(Diod. xxxi. Exc. Phot. p. 518; Euseb. Arm. i. p. 164.) 6. One of the numerous wives of Mithridates the Great, was originally a woman of mean birth, the daughter of a harper, but obtained such influence over the king as to become one of his favourite wives ; and when he was compelled to undertake his perilous retreat round the Euxine sea, she was left by him in charge of a strong fortress, in which he had deposited a large amount of treasure. She was, however, induced to betray both the fortress and treasures into the hands of Pompey, on condition that he should spare the life of her son Xiphares; but Mithridates, in order to punish her for this treason, put Xiphares to death before her eyes. (Appian, Mithr. 107; Plut. Pomp. 36; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 7.) [E. H. B.] STRATONI'CUS (XTPatóvikos), of Athens, a distinguished musician of the time of Alexander the Great, of whom scarcely any thing is recorded, except the sharp and witty rebuke which he administered to Philotas, when the latter boasted of a victory which he had gained over Timotheus. (Strab. xiii. p. 610; Aelian. N. A. xiv. 14; Ath. viii. p. 352, b.) [P. S.] STRATONI'CUS (Xrpatóvikos), a physician at Pergamus in Mysia, a pupil of Sabinus, and one of Galen's tutors, about A. D. 148. (Galen. 1)e Atra Bile, c. 4, vol. v. p. 119.) It is not certain whether he is the same person whose opinion respecting the generation of male and female children is mentioned by Galen (De Sem. ii. 5, vol. iv. p. 629), and who is called by him d pugurðs Xtpatávikos. [W. A. G.] STRATONICUS, a statuary and silver-chaser, was one of the artists who made bronze statues representing the battles of Attalus and Eumenes against the Gauls. He therefore flourished about B. c. 240 (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 24; PYRoMAchus). He is also mentioned by Pliny, in his list of distinguished silver-chasers (xxxiii. 55) as the engraver of a cup, on which a Satyr, overpowered with wine, was represented so naturally, that the figure appeared to be rather placed upon the vessel than engraved on it. (Comp. Anth. Pal. vi. 56 ; Ath. xi. p. 782, b.) [P. S.] STRATTIS (Xtpártis), tyrant of Chios in the time of Dareius Hystaspis and Xerxes, was one of those whom Dareius, in his Scythian expedition, left in charge of the bridge of boats over the Danube. At the period of the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, seven citizens of Chios conspired against Strattis, but the plot was revealed by one of their number, and the remaining six were obliged to seek safety in flight. They first applied for aid to Sparta, whence they proceeded to the Greek fleet, under the command of Leotychides, at Aegina, B. c. 479, and entreated their countrymen, but for the time without success, to strike a blow for the restoration of independence to Ionia. (Herod. iv. 138, viii. 132.) [E. E.] STRATTIS (Srpártis or Xrpátis, but the former is the more correct orthography), an Athenian comic poet of the Old Comedy, flourished, according to Suidas, a little later than Callias. He must therefore have begun to exhibit about Ol. 92, B. c. 412. He was in part contemporary with Sannyrion and Philyllius, both of whom are attacked in extant quotations from his works (Schol. Aristoph. Plut. 1195 ; Ath. xii. p. 551, c.; Poll. x. 189.) The drama of Strattis in which Philyllius


was attacked was the IIorduoi, which, the Scholiast says, was brought out before the Ecclesiazusae of Aristophanes, and therefore not later than B. c. 394 or 393 (see Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. s. a. 394). Again, in his 'Avtopatroßalatms he attacked Hegelochus, the actor of the Orestes of Euripides; so that this play must have been brought out later than B. c. 408, the year in which the Orestes was exhibited (Schol. Eurip. Orest. 278; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. s. a. 407). Strattis was still exhibiting at the end of the 99th Olympiad, B. c. 380, for we cannot well refer to an earlier period his attack on Isocrates on account of his fondness for Lagisca when he was far advanced in years (Ath. xiii. p. 592, d.; Harpocr. s. v. Aaytaka). We have little opportunity of forming a judgment on the poetical character of Strattis. His intense admiration of the Orestes of Euripides does not say much for his taste (Schol. Eurip. Orest. 