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is also very imperfect; but in those printed at Basle, 8vo. 1549, Paris, 4to. 1580, and by Vignon and his heirs, 1587, 1598, and 1601, the collection was gradually enlarged from MSS., until it attained to its present magnitude. No really good edition of these letters has yet appeared, but the most useful for general purposes are those of Juretus, 4to. Paris, 1604, and of Scioppius, 4to. Mogunt. 1608. - The fragments of the eight speeches were first published by Angelo Mai, 8vo. Mediolan. 1815, in a volume which was reprinted, page for page, at Frankfort, 8vo. 1816, and they will be found appended to Niebuhr's edition of Fronto, 8vo. 1816. The extended fragments, comprising the additions to the eight speeches, and the remains of the ninth obtained from the Vatican MS., are contained in the “Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio e Vaticanis Codicibus edita ab Angelo Maio,” 4to. Rom., 1825, vol. i. ; see also Meyer, Orator. IRoman. Fragmenta, pp. 627—636, 2d ed. 4. Q. FABIANUs MEMMIUs SYMMACHUs, son of the preceding, by his wife Rusticiana, daughter of Orfitus. Like his father he held the offices of quaestor, praetor, and proconsul of Africa; the latter in A. D. 415 (Cod. Theod. 11. tit. 30. s. 65). It is uncertain whether he ever attained to the consulship, but Mai seems to have proved that he was city praefect in A. D. 418. 5. Q. AURELIUS SYMMACH Us, who held the consulship along with Aëtius, in A. D. 446, was in all probability the son of the preceding, and therefore the grandson of the orator. He was the father of 6. Q. AURELIUs MEMMIUs Sym MACHUs, who was a Christian and the father-in-law of Boëthius. (For full information regarding the life and writings of Symmachus, of his ancestors and of his descendants, see the “Commentarii Praevii de Symmacho” by Mai, in the first volume of the “Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio” noticed above. In this dissertation references will be found to all those passages in the ancient writers which bear upon the subject.) [W. R.] SYMMACHUS, a physician at Rome in the first century after Christ, mentioned by Martial (v. 9. vi. 70, vii. 18). [W. A. G.] SYMPO'SIUS, CAELIUS F1RMIA'NUS. [FIRMIANU.S.] SYNCELLUS, an ecclesiastical title borne by several Byzantine writers. The Syncellus was the chosen and confidential companion, commonly the destined successor, of a patriarch. Among the personages who bore this title were Demetrius Syncellus, metropolitan of Cyzicus [DEMETRIUs, literary, No. 17]; Elias Syncellus [EllAs, No. 9] ; Georgius Syncellus the Chronologist, quoted frequently by his title only, “Syncellus.” [GEORGIUs, literary and ecclesiastical, No. 46]; Michael Syncellus of Jerusalem, of whom we subjoin an account, Michael Syncellus of Constantinople, otherwise Michael Monachus [Mich AEL, Byzantine writers, No. 9], and Stephanus Syncellus, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, whose treatise, De triplici Animae Divisione was (perhaps is) extant in MS. in the original Greek text in the King's Library at Paris. Codd. mclxii. No. 2, and mdiv. No. 13. (Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. xi. p. 715; Catalog. Codd. MStorum Billioth. Regiae, vol. ii. pp. 225, 343. Fol. Paris. 1740.) [J. C. M.) SYNCELLUS or SYNGELUS (MICHAEL), WOL. Ill.

