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tiana, p. 453.) Allatius identifies the writer with the “Simon Hieromonachus ex ordine Praedicatorum,” mentioned by Georgius Trapezuntius, or George of Trebizond [Georgius, literary and ecclesiastical, No. 48), as being a native of Crete, ardent for the divine doctrines (sc. those of the Western Church), who went to Rome, and obtained of the Pope the office of Inquisitor and Judge of IIeretics in Crete (Georg. Trapezunt. ad Cretenses Epistola, apud Allat. Graecia Orthodora, vol. i. p. 537). Allatius supposes that he got his name Constantinopolitanus from the circumstance of his family having belonged to that city, just as Georgius, who mentions him, was called Trapezuntius, for a similar reason. Allatius (1). Simeon. p. 202) further identifies him with the Simon latumaeus (Possevino, in his Apparatus Sacer, misquotes the name as Iacumaeus, and Allatius (l.c.) further misquotes it as Tacumaeus) mentioned by Sixtus of Sena (Biblioth. Sancta, lib. iv.), as having been first bishop of Gyracium, and afterwards archbishop of Thebes, and as having flourished about A. n. 1400. It is to be observed that Sixtus says Simon latumaeus was born at Constantinople ; but perhaps Sixtus was misled by the epithet Constantinopolitanus. He speaks of him as versed in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew literature, and as an assiduous student of the Bible : and states that he prepared a revision of the Greek text of the New Testament; translated it most faithfully, word for word (verbum de verbo) into Hebrew and into Latin ; and formed a triglott Testament, by arranging the Greek text and the two versions in three parallel columns on the same page, so that line corresponded to line, and word to word. (Sixtus Senens. l.c.) Allatius (l.c. p. 203) says he had read some poems addressed to Joannes Cantacuzenus, with the inscription Xiuww.os doxiertakórov Omēov, “Simonis Archiepiscopi Thebarum.” Of these poems he quotes a few lines: from which they appear to have been addressed to Cantacuzenus about the time of his abdication, in the middle of the fourteenth century. If, therefore, Simon flourished, as Sixtus of Sena states, in A. d. 1400, he must have attained a considerable age. Cave inclines to the opinion that the Simon who wrote the three treatises on the Holy Spirit was a distinct person from the Simon Jacumaeus (he adds “alias Sacumaeus'), of Sixtus of Sena. He thinks that if they were the same, the date given by Sixtus, A. D. 1400, is incorrect. (Allatius, l.c.; Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. pp. 301, 334 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 1276 and 1400, vol. ii. p. 322; and Appendia, p. 87, ed. Oxford, 1740–1743.) 23. Threni Scriptor. Harpocration (Lericon, s.v. Taurival), mentions Simon as the author of a poem entitled or described as Eis Avaíuaxov Töv 'Eperpéa 9pivos, In Lysimachum Eretriensem Threnus. It is probable that Simon is a mistake for Simonides. [Simonides.] (Allat. De Simeon. Scriptis, p. 200.) [J. C. M.] SIMON (Xiuwu), a physician of Magnesia, who is mentioned by Herophilus (ap. Soran. De Arte Obstetr. p. 100), and who lived, therefore, in or before the fourth century B. c. He is probably the same person who is mentioned by Diogenes Laërtius (ii. 123), and said by him to have lived in the time of Seleucus Nicanor. {W.A.G.] SIMON (Xiuwu), of Aegina, a celebrated statuary in bronze, who flourished about Ol. 76, B. c.