278). From the epithet ©optików, applied to one of his plays, it may be inferred that he indulged in that low and insipid buffoonery, with which Aristophanes frequently charges his rivals (Hesych. s. v. koxeKāvol; comp. Aristoph. Nub. 524, Vesp. 66 ; Aristot. Eth. Nicom. iv. 8; Plut. Op. Mor. p. 348, c.) According to an anonymous writer on Comedy (p. xxxiv.) Strattis composed sixteen dramas. Suidas mentions the following titles of his plays: 'Avôporopéatms, or, as it should be, 'Avôpwroßasatms,'Ata\ávrm,’Ayatoi irot'Apyvptov apaviqués, 'Isbiyépav, KaNAutoms, Kivnasas, Aluvouéâwy, Makeööves, Míðela,Towtoos, botvigorat, buxortiorns, Xpiorintros, IIavoravias, Wuxaarai, in addition to which, four titles are mentioned by other writers, namely, Zátrupos repukatóuevos, Mvputóðves, IIot duo., II*Tugos. His name sometimes appears in the corrupted form XTPátwv, and some scholars have supposed the comic poets Strattis and Straton to be one and the same person; but this opinion is undoubtedly erroneous. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 221–236, 427, vol. ii. pp. 763, foll., Editio Minor, pp. 428, foll, ; Bergk, Reliq. Com. Att. Ant. pp. 284, 285; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. Introd. p. xliv, note r. [P. S.] STROMBI'CHIDES (XTPoué-xiàms), an Athenian, son of Diotimus, was appointed to command the eight ships which the Athenians sent to the coast of Asia, on the news of the revolt of Chios, in B. c. 412. On his arrival at Samos he added a Samian trireme to his squadron, and sailed to Teos to check the spirit of rebellion there. But soon after he was compelled to flee to Samos from a superior Peloponnesian fleet, under Chalcideus and Alcibiades, and Teos forthwith revolted. Not long after this Strombichides seems to have returned to Athens, and later in the same year he was one of three commanders who were sent to the Athenians at Samos with a reinforcement of thirty-five ships, which increased their whole force to 104. This they now divided, retaining the greater part of it at Samos to command the sea, and to carry on the war against Miletus, while Strombichides and two others were despatched to Chios with thirty triremes. On their way they lost three of their vessels in a storm; but with the rest they proceeded to Lesbos, and made preparations for the siege of Chios, to which island they then crossed over, fortified a strong post named Delphinium, and reduced the Chians for a time to great extremities. In B. c. 411, on the revolt of Abydos and Lampsacus, Strombichides sailed from Chios with twenty

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four ships, and recovered Lampsacus, but was unable either to persuade or compel Abydos to return to its allegiance; and accordingly he crossed over to Sestos, and there established a garrison to command the whole of the Hellespont. Hence he was soon after summoned to reinforce the Athenians at Samos, who were unable, before his arrival, to make head against the superior force of the Peloponnesians under Astyochus. In Lysias we read that Strombichides was one of those friends of democracy, who expressed their indignation at the terms of peace with which Theramenes and his fellow-ambassadors returned to Athens from Lacedaemon in B. c. 404. Having thus rendered himself obnoxious to the oligarchs, he was involved with the other prominent men of his party in the accusation brought against them by Agoratus before the council, of a conspiracy to oppose the peace. They were all accordingly thrown into prison, and not long after were put to death with the mockery of a trial under the government of the Thirty (Thuc. viii. 15, 16, 17, 30, 34, 38, 40, 55, 60, 61, 62, 79; Lys. c. Agor. pp. 130–133). We may perhaps identify the subject of the present article with the father of Autocles. (Xen. Hell. vi. 3. § 2.) [E. E.]

STRONGY/LION (XTPoyyvX(wv), a distinguished Greek statuary, mentioned by Pausanias and Pliny, and in an important extant inscription. The inscription furnishes sufficient evidence for the true date of the artist, which had previously been determined wrongly on the supposed testimony of the writers referred to.