a Greek writer of the lower empire, several of whose works have been published. From his life of Theodore Studita, and from a letter of Theodore Studita to him (Theodor. Studit. Epistol, lib. ii. Ep. 213, apud Sirmond. Opera Varia, vol. v. p. 733), we learn that he was a contemporary, apparently a disciple in the monastic life of that busy ecclesiastic (who died A. D. 826), that he was Syncellus of the Greek patriarch of Jerusalem, Mixa)N avykéAAq ‘Aytotoxirm, and that he supported the worship of images in the great controversy on that subject in the ninth century. From the title to his Greek version of a letter of Theodore Abucara (Theodorus, literary and ecclesiastical, No. 3) we gather that he was Syncellus to Thomas who held the patriarchate of Jerusalem for about twenty years, from A. D. 801, or, according to other accounts, from 807. Michael, however, must have survived both Theodore Studita and the patriarch Thomas, for he suffered a long imprisonment for his defence of image worship in the reign of the iconoclastic emperor Theophilus, which extended from A. D. 829 to 842. (Theophanes Continuat. De Theophilo, c. 15. p. 66, edit. Paris, p. 106, ed. Bonn.; Cedrenus, Compend. p. 522, ed. Paris, vol. ii. p. 117, ed. Bonn.) Baronius places his imprisonment in A. D. 835. These few facts constitute all that is known of the life of Michael. His works are, 1. ‘Eykoulov els toy #ytov Atovisatov. Encomium Dionysii Areopagitae. A passage from this is quoted by Suidas (s. v.). This was first printed in the Latin version of Godefridus Tilmannus, a Carthusian monk of Paris, 8vo. Paris, 1546, and was speedily followed by the Greek text, edited by Tilmannus, 4to. Paris, 1547. The Greek text, and a new Latin version by Basilius Millanus, were given by Corderius in his edition of the Opera S. Dionysii Areopagitae, vol. ii. pp. 207, &c. fol. Antwerp, 1634. In all these editions the author's title is given Xú77 exos, Syngelus, as it is also by Suidas. 2. 'Eykøutov eis rows doylovs toū Qeoû dpxayyáAous kal dy'yéAous ka) tag as Tās movpavious 5uváuets. Encomium sanctorum Dei archangelorum et angelorum omniumque coelestium potestatum. This is given by Combéfis, with a Latin version, in the second volume of his Auclarium Norum. Fol. Paris, 1648; and the Latin version of Combesis is given in the Maaima Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. xiv. Fol. Lyon, 1677. 3. A Greek version of the letter of Theodore Abucara, described elsewhere. [THEoDoR Us, literary and ecclesiastical, No. 3..] 4. Muxana avyréAov ‘Iepodoxtuav AséexAos repl too doto36;ov triatews. Michaëlis Synceli Hierosolymorum Libellus de Orthodora Fide, s. Professio Fidei. This is given by Montfaucon, with a Latin version, in his Bibliotheca Coislin. p. 90, &c. 5. Mixaox speoevrépou kal avykéAAov too drooroxtrov 9póvov tow IepoJoAwuwu ué0060s repl ris toū A6).ow ouvráčews, axe5uagóelora èv'Eöégan tis Megoirotautas airiget Aačápov 6takóvov quxogóqou ka? Aoyobérov. Michaëlis Presbyteri et Syncelli Apostolicae Sedis Hierosolymitanae Methodus de Constructione Orationis, ertempore composita Edessae Mesopotamiae rogatu Lazari Diaconi, Philosophi, et Logothetae. We give the title from a MS. in the Mediceam library at Florence (Bandini, Catalog. Codd. MStorum Graec. Biblioth. Medic. Laurent. vol. ii. col. 206) which we believe gives the author correctly ; but , the tract has been repeatedly printed under th name of Georgius Lecapenus too, literary Q