475, and made one of the horses and one of the charioteers, in the group which was dedicated at Olympia by Phormis, the contemporary of Gelon and Hieron ; the other horse and charioteer were made by Dionysius of Argos (Paus. v. 27. § 1). Pliny states that he made a dog and an archer in bronze. (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 33.) He is also mentioned by Diogenes Laërtius (ii. 123). To these passages should probably be added two others, in which the name of Simon is concealed by erroneous readings. Clemens Alexandrinus (Protrept. p. 31, Sylburg) mentions, on the authority of Polemon, a statue of Dionysus Morychus, at Athens, made of the soft stone called peaxestms, as the work of Sicon, the son of Eupalamus ; and the same statue is ascribed by Zenobius (v. 13) to Simmias, the son of Eupalamus. We know nothing either of Sicon or of Simmias ; but in the former passage nothing can be simpler than the correction of Xikww.os into Xiuwwos, and in the latter it is obvious how easily the two names may have been confounded, each beginning with the syllable Xiu, especially if, as is frequently the case in old MSS., that syllable only was written as an abbreviation for Xiuww.os. These corrections are supported by the authority of Müller (Aegin. 104) and Thiersch (Epochen, p. 127), and no sound critic will hesitate to prefer them to Sillig's method of correcting the passage of Clement from that of Zenobius, and reading Xuuusov in both. Thiersch supposes Simon, the son of Eupalamus, to have lived at an earlier period than Simon of Aegina, and to have been one of the Attic Daedalids. This is possible, but by no means necessary; for although the manner in which the statue of Dionysus is mentioned, and the significant name Eupalamus concur to place Simon with the so-called Daedalian, or archaic period of art, yet that period comes down so far as to include the age immediately before that of Pheidias, and Onatas, the contemporary of Simon of Aegina, is expressly mentioned as belonging to it. [DAEDALUs. ONATAs.] [P. S.] SIMO'NIDES (Xiuww.t5ms), literary. 1. Of Samos, or, as he is more usually designated, of Amorgos, was the second, both in time and in reputation, of the three principal iambic poets of the early period of Greek literature, namely, Archilochus, Simonides, and Hipponax (Proclus, Chrestom. 7 ; Lucian. Pseudol. 2). The chief information which we have respecting him is contained in two articles of Suidas (s. v.v. Xiuwuións, Xiu.usas ; the greater part of the latter article is obviously misplaced, and really refers to Simonides); from which we learn that his father's name was Crines, and that he was originally a native of Samos, whence, by a curious parallel to the history of Archilochus, he led a colony to the neighbouring island of Amorgos, one of the Cyclades or Sporades, where he founded three cities, Minoa, Aegialus, and Arcesine, in the first of which he fixed his own abode. (Comp. Strab. x. p. 487 ; Steph. Byz. s. r. 'Akopy's ; Tzetz. Chil. xii. 52.) He is generally said to have been contemporary with Archilochus ; and the date assigned to him by the chronographers is Ol. 29. 1 or 3, B. c. 66; or 66? (Syncell. p. 213 ; Hieronym. ap. A. Maium, Script. Wet. vol. viii. p. 333; Clem. Alex. Strom. vol. i. p. 333; Cyril. c. Julian. vol. i. p. 12). The statement of Suidas that he flourished 490 years after the Trojan War, would, according to the vulgar era, the epoch of Eratosthenes, place him at (1183–490=) b. c. 693 ; or, according to the era of Democritus, at (1150–490=) B. c. 660, which agrees with the chronographers. (See Clinton, F. H. vol. i. s. aa. 712, 665, 662 ; and Weicker, as cited below.) The works of Simonides, according to Suidas (s. v.), consisted of an elegy in two books, and iambic poems ; or, according to the other notice in Suidas (s. v. Xuuías), iambic and other miscellaneous poems, and an Archaeology of the Samians (dpxaloxoyiav táv Xautov). From the comparison of these two passages, Welcker thinks that the elegiac poem mentioned in the first is the dpxaloAoyia Tov Sauíwv of the second, and not, as others have thought, a gnomic poem, at least not chiefly such. The gnomic poetry of that early period was so highly esteemed and so often quoted, that it is scarcely credible that if so celebrated a poet as Simonides had written elegiac verses of that species, not one of them should have been preserved. All his gnomic poetry is iambic. On the other hand, it was not uncommon for the early poets to write metrical histories of their native countries or cities, and such a history of Samos, chiefly of a genealogical character, had been composed in hexameter verse, long before the time of Simonides, by Asius, the son of Amphiptolemus. It is therefore quite natural, Welcker contends, that when the elegiac metre had been established, Simonides should have applied it to the same subject, intermixing perhaps in his narrations counsels and opinions on public affairs, and thus forming a poem akin to the Eunomia of Tyrtaeus or the Ionia of Bias. The