The inscription referred to was discovered, in 1840, near the entrance of the Acropolis at Athens, between the Propylaea and the Parthenon. It is engraved on two plates of Pentelic marble, and runs thus:–

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Now, we read in the Scholia on Aristophanes (Av. 1128), that there stood in the Acropolis a representation of the Trojan horse (60tpuos intros) in bronze, bearing the inscription, Xapéðmuos Evay*ēAov čk Koixms àvé0mke, and Pausanias describes this statue as standing at the exact part of the Acropolis where the inscription was found (i. 23. § 10); and though Pausanias does not mention the name of the artist, he does tell us elsewhere that Strongylion excelled in the representation of oxen and horses (ix. 30. § 1). But this is not all. The passage of Aristophanes, which gives occasion for the information furnished by the Scholiast, describes the walls of the city of the Birds as being so broad, that two chariots might race upon them “ having horses as large as the Durian (6 50%pios).” Now, considering how constantly the comic poets appeal to the senses rather than the imagination of their audience, and how generally their illustrations are drawn from objects, especially novel objects, present before the eyes of the people, there can be little doubt of the soundness of the remark of the Scholiast, that “It is not credible that the poet says this merely in a general sense, but with reference to the bronze statue in the Acropolis.” If this reasoning be admitted, the date of Strongylion's colossal bronze horse in the Acropolis will be fixed at a period shortly before the exhibition of


the Birds in B. c. 414. This date is confirmed by the characters of the inscription, which belong to the style in use before the archonship of Eucleides. For the publication of this inscription and the inferences drawn from it, we are indebted to Ross. (Journal des Savants, 1841, pp. 245–247.) Pausanias (i. 40. § 2) tells us that Strongylion made the bronze statue of Artemis Soteira, in her temple at Megara. Sillig makes Pausanias say that this statue of Artemis was one of the statues of the Twelve Gods, which were ascribed to Praxiteles; and hence he infers, though by what process of reasoning is not very evident, that Strongylion was contemporary with Praxiteles. The fact is, however, that Pausanias expressly distinguishes “the statues of the Twelve Gods, said to be the works of Praxiteles,” from that of “Artemis herself.” that is, the chief statue of the temple, which, he distinctly affirms, was made by Strongylion ; and, so far is the passage from furnishing any evidence that Strongylion was contemporary with Praxiteles, that it affords two arguments to prove that he lived before him; for, in the first place, the statue of the deity, to whom the temple was dedicated, would of course be made earlier than any others that might be placed in it, and, moreover, Pausanias tells us that the temple was built to commemorate a victory gained by the Megarians, over a detachment of the army of Mardonius, who had been struck by Artemis with a panic in the night ; so that the only sound inference to be drawn from this passage, respecting the artist's date, is that he should be placed as soon after the Persian wars as the other evidence will permit. In another passage of Pausanias (ix. 30. § 1) we are informed that of the statues composing one of the two groups of the Muses on Mount Helicon, three were made by Cephisodotus, three by, Strongylion, and the remaining three by Olympiosthenes; whence it has been inferred that these three artists were contemporaries. This inference is by no means necessarily true, but, on the contrary, while it is quite possible that the three artists may have worked at the same time on the different portions of the group, it is an equally probable conjecture, that the group was left unfinished by one of them, and completed by the others. If so, the order in which the names of the artists stand in Pausanias is not to be taken as the order of time in which they lived; for the preceding clause furnishes an obvious reason for his mentioning the name of Cephisodotus first. Even if we suppose the parts of the