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and ecclesiastical, No. 30], and was printed under the name of the real author, with the grammatical treatise of Alexander Maurocordatos. 8vo. Venice, 1745. 5. Bíos kal troArtesa toû jatov tatpós juáv kal duo Noyotov rod Oeočápov too tav >Tovötav tryovuévov avyypaspels orpès Moxamixov uovaxos. Vita et Mores S. Patris nostri et Confessoris Theodori Praepositi Studitarum conscripta a Michaele Monacho. It is with some hesitation that we class this biography, which is given with a Latin version in the fifth volume of the Opera Varia of the Jesuit Sirmond, among the works of Michael Syncellus. It is elsewhere [Mich Arl, Byzantine writers, No. 9] given among the works of Michael, monk and Syncellus of Constantinople, who lived somewhat later than our Michael. The authorship is a question on which critics are divided; the work, however, bears marks of being written by a contemporary of Theodore, which our Michael was, but which the other Michael could hardly be. Several other works of Michael Syncellus, including Carmina varia, are extant in MS. (Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 133, 298, 333, 345, 382, vol. x. pp. 199, 220, vol. xi. pp. 186, &c. 205; Bandini, Catalog. Codd. MStorum, &c. l. c.; Ittigius, De Biblioth. Patrum; Cave, Hist, Litt. ad ann. 830, vol. ii. p. 19, ed. Oxford, 1740–43; Oudin, Comment. de Scriptorib. Eccles. vol. ii. col. 43, &c.) [J. C. M.] SYNE'SIUS (>uvérios), one of the most elegant of the ancient Christian writers, was a native of Cyrene, and traced his descent from the Spartan king Eurysthenes. He devoted himself to the study of all branches of Greek literature, first in his own city, and afterwards at Alexandria, where he heard Hypatia; and became celebrated for his skill in eloquence and poetry, as well as in philosophy, in which he was a follower of Plato. About A. D. 397, he was sent by his fellow-citizens of Cyrene on an embassy to Constantinople, to present the emperor Arcadius with a crown of gold ; on which occasion he delivered an oration on the government of a kingdom (Tepi Baataeias), which is still extant. Soon after this he embraced Christianity, and was baptized by Theophilus, the patriarch of Alexandria, who had such a sense of his merits that, in the year 410, he ordained him as bishop of Ptolemais, the chief city of the Libyan Pentapolis, although Synesius was very unwilling to accept the office, and enforced his nolo episcopari by declaring that he would not put away his wife, that he disbelieved the resurrection of the body, and that in other respects his studies and opinions and pursuits were of a nature not quite consistent with the notions of the strictly orthodox. Theophilus, however, overruled these objections: Synesius was permitted to retain his wife; and he very soon made a public profession of his belief in the resurrection of the body. He presided over his diocese with energy and success for about twenty years. Among his most remarkable acts were the conversion to Christianity of the philosopher Eva. grius, and the humiliation of Andronicus, the tyrannical president of Libya, whom he brought, by the combined effect of the terrors of excommunication, and a complaint to the emperor, to supplicate the pardon of the church. The time of his death is not stated ; but he cannot have lived beyond A. D. 430 or 431, since in the latter year his younger brother and successor Euoptius appeared at the council of Ephesus as bishop of