existing fragments of his iambic poems have a decidedly gnomic character, and afford evidence that he was reckoned among the sages who preceded the Seven Wise Men. To confirm this view by parallel examples, Welcker quotes the poems of Xenophanes, of Colophon, on his native city and on the colonization of Elea, and other similar works of other poets. It was, however, the iambic poems of Simonides that made his reputation. These were of two species, gnomic and satirical. His verses of the latter class were very similar to those of Archilochus, inasmuch as his sarcasms were directed at a particular person, named Orodoecides, who has thus obtained a celebrity like that conferred upon Lycambes by Archilochus, and upon Bupalus by Hipponax (Lucian. l. c.); although the unlucky reputation of Orodoecides was by no means so extensive as that of Lycambes and Bupalus, who became a pair of proverbial victims, just as their persecutors, Archilochus and Hipponax, are spoken of together as great satirists; whence Welcker infers that, in this department of iambic poetry, the fame of Simonides was by no means equal to that of Archilochus and Hipponax. But, whatever defect there may have been in the pungency of his satire, it was amply compensated by the wisdom and force of his gnomic poetry, in which he embodied sentiments and precepts, referring to human character and the affairs of human life, in language, in which antique simplicity was combined with fitness and fulness of expression, intermixed occasionally with that quiet irony or satire, in which he seems to have succeeded better than in personal sarcasm. This part of his poetry Welcker considers to have

formed, without doubt, a continuous series of verses, in the shape of precepts addressed to youths in general, or to any individual youth, not, like the precepts of Hesiod, to some particular one. A great part of the poem referred, as in Hesiod, Theognis, and Phocylides, to the relations of men to the other sex, and the characteristics of women are described in that satirical vein, which prevails in these and other poets, but the spirit of which was, perhaps, not so much to disparage the whole sex as to exalt the standard by which they should be judged, especially with regard to industry, economy, and the other household virtues. “For this purpose he makes use of a contrivance which, at a later time, also occurs in the gnomes of Phocylides; that is, he derives the various, though generally bad, qualities of women from the variety of their origin; by which fiction he gives a much livelier image of female characters, than he could have done by a mere enumeration of their qualities. The uncleanly woman is formed from the swine ; the cunning woman, equally versed in good and evil, from the fox ; the talkative woman, from the dog ; the lazy woman, from the earth; the unequal and changeable, from the sea; the woman who takes pleasure only in eating and in sensual delights, from the ass; the perverse woman from the weasel ; the woman fond of dress, from the horse; the ugly and malicious woman, from the ape; there is only one race created for the benefit of men, the woman sprung from the bee, who is fond of her work, and keeps faithful watch over her house.” (Müller, Hist. of the Lit. of Anc. Greece, vol. i. p. 140.) The greater number, however, of the passages relating to women in the fragments of Simonides seem to belong to his satiric, rather than his gnomic iambics. It is doubtful whether he wrote at all in choliambic verse. One line of that metre is preserved, but an easy alteration of the last word converts it into an ordinary iambic verse ; and there is only one other fragment which has any appearance of being choliambic (See Meineke, Cholamb. Pot's. Graec. pp. 134, 135.) Like the other early iambic poets, Simonides also used the trochaic metre, which is most closely connected in rhythm with the iambic. (Grammat. ap. Censorin. c. 9.) Besides their poetical interest, the fragments of Simonides are very valuable for the numerous forms of the old Ionic dialect which they preserve : the principal examples are collected by Welcker. Great confusion has been made by modern scholars, as well as ancient grammarians, between Simonides of Amorgos and his more celebrated namesake of Ceos. The only safe rule for distinguishing them is to ascribe all the iambic and satiric fragments to the former, and all the lyric remains to the latter, except some few which be. long perhaps to a younger Simonides of Ceos. (See below, No. 3.) As to the numerous elegiac and epigrammatic remains, which we possess under the name of Simonides, there is no good reason for assigning any of them to Simonides of Amorgos, although, as we have seen, he is said to have written an elegy. The fragments of Simonides of Amorgos have been edited, intermixed with those of Simonides of Ceos, and almost without an attempt to distinguish them, in the chief collections of the Greek poets; in Brunck's Analecta, vol. i. pp. 120, foil. ; and in Jacobs's Anth. Graec. vol. i. pp. 57, foll.