group to have been executed at the same time, it is quite possible, as Ross has argued, to bring back the date of Cephisodotus I. high enough to admit of his having been in part contemporary with Strongylion, about the beginning of the fourth century B. c. At all events, it is clear that these passages do not warrant Sillig in placing Strongylion with Cephisodotus I. and Praxiteles at Ol. 103, B.C. 368, but that he flourished about B.c. 415, and probably for some time both before and after that date. Perhaps we might safely assign as his period the last thirty or forty years of the fifth century B. c. Pliny mentions two other bronze statues by Strongylion (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 21); the one of an Amazon, the beauty of whose legs obtained for it the epithet Eucmemos, and excited the admiration of Nero to such a degree that he had it carried about with him in his travels; the other of a boy, of which Brutus was so fond that it was named after him. (Sillig, Cat. Art. s. v.; Ross, as above quoted ; R. Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, pp. 409–411, 2d. ed.; Nagler, Künstler-Lewicon, s. v.) [P. S.] STRO'PHIUS (Srpoolos.) 1. The father of Scamandrius. (Hom. Il. v. 49.) 2. A son of Crissus and Antiphateia, and husband of Cydragora, Anaxibia or Astyocheia, by whom he became the father of Astydameia and Pylades. (Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 33; Paus. ii. 29. § 4 ; Pind. Pyth. xi. 35.) 3. A son of Pylades and Electra. Paus. ii. 16. in fin.) [L. S.] STRUCTUS, a cognomen in the Servilia gens, almost always occurs in connection with those of Ah ALA or of PRiscus, under which the Structi are given. The only Structus who is mentioned with this cognomen alone, is Sp. Servilus Structus, who was consular tribune in B. c. 368. STRUTHAS (XT9000as), a Persian, was sent by Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon), in B. c. 392, to supersede Tiribazus in the satrapy of Western Asia. Recollecting the successful Asiatic campaigns of Agesilaus, Struthas had a strong conviction of the formidable power of the Spartans, and therefore on his arrival took part warmly with the Athenians. The Lacedaemonian government sent out Thibron to act against him; but this officer suffered himself to be surprised by Struthas, and was slain in an engagement in which his army was defeated by the Persians. Diphridas was then despatched to take the command of the Spartan forces, and was more successful in his operations against Struthas. [DiPHRIDAs.] (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. §§ 17–21.) By the year 388 B. c. we find Tiribazus again in possession of his satrapy. (Xen. Hell. v. 1. § 6.) [E. E.] STRYMON (x+puuov), a son of Oceanus and Tethys, was a river god of Thrace, and is called a king of Thrace. (Hes. Theog. 339; Conon, Narr. 4; Anton. Lib. 21.) By Euterpe or Calliope, he became the father of Rhesus (Apollod. i. 3. § 4; Eurip. Rhes. 347), and by Neaera of Euadne. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 2.) [L. S.] STUDITA (JOSEPHUS). Under the article Josephus we gave references to this article from the following Josephi: — No. 5, CoNFEssoft ; No. 14, of Sicily ; No. 15, STUDITA; and No. 16, of THEssalon1cA. We were led to do this by the authority of Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 79), who has confounded Josephus, the brother of Theodorus Studita, with Josephus Siculus. On further examination we have found that they were distinct persons, and therefore give them here distinctly. 1. Josephus StudiTA (i. e. monk of the convent of Studium, Töv Srovštov, at Constantinople), brother of Theodore Studita is further known by the titles of Joseph the CoNFEssoR (6 duoxoymrijs 'Iwo sp) and Joseph of THEssaLoNicA. His parents, Photinus and Theoctista, appear to have been resident at or near Constantinople: and Joseph and his brother Theodore were monks in the convent of Studium (Anonym. De Monasterio Studii, apud Pagi, Critice in Baronii Annales, ad ann. 814, c. xvi.), of which Theodore was afterwards abbot, and which was then eminent for the reputed sanctity of its inmates. In a eulogistic notice of Joseph in the Menologium Basilianum (pars ii. p. 167, fol.