Ptolemaîs. His writings have been objects of admiration both to ancient and modern scholars, and have obtained for him the surname of Philosopher. Those of them still extant are the following:—l. Eis tow airtokpātopa Apkáðiov trepi Baotixeias, the oration already referred to. 2. Atwy, trepi Tàs ka0 €avrov blaywysis, Dio, sire de suo ipsius Instituto, a work in which he professes his intention, after the example of Dio Chrysostom, to devote his life to true philosophy. It appears to have been written about A. D. 404, soon after his marriage. 3. Paxdopas €ykóulov, Encomium calcitii, a sort of exercise of wit, in which he defends the condition of baldness in opposition to the ków.ms é-ykáulov of Dio Chrysostom. (See Tzetz. Chil. xi. 725.) The work of Chrysostom is now lost. 4. Aiyūrrios ?) Tep. Tpovoias, Aegyptius sire de Proridentia, in two books, in which he gives an allegorical description of the evils of the time, under the guise of the fable of Osiris and Typhon. 5. IIepl rurview, De Insomniis, on Dreams, a work which Cave and others have supposed, from internal evidence, to have been written before he became a Christian. 6. 'Etta toxas, a collection of 156 (not 155) Letters, which form by far the most interesting portion of his extant works. 7. 'Oulxia, a short discourse on Psalm lxxv. 8. 8. ‘Ouxia, another short discourse on the Eve of the Nativity of Christ. 9. Kardo Taois ombesora éti ueyiots, tav Bapéâpay épô64, fryeuovetsovros Tévvaðiou kal Aoukös artos 'Ivvokevrtov, an oration describing the calamities suffered by the Pentapolis from the great incursion of the barbarians in A. D. 412. 10. Katdatawis, an oration in praise of Aysius, the prefect of Libya. ll. IIpos IIaiávtov inrēp too 64pov A&yos, de dono Astrolabii ad Paeonium dissertatio. 12. "Tuvo, ten Hymns; which appear to have been only a small portion of his poetical compositions. The Greek Anthology contains three epigrams ascribed to him, two of which consist each of a single hexameter verse (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 449; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 155, vol. xiii. p. 956), and he himself refers to tragedies and comedies of his own composition. (Diom, p. 62, c.; Welcker, die Griech. Tragöd. p. 1323.) The Editio Princeps of his whole works is that of Turnebus, Paris, 1553, fol.: the next is that of Cl. Morell, with the Latin version of Petavius, Lutet. (Paris), 1612, fol. ; much improved and enlarged, Lutet. (Paris), 1633, fol. ; reprinted, 1640, fol. There are also numerous editions of the separate works, and of collections of several of them, (Tillemont, Mém. Eccles. vol. xii. pp. 499, foll.; Cave, Hist. Litt. s.a. 410, vol. i. pp. 389, 390, ed. Basil. ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ix. pp. 190, foll.; Hoffmann, Ler. Bibl. Script. Graec.) A few other writers of this name, none of whom deserve special notice, are mentioned by Fabricius (l.c. p. 204). In the Greek Anthology, besides the epigrams of the celebrated Synesius, there is one, on a statue of Hippocrates, ascribed to a certain Synesius Scholasticus, who appears to have flourished shortly before the destruction of Berytus by an earthquake in A. D. 55]. (Brunck, Anal. Graec. vol. iii. p. 1 l ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 232, vol. xiii. p. 956. [P. S.] SYNE'SIUS (Xuvégios). Under this name a short Greek treatise on Fevers was published in 1749, 8vo. Amstel. et Lugd. Bat., with the title, “Synesius de Febribus, quem nunc primum ex Codice MS. Bibliothecae Lugduno-Batavae edidit, vertit, Notisque illustravit Jo. Steph. Bernard. Accedit Wiatici Constantino Africano interprete lib. vii. pars.” The medical contents of this little work do not require any particular notice here. It is probably the earliest Greek medical work containing a distinct account of the Small Pox and Measles (c. 9, p. 288, IIepi riis pauktavočams Aotukis, kal tis itépas Aemoris kal Tukwis Aotuskfis), and the author's description of these diseases and his directions respecting their treatment, agree upon the whole very nearly with those given by Rhazes. [RHAzEs...] There are several questions respecting the date and authorship of this work which have never hitherto been completely and satisfactorily settled, and which therefore require to be discussed here. Bernard published the work under the name of Synesius, because the author is so called in the Leyden Catalogue (p. 394. § 65), and also at the back of the MS. (Bernard's Pref. p. xviii.); but, as there appears to be no good authority for attributing it to a physician of this name, we must first try to determine who was the author of this Greek fragment, — for the very first lines show that it is not a complete work in itself. There exists in MS. in several European libraries rather a long Greek medical work, divided into seven books, and entitled, BiéAos Aeyouévn 'Eq6öta toū ‘Aroðmu00wros, avvreće uévn trapa. "Empov Byfadap too "Eén 'EAğm{ap, uetas.Ambelaa els Thy ‘Exxââa yx60aav trapd Kwvaravrivov trparaamkp.jrov too "Pnyívov, a full account of which may be found in Lambecii Catal. Biblioth. Windob. vi. p. 284 &c. ed. Kollar, and Bandinii Catal. Biblioth. Laurent. vol. iii. p. 142. There is a MS. of this work in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (Laud, Gr. 59), which the Writer has had an opportunity of examining, and he finds that the printed work corresponds to the commencement of the seventh book of the MS. He has collated the printed book partially with the MS. from beginning to end, and finds that two of the chapters are transposed, and that the differences of reading are very numerous; but that the substance, and in general the words also, are so exactly the same that there can be no doubt about the identity of the two works, unless (which is just possible,) they should turn out to be two different (but very literal) translations of the same original treatise. It is therefore tolerably certain that the Pseudo-Synesius is, in fact, the writer commonly known by the designation of Constantinus Africanus, of whom it is necessary to say a few words here, as he is not mentioned in the first volume of this work, because all his published works are written in the Latin language, and he himself lived later than the date fixed on for the admission of Roman writers. He was a native of Carthage in the eleventh century, who spent nearly forty years in travelling in different parts of Asia, where he acquired a knowledge of many useful sciences, and also of several Eastern languages. Upon his return to Africa he was forced, apparently by the jealousy of his countrymen, to leave once more his native land, and settled in Calabria, where he was taken into the service of the Duke Robert Guiscard, and whence he is sometimes called in Greek MSS. Kovat. 6 'Pryovos. Hence also his title of IIowraamkofits or IIpwragm*phrms, that is, Protosecretarius, a word whose meaning may be found in the glossaries of Du Cange and Meursius, and which, in the case of Constantinus, has occasioned his being sometimes