There is an edition of the fragment on women, by G. D. Koeler, with a prefatory epistle by Heyne, Gotting. 1781, 8vo. But the first complete edition was that of Welcker, published in the Rheinisches Museum for 1835, 2nd series, vol. iii. pp. 353, foll., and also separately, under the title of Simonidis Amorgini Iambi quae supersunt, Bonn. 1835, 8vo. The text of the fragments is also contained in Schneidewin's Delectus Poesis Graecorum, pp. 196, foll., in Bergk's Poetae Lyrici Graeci, pp. 500, foll., and the Poetae Gnomici, in the Tauchnitz classics. (Welcker, f. c.; Schneidewin, in Zimmermann's Zeitschrift für Allerth. 1836, pp. 365, foll.; Müller, Hist. Lit. l.c.; Ulrici, Gesch. d. Hell. Dichtk. vol. ii. pp. 304–307; Bode, vol. ii. p. 1, pp. 318–327; Bernhardy's Grundriss d. Griech. Litt. vol. ii. pp. 339–341.) 2. Simonides, of Ceos, one of the most celebrated lyric poets of Greece, was the perfecter of the Elegy and Epigram, and the rival of Lasus and Pindar in the Dithyramb and the Epinician Ode. He lived at the close of that period of two centuries, during which lyric poetry advanced from the earliest musical improvements of Terpander, to that high stage of development which it attained in his own works, and in the odes of Pindar and the choruses of Aeschylus; in which the form could be no further improved without injuring the true spirit of poetry; and from which, after a brief rest at the point of perfection in the choruses of Sophocles, it rapidly degenerated in the hands of Euripides and of the Athenian dithyrambic poets, whom Aristophanes so severely satirized. His genius must have received, also, no small impulse from the political circumstances of his age. When young, he formed a part of the brilliant literary circle which Hipparchus collected at his court. In advanced life, he enjoyed the personal friendship of Themistocles and Pausanias, and celebrated their exploits; and in his extreme old age, he found an honoured retreat at the court of Syracuse. His life extended from about the first usurpation of Peisistratus to the end of the Persian wars, from Ol. 56. 1, to Ol. 78. 1, B. c. 556–467. The chief authorities for his life, besides the ancient writers, and the historians of Greek literature (Müller, Ulrici, Bode, Bernhardy, &c.) are the two works of Schneidewin (Simonidis Cei Carminis Reliquiae, Brunsw. 1835, 8vo.) and Richter (Simonides der aell. von Keos, nach seinem Leben beschrieben und in seinem poetischen Ueberresten übersetzt, Schleusingen, 1836, 4to), in which the ancient authorities are so fully collected and discussed, that it is unnecessary to refer to any except the most important of them. Simonides was born at Julis, in the island of Ceos, in Ol. 56.1, B. c. 556, as we learn from one of his own epigrams (No. 203*), in which he celebrates a victory which he gained at Athens, at the age of 80 years, in the archonship of Adeimantus, that is, in Ol. 75.4, B. c. 476; and this date is confirmed by other authorities, and by the date of his death, which took place at the age of 89 (Suid.) or 90 (Mar. Par.), in Ol. 78.1, B. c. 467; Lucian (Macrob. 26) extends his life beyond 90 years. o; pp. iii. iv.; Clinton, F. H. s. aa. 556, 476, His father was named Leoprepes, and his grandfather Hyllichus; but this must have been his T. The numbers of the fragments quoted in this ** are those of Schneidewin's edition. WOL. III.

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It seems, from a story related by Chamaeleon (Ath. x. p. 456, c.), that the family of Simonides held some hereditary office in connection with the worship of Dionysus, and that the poet himself officiated, when a boy, in the service of the god at whose festivals he afterwards gained so many victories. He appears also to have been brought up to music and poetry as a profession. The preceding genealogy furnishes strong presumption that the art, according to the then common custom, was hereditary in his family; and it is stated that he instructed the choruses who celebrated the worship of Apollo at Carthaea, where, as also in the rest of his native island, that god was especially honoured. (Chamael. l.c.) Pindar, who was a bitter rival of Simonides, makes this early poetic discipline a subject of reproach, designating him and Bacchylides as toos uddovras, as if they had been poets merely by instruction, and not by inspiration. (See further, Schneidewin, pp. vi.-viii.)