Urbin. 1727), Joseph is said to have lived in the time of the emperor Theophilus, and to have been elected archbishop of Thessalonica with unanimous approval, on account of his recognised excellence of character. It appears, however, that his appointment was long antecedent to the reign of Theophilus ; and that it was by no means unexceptionable; for when his quarrel with the patriarch Nicephorus had brought him into trouble, he had to defend himself against the charge of having improperly thrust himself into his see ; and his defence seems to admit that the objection was not altogether groundless (Baron. Annales Eccles. ad ann. 808, xvii. &c.). In what year he became archbishop is not clear; but in A. D. 809, if we adopt the chronology of Baronius who follows Theophanes, he was deposed, exiled, and imprisoned (ibid. ad ann. 809, viii. xlvi. ; Theophan. Chrono. p. 409, ed. Paris, p. 325, ed. Venice, p. 752, ed. Bonn ; Cedren. Compend. p. 478, ed. Paris, vol. ii. p. 36, ed. Bonn). The occasion of this severe treatment was his refusal to communicate with the patriarch Nicephorus of Constantinople, because the latter had restored to the office of oeconomus or steward of the great church at Constantinople, the presbyter Joseph, who had officiated at the marriage of the emperor Constantine VI. with the harlot Theodote or Theodata, in A. D. 795 [CoNSTANTINUs VI.]; but it is probable that the quarrel was embittered by the iconoclastic controversy, and that the ejected prelate was regarded as a confessor for the truth rather than a sufferer in a squabble about an individual. Soon after the accession of the emperor Michael I. Rhangabe, Joseph recovered his liberty and his see (Theophan. Chronog. p. 419, ed. Paris, p. 333, ed. Venice, p. 770, ed. Bonn ; Zonaras, Annales, lib. xv. c. 17). When the iconoclastic party, under the patronage of Leo V. the Armenian, regained the ascendancy, Joseph was among the champions and sufferers in the cause of images. He was confined in an island, apparently one of those in the Propontis, in one of which he had been before confined in A. D. 809 (Theodor. Studit. Epistola, apud Baron. Annales, ad alyp. 815. xi. 816. xliv. &c.). It is mentioned in the life of St. Nicetas, the Bithynian confessor, that Joseph attended at his funeral, which may be fixed in A. D. 824 (Acta Sanctor. April, vol. i. pp. 253,265, and Appendir, p. xxxii.). Nothing seems to be known of him after this, unless we accept as true the statement of the Menologium Basilianum (l.c.), that he was imprisoned by the emperor Theophilus for refusing to renounce the adoration of images, and died in prison. But the statement is rendered doubtful by the addition that, at the time when he was put in prison, his brother Theodore was banished: for Theodore died in A. D. 826, three years before the accession of Theophilus ; so that the account is, at any rate, inaccurate; and whether there is any truth in it can hardly be now ascertained. It is not certain that Joseph lived to the accession of the emperor. He was dead before, and apparently long before 844, in which year the relics of Theodore Studita were transferred with great pomp to the church of the Precursor (sc. John the Baptist), in the monastery of Studium, where those of Joseph were already reposing (Vita S. Nicolai Studitae, apud Acta Sanctorum Februar. vol. i. p. 547). There are some writings of Joseph extant. Baronius has given (Annal, ad ann. 808, xviii. xix.) a Latin version of an Epistola ad St. meonen Monachum, or probably of a part of it; and Gretserus, in his collection De Cruce, has given, with a Latin version and notes, A&yos sis Töv tíutov kal sworolov a ravpóv too duoxoyntos, *Iwaiiq dpxteriorkómov 9eroaxovskms, Oratio in tenerandam et vivificam Crucem Confessoris Josephi Archiepiscopi Thessalonicensis (Gretser. O. era, vol. ii. p. 85, &c., fol. Ratisbon, 1734). Joseph of Thessalonica appears to have written several Canones or hymns, but it is not easy to distinguish these from the Canones of the other Joseph mentioned below (No. 2). (Acta Sanctorum, Aprilis, vol. i. p. 268, Julii, vol. iii. p. 710; Lambec. Commentarius de Biblioth. Caesaraea, vol. v. col. 564, 576, 721, ed. Kollar; Oudin, De Scriptoribus Eccles. vol. ii. col. 24, &c.; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, vol. ii. col. 43, &c.; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 808, vol. ii. p. 6, ed. Oxford, 1740–1743; Fabric. Billioth. Graec. vol. x. p. 248, vol. xi. p. 79.) 