relates to a murrain among cattle, which, after sweeping over Pannonia, Illyria, and Belgica, was devastating the pastures of the country where the scene is laid ; that is, probably Gaul (see v. 22). The speakers who open the dialogue are Buculus and Aegon, both pagans; and these are afterwards joined by Tityrus, a Christian. Buculus recounts, with deep grief, the disease and death by which his oxen had been visited. While Aegon is condoling with him, and marvelling that, although many of their neighbours had been afflicted by this calamity, some had remained altogether uninjured, Tityrus, one of those who had escaped, comes up, and, on being questioned, declares that he attributed the preservation of his property to the sign of the cross impressed upon the foreheads of his flocks, and to the worship of Jesus, which he himself practised, at the same time recommending his friends to adopt the faith which he professed, as the only sure safeguard and remedy. Buculus, convinced by his arguments, and hoping to avert the pestilence from his herds, agrees to become a convert, Aegon also expresses his willingness to receive the truth, and both, conducted by Tityrus, proceeded to the city, for the purpose of offering homage at the shrine of Christ.

With regard to the author little, or rather nothing, is known; for every particular recorded with regard to him, resolves itself into a vague conjecture. Ausonius mentions a Flavius Sanctus as his kinsman (Parental. xviii. xix), and Sidonius Apollinaris (Ep. viii. 11) speaks of his friend Sanctus, who had been bishop of Bordeaux; but the composer of the eclogue now under consideration, is commonly supposed to be the same with Sanctus, a friend of Paulinus Nolanus, to whom that prelate addresses his twenty-sixth epistle, while Pithou proceeds a step farther, and maintains that he is also the rhetorician Endeilichius, whom Paulinus names in a letter to Sulpicius Severus (Ep. ix. comp. Sirmond, ad Sidon. Apoll. Ep. iv. 8). Accordingly, he published the second edition of the pastoral in his “Epigrammata et Poemata Wett,” &c. (Paris, 1590), as Carmen Severi Sancti, id est, Endeilichi Rhetoris, de Mortibus Boum; and, since that period, scholars, according to their conviction, have adopted one or other, or both of these titles.

From the internal evidence afforded by the piece

itself, we are led to conclude that it belongs to the

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