From his native island Simonides proceeded to Athens, probably on the invitation of Hipparchus, who attached him to his society by great rewards (Plat. Hipparch. p. 228, c. ; Aelian, W. H. viii. 2). The reign of Hipparchus was from B. c. 528 to 514, so that Simonides probably spent the best years of his life at the tyrant's court. Anacreon lived at the court of Hipparchus at the same time, but we have no evidence of any intimate relations between the two poets, except an epitaph upon Anacreon, which is ascribed to Simonides (Fr. 171, Schn. ; Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 136, No. 49. s. 55). Another of the great poets then at the court of Hipparchus was the dithyrambic poet LAsus, Pindar's teacher, who engaged in poetical contests with Simonides; and the rivalry between them appears to have been carried on in no friendly spirit. (Aristoph. Vesp. 1410, c. Schol.)

We have no positive information respecting the poet's life between the murder of Hipparchus and the battle of Marathon. It appears not improbable that he remained at Athens after the expulsion of Hippias, of whom he speaks as

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arising upon the Athenians,” in an epigram (No. 187), which we may suppose to have been inscribed upon the base of the statues set up to Harmodius and Aristogeiton after the expulsion of Hippias, B. c. 510. (Paus. i. 8. § 5.) It was probably the next period of his life which Simonides spent in Thessaly, under the patronage of the Aleuads and Scopads, whose names, according to Theocritus (Id. xvi. 34) were only preserved from oblivion by the beautiful poems in which the great Ceian bard celebrated the victories gained by their swift horses in the sacred games. Of these poems we still possess a considerable portion of the celebrated Epinician Ode, on the victory of Scopas with the four-horsed chariot (No. 13), which is preserved and commented upon by Plato in the Protagoras; and fragments of the Threnes on the general destruction of the Scopads (No. 46), and on the Aleuad Antiochus (No. 48); and it is not improbable that the magnificent Lament of Danaë (No. 50) was a Threne composed for one of the Aleuads. If we may believe Plutarch, the poet was obliged to confess that the charms of his song failed to humanise the rugged spirits of the Thessalians, 'Auadéo repot ydp slow, *, as ūr' buoi, ěčarrañabat (Plut. de Aud. Poet. p. 15, c.). Even the tyrants whom he celebrated are said to have grudged him his just reward. (Sozom. H. E. p. 4.) Respecting these relations of the poet to the tyrants of Thessaly, a most interesting story is told by several of the ancient writers. The best form of it is probably that which Cicero gives, on the authority of Callimachus (de Orat. ii. 86). At a banquet given by Scopas, when Simonides had sung a poem which he had composed in honour of his patron, and in which, according to the custom of the poets (in their Epinician Odes), he had adorned his composition by devoting a great part of it to the praises of Castor and Pollux, the tyrant had the meanness to say that he would give the poet only half of the stipulated payment for his Ode, and that he might apply for the remainder, if he chose, to his Tyndarids, to whom he had given an equal share of the praise. It was not long before a message was brought to Simonides, that two young men were standing at the door, and earnestly demanding to see him. He rose from his seat, went out, and found no one ; but, during his absence, the building he had just left fell down upon the banqueters, and crushed to death Scopas and all his friends, whom we may suppose to have laughed heartily at his barbarous jest. And so the Dioscuri paid the poet their half of the reward for the Ode. Callimachus, in a fragment which we still possess, puts into the poet's mouth some beautiful elegiac verses in celebration of the event (Fr. 71, Bentley). It is not worth while to discuss the variations upon the story as related by other writers, and especially by Quintilian (xi. 2, § 11 ; comp. Val. Max. i. 8 ; Aristeid. Orat. iv. p. 584; Phaed. Fab. iv. 24: Ovid. Ib. 513,514, &c.; see Schneidewin, pp. xi. foll.). It appears that the Ode believed to have been sung on this occasion was that same Epinician Ode to which allusion has been already made, and of which we possess the half relating to Scopas himself, though we have lost the other half, which referred to the Dioscuri. That the story is altogether fabulous can by no means be maintained; although, in the form in which it has now come down to us, it must be

classed with those legends which embodied the pre