2. Josephus HyMNogRAphus (d "ruvoypdq'os), or MELodus, or CANoNUM Scriptor (6 roisirms rāv kavávov), or of Sicily. This Josephus lived a little later than the preceding. He was a Sicilian by birth, the son of Plotinus or Plutinus (IIAourivos), and Agatha, persons apparently of some property, and of eminent piety. They were compelled, in consequence of the rawages of the Saracens in Sicily, to flee into the Peloponnesus ; and Joseph, fearing lest their altered circumstances would interfere with his desire of leading a monastic life, left them, and, while yet a lad, repaired to Thessalonica, and became an inmate of the convent of Latomus, where he became eminent for his ascetic practices and for the fluency and gracefulness of his utter. ance; “so that he easily,” says his biographer, “ threw the fabled sirens into the shade.” Having been ordained presbyter, he accompanied to Constantinople Gregory of Decapolis, who there became one of the leaders of the “orthodox” party, in their struggle with the iconoclastic emperor, Leo the Armenian, which began in A. D. 814. From Constantinople Joseph repaired, at the desire of this Gregory, to Rome, to solicit the support of the pope ; but falling into the hands of pirates, was by them carried away to Crete. Here he remained till the death of Leo the Armenian (A. D. 820), when he was, as his biographer asserts, miraculously delivered, and conveyed to Constantinople. On his return he found his friend and leader, Gregory, dead, and attached himself to another leader, John, on whose death he procured that his body and that of Gregory should be transferred to the deserted church of St. John Chrysostom, in connection with which he established a monastery. that was soon, by the attractiveness of his eloquence, filled with inmates. After this he was, for his strenuous defence of image worship, banished to Chersonae, apparently by the emperor Theophi. lus, who reigned from A. D. 829 to 842: but, on the death of the emperor, was recalled from exile by the empress Theodora, and obtained, through the favour of the patriarch Ignatius, the office of sceuophylax, or keeper of the sacred vessels in the great church of Constantinople. Joseph was equally acceptable to Ignatius and to his competitor and successor Photius [IGNATIUs, No. 3.; Photius, No. 3]. He died at an advanced age, in A. D. 883. The chronology of his life has been much perplexed by the interpolation of the notices WQL. III.

of him in some MS. of the Greek Synaxaria, by which interpolations the emperor Leo the Armenian [LEo W.], in whose reign Joseph attempted to go to Rome, has been confounded with Leo the Isaurian [LEo III.], who reigned nearly a century before. Joseph is chiefly celebrated as a writer of Canones or Hymni, of which several are extant in MS. ; but there is some difficulty in distinguishing his compositions from those of Joseph of Thessalonica [No. 1]. His Canones in omnia Beatae Virginis Mariae festa, and his Theotocia, hymns in honour of the Virgin, scattered through the ecclesiastical books of the Greeks, were published, with a learned commentary, and a life of Joseph, translated from the Greek of Joannes or John the Deacon, by Ippolito Maracci, under the title of Mariale S. Josephi Hymnographi, 8vo. Rome, 1661. The version of the life of Joseph was by Luigi Maracci of Lucca, the brother of Ippolito. Another Latin version of the same life but less exact, by the Jesuit Floritus, was published among the Vitae Sanctorum Siculorum of Octavius Cajetanus (Ottavio Gaetano), vol. ii. p. 43, fol. Palermo 1657, and reprinted in the Acta Sanctorum (vid. infra). Some writers have supposed that there was a third Joseph, a writer of hymns, mentioned in the title of a MS. Typicon at Rome, as of the Monastery of St. Nicolaus Casularum (Töv kaoroúawv): but there seems reason to think that this Joseph was the subject of the present article ; and that the Monastery of St. Nicolaus was the one built by him, adjacent to the deserted Church of St. John Chrysostom. ( Vita S. Josephi