called (by a curious series of errors) “Asyncritus.” and “Asynkitus.” (See Lambec. loco cit. p. 295.) At last he became a monk in the Monastery of Cassino, A. D. 1072, where he employed part of his time in writing and translating various medical works, and where he died at a great age, A. D. 1087. It is not necessary to mention here all his numerous works, a list of which may be found in Fabricius, Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 124, ed. vet.. and in Choulant's Handl. der Bitcherkunde für die Aeltere Medicin. They were collected and published in 2 vols. fol. Basil. 1536, 1539. The only one of his writings with which we are at present concerned is that which consists of seven books, and is entitled, “De omnium Morborum, qui Homini accidere possunt, Cognitione et Curatione,” or in some other editions simply “Wiaticum.” This work is the same as the 'Eq66ia toû 'Atroënuouvros mentioned above, and consequently contains (at the beginning of the seventh book) the Pseudo-Synesius “De Febribus.” It appears also that Constantinus is the author of both works, or, in other words, that he translated the original work into both Greek and Latin. The Latin work indeed (at least as we now possess it,) does not profess to be merely a translation, and this circumstance, added to a similar omission in the case of one of his other works, has exposed Constantinus to the charge of plagiarism and dishonesty, but whether the accusation be altogether well-founded or not, the Writer is unable to decide, as he has never had occasion to examine the other work alluded to with sufficient minuteness to enable him to form an opinion on the subject. (See Russell's Nat. Hist. of Aleppo, Append. p. xii. &c.) It only remains to determine the name and author of the original work ; for, even if we had not the title of the Greek MSS. to aid us, it would be sufficiently evident from the inspection of the Pseudo Synesius that the fragment is translated from the work of some oriental author; the writer not only making constant mention of the natural productions of Eastern countries, but also having preserved two Arabic words in Greek characters." The name of the writer so strangely metamorphosed in the titles of the Greek MSS. of Constantinus is

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sáfr, “Wiaticum Peregrinantium,” and consists of seven books. There is an incomplete Arabic MS. of this work in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (Hunt. 302), which the Writer has examined partially throughout, more especially the part corresponding with the Pseudo-Synesius; and he finds (as Reiske had done before him.) that it agrees (upon the whole) very exactly with the Greek and Latin translations mentioned above. A more minute examination of the Arabic, Greek, and Latin texts will probably enable some future editor to give some further information respecting the two translations: the Writer can only say of the conjecture that the Latin version was made from the Greek rather than from the original Arabic, that it appears to him to be wholly without foundation, inasmuch as the Latin translation in some places agrees more closely with the Arabic text than with the Greek. Ibnu-l-Jezzár's work was also translated into Hebrew by Rabbi Moshe Ben Tibbon (Uri, Catal. MSS. Hebr. Bibl. Bodl. $ 413), and thus enjoys the singular honour of having been translated into no less than three languages during the middle ages. (For further information see Bernard's Preface to Synesius; Nicoll and Pusey's Catal. MSS. Arab. Bibl. Bodl. p. 587; Wüstenfeld, Gesch. der Arab. Aerzte und Naturforscher, § 120; Choulant, Handb. der Bücherkunde fir die Aeltere Medicin, §§ 46,

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| SYNTIPAS, a Persian sage, to whom are attributed two works of which we possess Greek translations, which bear the name of Michael Andreopulus. One of these works is a romance, or collection of stories, very much on the plan of the Thousand and One Nights. By an Arabic author, however, the work is ascribed to one Sendebad, the head of the philosophers of India, who lived somewhere about 100 years before Christ, and wrote a work entitled “The Book of the Seven Counsellors, the Teacher and the Mother of the King.” This work was translated into Persian, Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac, and it is from this last translation that the Greek translation was made. The Greek translation seems to belong to about the eleventh century. It appears not unlikely that this work became known to Europe through the crusades. In the form in which we at present possess it, the work has been accommodated to Christian ideas. The Greek text was published by Boissonade (De Syntipa et Cyri Filio -Andreopuli Narratio, Paris, 1828).

The other work attributed to Syntipas, and, like the former, translated into Greek from the Syriac, is a collection of fables (trapaševyuatuco, Aöyot). An edition of this work was published by F. Matthaei at Leipzig, in 1781. (Schöll, Gesch. der Grieck, Litteratur, vol. iii. p. 429, &c.) [C.P. M.]

SYNTROPHUS, P. RUTI'LIUS, is desig.

nated Marmorarius in an extant inscription, found at Cadiz, which records the accomplishment of a vow which he had made to erect in the temple of Minerva a Theostasis decorated with marbles, wrought by his own hand (Muratori, Thes, vol. i. p. cxxv.2; Orelli, Inscrip. Lat. Sel. No. 2507). It is doubtful whether the word Marmorarius signifies a sculptor, or a common worker in marble. Raoul-Rochette quotes a passage from Seneca (Epist. 88), in which it appears to have the former sense ; and, of course, if such be its meaning in this inscription, the name of Syntrophus must be added to the lists of ancient artists. (R. Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, pp. 411, 412, 2d ed.) [P.S.]