vailing sentiment, that the poet was the beloved servant of the gods, who would interpose to preserve him from injury, or to avenge his wrongs; as in the cases of Arion, saved by the dolphin, and Ibycus, avenged by the cranes. That some overwhelming and general calamity, amounting to an almost total extinction, befell the family of the Scopads about this time, is evident from the threne composed for them by Simonides (No. 46), and from the absence of any mention of them in those events connected with the Persian invasion, in which the Aleuads took so prominent a part (Herod. vii. 6); not to mention the testimony of Phavorinus (ap. Stob. Serm. c. cy. 62) and other writers, which is perhaps derived only from the threne itself (Schn. p. xiii.). Schneidewin suggests an ingenious explanation of the story, but conceived in too rationalistic a spirit to be hastily admitted ; namely, that Scopas, whose tyrannical character is shown, both by the story itself and by the apologetic tone in which Simonides speaks of him in his Ode, was so odious to the people, that they plotted his destruction by undermining the building in which he was about to hold the festival in commemoration of his victory at the games; but that they saved Simonides, by a timely warning, on account of his sacred character as a poet. Schneidewin quotes, in confirmation of this view of the case, the testimony of Phanias of Eresos (ap. Ath. x. p. 438, e.), who placed the death of Scopas under the head of the Destruction of Tyrants through Revenge. (Schn. p. xv.) Whether in consequence of this calamity, or on account of the impending Persian invasion, or for some other reason, Simonides returned to Athens, and soon had the noblest opportunity of employing his poetic powers in the celebration of the great events of the Persian wars. At the request of Miltiades, he composed an epigram for the statue of Pan, which the Athenians dedicated after the battle of Marathon (No. 188). In the following year, in the archonship of Aristeides, B. c. 489, he conquered Aeschylus in the contest for the prize which the Athenians offered for an elegy on those who fell at Marathon (Fr. 58, Epig. 149). Ten years later, he composed, at the request of the Amphictyons, the epigrams which were inscribed *pon the tomb of the Spartans who fell at Thermopylae, as well as an encomium on the same heroes (Epig. 150–155, Fr. 9); and he also celebrated the battles of Artemisium and Salamis, and the great men who commanded in them (Fr. 2–8, Epig. 157—160, 190–194). He lived upon intimate terms with Themistocles, and a good story is told of the skill with which the statesman rebuked the immoderate demands of the poet (Plut. Them. 5; Praecept. Polit. p. 807, a.; Reg. et Imp. Apophth. p. 185, c.; for another story see Cic. Fin. ii. 32). One of his epigrams (No. 197) was written on the occasion of the restoration of the sanctuary of the Lycomidae by Themistocles. Respecting the enmity between Simonides and the poet Timocreon of Rhodes, see Schneidewin, p. xviii. The battle of Plataeae (b. c. 479) furnished Simonides with another subject for an elegy (Fr. 59; comp. Epig. 199), and gave occasion for the celebrated epigram (No. 198), which he composed for Pausanias, who inscribed it on the tripod dedicated by the Greeks at Delphi out of the Persian spoils; but which, on account of its arrogant ascription of all the honour of the victory to Pausanias himself, was erased by the Lacedaemonians, who substituted for it the names of the states which had taken part in the battle (Thuc. i. 132; Paus. iii. 8. § 1). Various stories are told respecting the poet's intimacy with Pausanias; and, among them, that, the king having called upon the poet for some wise saying, Simonides replied, “Remember that thou art a man.” Pausanias made light of the warning, until he was shut up in the brazen house, when he was heard to exclaim,”0 feve Kete, uéya ti dpa xpfiua ñv d Aéryos gov, yo. 3& Ur' dwotas oëbèv adrów Łumv elva. (Plutarch, Consol. ad Apollon. p. 105, a ; Aelian, W. H. ix. 41). The story certainly bears a very suspicious likeness to the well-known tale of Croesus and Solon. Simonides had completed his eightieth year, when his long poetical career at Athens was crowned by the victory which he gained with the dithyrambic chorus, in the archonship of Adeimantus, two years later than the battle of Plataeae (Ol. 75.3, B. c. 477), being the fifty-sixth prize which he had carried off (Epig. 203, 204). It must have been shortly after this that he was invited to Syracuse by Hiero, at whose court he lived till his death in B. c. 467. On his way to Sicily he appears to have visited Magna Graecia, and at Tarentum he is said to have been a second time miraculously preserved from destruction as the reward of his piety (Liban. vol. iv. p. 1101, Reiske ; Epig. 183, 184). He served Hiero by his wisdom as well as by his art, for, immediately after his arrival in Sicily, he became the mediator of a peace between Hiero and Theron of Agrigentum (Schol. ad Pind. Ol. ii. 29). There are several allusions to the wise discourses of the poet at the court of the tyrant (Plat. Epist. ii.); and Xenophon has put his Dialogue on the Evils and Excellencies of Tyranny (the Hiero) into the mouths of Hiero and Simonides. The celebrated evasion of the question respecting the nature of God is ascribed by Cicero (de Nat. Deor. i. 22) to Simonides, as an answer to Hiero. He lived on similar terms of philosophic intercourse with the wife of Hiero. Of all the poets whom Hiero attracted to his court, among whom were Pindar, Bacchylides, and Aeschylus, Simonides appears to have been his favourite. He provided so munificently for his wants, that the poet, who always displayed a strong taste for substantial rewards, was able to sell a large portion of the daily supplies sent him by the king ; and, upon being reproached for trading in his patron's bounty, he assigned as his motive the desire to display at once the munificence of Hiero and his own moderation. He still continued, when at Syracuse, to employ his muse occasionally in the service of other Grecian states. Thus, as Cicero remarks (Cat. Maj. 7), he continued his poetical activity to extreme old age; and Jerome mentions him among those swan-like poets, who sang more sweetly at the approach of death (Epist. 34). His remains were honoured with a splendid funeral, and the following epitaph, probably of his own composition, was inscribed upon his tomb (Tzetz. Chil. i. 24):

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His sepulchre is said by Suidas (s. v.) to have been ruthlessly destroyed by Phoenix, a general of the Agrigentines, who used its materials for the construction of a tower, when he was besieging Syracuse. Little space is left to describe the personal and poetical character of Simonides, and this has already been done so well by Ottfried Müller, that it is hardly necessary to say very much. (Hist. Lit. Anc. Greece, vol. i. pp. 208, foli.) Belonging to a people eminent for their orderly and virtuous character (Plat. Protag. p. 341, e., see Stallbaum's note), Simonides himself became proverbial for that virtue which the Greeks called awq poorisvn, temperance, order, and self command in one's own conduct, and moderation in one's opinions and desires and views of human life; and this spirit breathes through all his poetry. (Schn. p. xxxiii.) His reverence for religion is shown in his treatment of the ancient myths. His political and moral wisdom has already been referred to ; it often assumed a polemic character; and he appears to have been especially anxious to emulate the fame of the Seven Wise Men, both for their wisdom itself, and for their brief sententious form of expressing it; and some ancient writers even reckoned him in the number of those sages. (Plat. Protag. p. 343, c.; comp. Schn. p. xxxvi. foll.) The leading principle of his philosophy appears to have been the calm enjoyment of the pleasures of the present life, both intellectual and material, the making as light as possible of its cares, patience in bearing its evils, and moderation in the standard by which human character should be judged. He appears to have taken no pleasure in the higher regions of speculative philosophy. (See especially, Plat. l.c. and foll. ; Schn. pp. xxxiv. xxxv.) Of the numerous witty sayings ascribed to him, the following may serve as an example: to a person who preserved a dead silence during a banquet, he said, “My friend, if you are a fool, you are doing a wise thing; but if you are wise, a foolish one.” (Plutarch, Conv. iii. Prooem.) Though he was moderate and indulgent in his views of human life, yet the moral sentiments embodied in his poems were so generally sound, that, in his own age, he obtained the approval of the race of men who fought at Marathon and Salamis, and in the succeeding period of moral and poetical decline his gnomic poetry was extolled by the admirers of that earlier age, in contrast to the licentious strains of Gnesippus, and his scolia still continued to be sung at banquets, though the “ young generation” affected to despise them. (Aristoph. Nub. 1355–1362; Ath. xiv. p. 638, e.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Vesp. 1217.) Even the philosophers were indebted to Simonides and the other gnomic poets for their most admired conceptions; thus Prodicus, in his celebrated Choice of Hercules, followed an Epinician Ode of Simonides, which again was a paraphrase of the well-known lines of Hesiod (Op. et Di. 265), tis dpetis iópata, &c. (See Schn. p. xxxix. and Fr. 32.) Simonides is said to have been the inventor of the mnemonic art and of the long vowels and double letters in the Greek alphabet. The latter statement cannot be accepted literally, but this is not the place to discuss it. The other side of the picture may be described almost in one word: Simonides made literature a profession, and sought for its pecuniary rewards in

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