Hymnographi, in the Acta Sanctorum, Aprilis, a. d. iii. vol. i. p. 269, &c., with the Commentarius Praevius of Papebroche, and Appendir, p. xxxiv.; Fabricius, Biblioth. Graec. vol. xi. p. 79, Menologium Graecorum, jussu Basilii Imperatoris editum, a. d. iii. Aprilis, fol. Urbino, 1727. [J. C. M.] STYMPHA'LIDES (xroupaxtoes), the celebrated rapacious birds near the Stymphalian lake in Arcadia, whence they were driven by Heracles and compelled to take refuge in the island of Aretias in the Euxine, where they were afterwards found by the Argonauts. They are described in different ways, but most commonly as voracious birds of prey, which attacked even men, and which were armed with brazen wings, from which they could shoot out their feathers like arrows. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 2; Paus. viii. 22. § 4; Hygin. Fab. 30; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1053.) They are said to have been brought up by Ares. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 300.) According to Mnaseas (ap. Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1054), they were not birds, but women and daughters of Stymphalus and Ornis, and were killed by Heracles because they did not receive him hospitably. In the temple of the Stymphalian Artemis, however, they were represented as birds, and behind the temple there were white marble statues of maidens with birds' feet. (Paus. viii. 22. § 5.) [L. S.] ST’YMPHALUS (XTsuqaxos). 1. A son of Lycaon. (Apollod. iii. 8. § 1.) 2. A son of Elatus and Laodice, a grandson of Arcas, and father of Parthenope, Agamedes, and Gortys. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8, iii. 9. § 1 ; Paus. viii. 4. § 3, 22. § 1.) Pelops, who was unable to conquer him in war, murdered him by stratagem, and cut his body in pieces. For this crime Greece was

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STYPAX or STIPAX, of Cyprus, a statuary, to whom Pliny ascribes the execution of a celebrated statue called Splanchnoptes, because it represented a person roasting the entrails of the victim at a sacrifice, and blowing the fire with his breath. (H. N. xxxiv. 8, 19. s. 21.) According to Pliny, the person represented was a slave of Pericles, evidently the same as the one of whom he elsewhere relates the story, that he fell from the summit of the Parthenon, but was healed by the virtue of a herb which Minerva showed to Pericles in a dream (H. N. xxii. 17. s. 20), a story which Plutarch tells of the architect MNEsici, Es. Among the recent discoveries on the Acropolis, fragments have been found which Ross supposes to have belonged to the base of the Splanchnoptes, and he has put forth the conjecture that the name Stipar in Pliny is only a corruption of Strabax ; but these matters are too doubtful and intricate to be discussed here. (Ross, in the Kunstblatt, 1840, No. 37, and in Gerhard's Archäol. Zeitung, 1844, p. 243.) [P. S.] STYX (Xroso), connected with the verb orvyéa, to hate or abhor, is the name of the principal river in the nether world, around which it flows seven times. (Hom. Il. ii. 755, viii. 369, xiv. 271 ; Virg. Georg. iv. 480, Aen. vi. 439.) Styx is described as a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys (Hes. Theog. 361 ; Apollod. i. 2. § 2; Callim. Hymn. in Jor. 36), and as a nymph she dwelt at the entrance of Hades, in a lofty grotto which was supported by silver columns. (Hes. Theog. 778.) As a river Styx is described as a branch of Oceanus, flowing from its tenth source (789), and the river Cocytus again is a branch of the Styx. (Hom. Od. x. 511.) By Pallas Styx became the mother of Zelus (zeal), Nice (victory), Bia (strength), and Cratos (power). She was the first of all the immortals that took her children to Zeus, to assist him against the Titans; and, in return for this, her children were allowed for ever to live with Zeus, and Styx her. self became the divinity by whom the most solemn oaths were sworn. (Hes. Theog. 