SYPHAX (Xipağ), a Numidian prince, frequently called king of Numidia, but properly, or at least originally, only king of the Massaesylians, the westernmost tribe of the Numidians. (Polyb. xvi. 23; Liv. xxviii. 17.) The period of his accession is unknown, nor do we learn anything of the relations in which he had stood towards the Carthaginians previous to the year B. c. 213, when we find him engaged in hostilities with that people. This circumstance, together with the successes of the Roman arms in Spain at that juncture, induced the two Scipios to enter into friendly relations with him ; they accordingly sent three officers as envoys to him, with promises of assistance from Rome if he persevered in his hostility to their common enemy ; and one of these legates, Q. Statorius, even remained in Numidia to instruct him in the art of war. Under his direction Syphax levied a regular army, with which he was able to meet the Carthaginians in the field, and defeat them in a pitched battle. Hereupon they recalled Hasdrubal from Spain to take the command against him, at the same time that they concluded an alliance with Gala, king of the Massylians, who sent his whole forces, under the command of his son Masinissa, to the support of the Carthaginians. Syphax was unable to contend with their united strength ; he was totally defeated in a great battle (in which 30,000 men are said to have fallen), and compelled to take refuge in Mauritania. Here he soon gathered a fresh force around him, but was pursued and again defeated by Masinissa. (Liv. xxiv. 48, 49 ; Appian. Hisp. 15, 16.) Of his subsequent fortunes we know nothing for some time; but he appears to have concluded a treaty of peace with Carthage, by which he apparently regained possession of his dominions. In B. c. 210, we find him renewing his overtures to the Romans, and recounting his successes over the Carthaginians (Liv. xxvii. 4), with whom he appears to have been at that time again at war; but in B. c. 206 he was once more on peaceful, and even friendly terms with the same people. At that time, however, the successes of the young Scipio in Spain led him to cast his eyes towards Africa also, and he sent his friend Laelius on an embassy to Syphax, in the hope of detaching him from the Carthaginian alliance. The Numidian king lent a favourable ear to his overtures, but refused to treat with any one but the Roman general in person. Hereupon Scipio boldly ventured over to Africa, where he was received by Syphax in the most friendly manner, although he accidentally arrived at the same time with the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco. The personal influence of Scipio for a time obtained the ascendancy,

and Syphax was induced to enter into friendly relations with Rome, though it is doubtful whether (as asserted by Livy) he concluded any definite treaty; at least, he appears to have been shortly after gained over by Hasdrubal to the opposite cause. To this result the charms of Sophonisba, the beautiful daughter of Hasdrubal, whom he offered in marriage to the Numidian king, are said to have powerfully contributed ; Syphax accepted the proffered alliance, and became from this time a staunch friend to the Carthaginians. (Liv. xxviii. 17, 18, xxix. 23; Polyb. xiv. 1, 7 ; Appian. Hisp. 20, 30, Pun. 10 : Zonar. ix. 10, 1].) Meanwhile another opening had presented itself to his ambition. After the death of Gala, the Massylian kingdom had been a prey to civil dissensions, in which, however, Syphax at first took little part; and though he lent some assistance to Lacumaces and his pupil Mezetulus, he did not succeed in preventing his old enemy Masinissa from establishing himself on his father's throne. [MAsiNissa.] He was even disposed, we are told, to acquiesce altogether in the elevation of his rival, had not the representations of Hasdrubal warned him of the danger of such a course. But he yielded to the suggestions of the Carthaginian general, and assembled a large army, with which he invaded the territories of Masinissa, defeated him in a pitched battle, and made himself master of his whole kingdom. The Massylian king was thenceforth compelled to restrict himself to a predatory warfare, in the course of which he obtained various advantages, and at one time compelled Syphax himself (in conjunction with his son WERMINA) once more to take the field against him. Though again defeated, he was still able to maintain himself at the head of a small force until the landing of Scipio in Africa, B. c. 204. (Liv. xxix. 29–33; Appian. Pun. 10–12.) On that event Syphax, who had already sent an embassy to Scipio in Sicily to warn him against taking such a step, did not hesitate to support the Carthaginians, and joined Hasdrubal with an army of 50,000 foot and 10,000 horse. But his desire was not so much for the decided victory of either of the two parties, as to become the means of mediating a peace between them, which he hoped to effect on condition of the Romans withdrawing their troops from Africa, in return for the evacuation of Italy by Hannibal. He in consequence took advantage of the long protracted operations of the siege of Utica, during which his own army and that of Hasdrubal were encamped in the immediate neighbourhood of Scipio, to open negotiations with the Roman general. These were protracted throughout great part of the winter; but Scipio, while he pretended to lend a willing ear to the overtures of the Numidian king, secretly entertained wholly different designs, and early in the spring of B. c. 203, having abruptly broken off the treaty, he suddenly attacked the camp of Syphax in the night, and set fire to the straw huts under which his soldiers were sheltered. The Numidians were taken completely by surprise, and their whole army perished in the conflagration, or was put to the sword in the confusion that ensued. The Carthaginian camp shared the same fate. (Polyb. xix. 1–5; Liv. xxx. 3–7 ; Appian. Pun. 13, 14, 17–22; Zonar. ix.12.) Syphax himself, with a few fugitives, made his escape to Numidia, where he again began to collect troops; but disheartened