383; Hom. Od. v. 185, xv. 37; Apollod. i. 2, § 5; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 191; Virg. Aen. vi. 324, xii. 816; Ov. Met. iii. 290; Sil. Ital. xiii. 568.) When one of the gods was to take an oath by Styx, Iris fetched a cup full of water from the Styx, and the god, while taking the oath, poured out the water. (Hes. Theog 775.) Zeus became by her the father of Persephone (Apollod. i. 3. § 1), and Peiras the father of Echidna. (Paus. viii. 18. § 1.) [L. S.] SUADA, the Roman personification of persuasion, the Greek Peitho (IIe,04). She is also called by the diminutive Suadela. (Horat. Epist. i. 6. 38; Cic. Brut. 15. Cat. Maj. 11.) [L. S.] SU'BRIUS FLA'VIUS or FLAVUS. [FLAvus.] SU'BULO, P. DE/CIUS, was one of the triumvirs for settling new colonists at Aquileia, in B. c. 169; and he is probably the same as the P. Decius, who was sent to Rome in the following year by the praetor L. Anicius, to announce his victory over the Illyrians and his capture of king Gentius. (Liv. xliii. 17, xlv. 3.) SUE'DIUS CLEMENS, was with two others placed by Otho over the troops who were to attack Gallia Narbonensis. (Tac. Hist. i. 87, ii. 12.) L. SUE'TIUS, one of the witnesses against

Verres, when he was accused by Cicero. (Cic. Verr. i. 5, ii. 12, v. 47.) SUETO'NIUS LENIS. [SUEtonius TRANQUILLUs] SUETO'N1US OPTATIA/NUS, wrote the life of the emperor Tacitus. (Vopisc. Tac. 11.) SUETO/NIUS PAULI'NUS. [PAULINus.] C. SUETO'NIUS TRANQUILLUS. The little that is known of Suetonius is derived from his lives of the Caesars and the letters of his friend, the younger Plinius. He states that he was a young man (adolescens) twenty years after the death of Nero (Nero, c. 57.), and Nero died A. D. 68. Accordingly he may have been born a few years after Nero's death. In his life of Domitian (c. 12) he speaks of being present at a certain affair, as adolescentulus. It appears from various passages in his work that he might have received oral information about the emperors who lived before he was born, at least Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. His father Suetonius Lenis (Otho, c. 10), a tribune of the thirteenth legion, was in the battle of Bebriacum or Bedriacum, in which Otho was defeated by Vitellius. The words Lenis and Tranquillus have the same meaning; but there may be some doubt about the reading Lenis, in the passage in the life of Otho. In the collection of the letters of the younger Plinius there are several to Suetonius Tranquillus, from one of which (i. 18) it appears that Suetonius was then a young man and entering on the career of an advocate. In another letter (i. 24) he speaks of his friend Tranquillus wishing to buy a small estate, such as suited a man of studious habits, enough to amuse him, without occupying him too much. Suetonius does not appear to have been desirous of public employment, for he requested Plinius to transfer to a relation, Caesennius Silvanus, a tribuneship, which Plinius had obtained for Suetonius (iii. 8). In a letter of uncertain date (v. 11) Plinius urges Suetonius to publish his works (scripta), but without giving any intimation what the works were ; Plinius says that he had already recommended the works of Suetonius in some hendecasyllabic verses, and jocularly expresses his danger of being called on to produce them by legal process (ne cogantur ad exhibendum formulam accipere). In a letter to Trajanus (x.95) Plinius commends to the emperor the integrity and learning of Suetonius, who had become his intimate friend, and he says that he liked him the better, the more he knew him : he requested the emperor to grant Suetonius the jus trium liberorum, for though Suetonius was married he had no children, or at least had not the number of three, which was necessary to relieve him from various legal disabilities. The emperor granted the privilege to Suetonius. Suetonius became Magister Epistolarum to Hadrianus, a situation which would give him the oppor. tunity of seeing many important documents relating to the emperors. In a passage in the life of Augustus (c. 7) Suetonius makes mention of his having given to the Princeps a bronze bust which represented Augustus when a boy. The critics generally assume that the Princeps was Hadrianus; but it is immaterial whether it was Hadrianus or Trajanus, so far as concerns the biography of Suetonius. Hadrianus, who was apparently of a jealous disposition, deprived of their offices at the same time, Septicius Clarus, who was Praefectus

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