at this great disaster, he was unwilling again to take the field, and was with difficulty induced, by the united entreaties of Hasdrubal and Sophonisbä, to try his fortune once more. Having at length assembled a fresh army, he again joined his forces with those of Hasdrubal, but they were once more totally defeated by Scipio, and Syphax fled for refuge to his hereditary dominions among the Massaesylians, leaving Laelius and Masinissa to recover, without opposition, the kingdom of the latter. But while his enemies were thus employed, he contrived to assemble for the third time a large army, with which he met the invaders on their advance to Cirta. An obstinate contest ensued, but the army of Syphax was at length totally routed, and the king himself fell into the hands of the Romans, who immediately sent him as a prisoner to Scipio. Meanwhile his capital city of Cirta was occupied by Masinissa. (Polyb. xiv. 6–9; Liv. xxx. 7–9, 11, 12; Appian. Pun. 26, 27; Zonar. ix. 13.) Scipio treated his royal prisoner with distinction, for the purpose of enhancing his own victory, but immediately sent him (together with one of his sons who had been taken prisoner at the same time), under the charge of Laelius, to Rome. Here he was ordered by the senate to be imprisoned at Alba, for safe custody, where he remained until the return of Scipio, after the close of the war. Polybius states expressly that he was one of the captives who adorned the triumph of the conqueror upon that occasion, and that he died in confinement shortly after. Livy, on the contrary, asserts that he was saved from that ignominy by a timely death at Tibur, whither he had been transferred from Alba. (Polyb. xvi. 23; Liv. xxx. 13, 16, 17, 45; App. Pun. 27, 28.) The statement of Polybius, as well as the fact that his death occurred at Tibur, are confirmed by an inscription preserved in the Vatican, the authenticity of which is, however, very doubtful. (See Niebuhr's L, ct. on Rom. Hist, vol. i. p. 218, ed. Schmitz; Burton's Description of Rome, vol. ii. p. 312.) If we may trust the same authority he was 48 years old at the time of his death. [E. H. B.] SYRIA DEA (Supin 3.e6s), “the Syrian goddess,” a name by which the Syrian Astarte or Aphrodite is sometimes designated. This Astarte was a Syrian divinity, resembling in many points the Greek Aphrodite, and it is not improbable that the latter was originally the Syrian Astarte, the opinions concerning whom were modified after her introduction into Greece; for there can be no doubt that the worship of Aphrodite came from the East to Cyprus, and thence was carried into the south of Greece. (Lucian, De Syria Dea; Paus. i. 14. § 6; Aeschyl. Suppl. 562.). [L. S.] SYRIACUS, WA'LLIUS, a friend of Asinius Gallus, unjustly slain by Tiberius. He is frequently mentioned by the elder Seneca as a distinguished rhetorician. (Dion Cass. lviii. 3; Senec. Contror. i. 9, 14, 21, 27). SYRIA’NUS (Suptavés), a Greek philosopher of the Neo-Platonic school, was a native of Alexandria, and the son of Philoxenus. We know little of his personal history, but that he came to Athens, and studied with great zeal under Plutarchus, the head of the Neo-Platonic school, who regarded him with great admiration and affection, and appointed him as his successor. . The most distinguished of his disciples was Proclus, who regarded him with

the greatest veneration, and gave directions that at

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