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that he loved to surround his throne' with such men as Hale and Blake. Hence it was' that he allowed so large a share of political liberty to his subjects, and that, even when an opposition' dangerous to his power and to his person' almost compelled him to govern by the sword, he was still anxious to leave a germ' from which, at a more favourable season, free institutions might spring. We firmly believe, that, if his first Parliament' had not commenced its debates by disputing his title, his government would have been as mild at home' as it was energetic and able abroad. He was a soldier, he had risen by war. Had his ambition been of an impure or selfish kind, it would have been easy for him' to plunge his country into continental hostilities on a large scale, and to dazzle the restless factions which he ruled, by the splendour of his victories. Some of his enemies have sneeringly remarked, that in the successes obtained under his administration' he had no personal share; as if a man who had raised himself from obscurity to empire' solely by his military talents' could have any unworthy reason' for shrinking from military enterprise. This reproach' is his highest glory. In the success of the English navy' he could have no selfish interest. Its triumphs' added nothing to his fame; its increase' added nothing to his means of overawing his enemies; its great leader' was not his friend. Yet he took a peculiar pleasure in encouraging that noble service, which, of all the instruments employed by an English government, is the most important for mischief, and the most powerful for good. His administration was glorious, but with no vulgar glory. It was not one of those periods of overstrained and convulsive exertion' which necessarily produce debility and langour. Its energy' was natural, healthful, temperate. He placed E ngland' at the head of the Protestant interest, and in the first rank of Christian powers. He taught every nation' to value her friendship! and to dread her enmity. But he did not squander her resources' in a vain attempt', to invest her with that supremacy, which no power, in the modern system of Europe, can safely affect, or can long retain.
This noble and sober wisdom' had its reward. If he did not carry the banners of the Commonwealth' in triumph to distant capitals, if he did not adorn Whitehall' with the spoils of the Stadthouse and the Louvre, if he did not portion out Flanders and Germany' into principalities for his kinsmen and his generals, he did not, on the other hand, see his country overrun by the armies of nations' which his ambition had provoked. He went down to his gravel in the fulness of power and fame; and he left to'his son an authority' which any man of ordinary firmness and prudenoe' would have retained.
The most blamable act of his life' was the execution of Charles. While strongly condemning that proceeding, we by n6 means consider it as onel which attaches any peculiar stigma of infamy to the names of th6se' who participated in it. . It was an unjust and injudicious display of violent party spirit; but it was not a cruel or perfidious measure. It had all those features' which distinguish the errors of magnanimous and intrepid spirits' from base and malignant crimes,
THE HEALING OF THE DAUGHTER OP JAIRUS.
[nathaniel Pakker Willis, one of America's best poets, Is the author of a volume of poems, sacred and miscellaneous. His largest poem is "The Lady Jane," and the best effusions of his muse are "Jephthah's Daughter," and the "Healing of Jairus' Daughter."]
Freshly the cool breath of the coming eve'
•THE fiEALIltfl OF *BE DAtJGllTEft OF JAIRUS. 149.
And her slight fingers' moved, and heavily'
Like a form
Her hand from off her bosom, and spread out
THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.—VERTEBRATA..
Cartilage, [cartilage, L.) gristle. Hence cartilaginous, made of gristie.
Cord or chord, (chorda, L.: chordi, G.) a string or small rope. The nervous matter contained in the spine is called the spinal cord or spinal marrow.
Gland, (glans, L.) an organ for secreting or separating some particular material from the blood.
Nerve, (nervus, L.; neuron, G.) The
nerves are white thread-like organs proceeding from the brain and spinal cord to all parts of the bod/. 'They are the organs of sensation, and direct the organs of motion. Hence nervous. The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Spine, (spina; L.) the backbone, so called from the thorn-like processes of the vertebrae. Hence spina!.
STRUCTURE OP VERTEBRATE ANIMALS.
Vertebrate animals are distinguished from all others by the possession of an internal skeleton, which is usually bony, but in a few species cartilaginous. This skeleton consists essentially of a skull and vertebral column, to which ribs, limbs, &c., are in most cases attached. The skull serves as a case or receptacle for the brain. The vertebral column, spine, or backbone, is formed of a number of distinct pieces, called vertebrae, more or less firmly jointed together. It is pierced lengthwise by a canal running through each vertebra, and containing the spinal cord or marrow, which may be regarded as a continuation of the brain. The two together form the centre of the nervous system, that singular mechanism, if we may so call it, by means of which the animal is enabled to feel, to direct its own motions, and to ascertain what is going on around it.
The limbs are the organs of locomotion. None of the vertebrates have more than four, some only two; and, in the case of serpents, they entirely disappear. Intended by nature for different purposes, and suited to different modes of life, these organs assume an immense variety of forms. But however great may be the modifications which they present, the general plan on which they are constructed is never wholly departed from. At first sight, indeed, the wing of a bird seems very unlike the arm of a man, or the foreleg of a horse, but, when the skeleton only is considered, they are found to resemble one another closely, both in the form, number, and arrangement of the bones. Nor are even the fins of fishes so entirely dissimilar as to defy comparison.
The different classes of the vertebrates—mammals, birds, fishes, and reptiles—^are, in general, easily distinguished. There are, however, a few mistakes which it is well to guard against. The whale, for example, is usually spoken of as a fish, and the bat is sometimes supposed to be a bird, though the proper place of both is among the mammals. So also among the reptiles we should reckon not only serpents, to which alone the name is strictly applicable, but also frogs, tortoises, lizards, crocodiles, and other creatures of a like description. A few distinctive characteristics of each class may be mentioned.—The mammals include all those animals, and those only, which produce their young alive, and suckle them. They are accordingly provided with teats or paps (mammce), from which they derive their name. The young of all other vertebrate animals are produced from eggs. Birds are a well-defined class, and may be at once recognised by their covering of feathers, and by the structure of their wings, which are also clothed with strong feathers or quills. Their blood, as well as that of the mammals, is warm; whereas, in reptiles and fishes, the blood is cold. Finally, the last two classes may be distinguished by their organs of respiration. Fishes alone of all animals breathe by means of gills; the other classes are furnished with lungs.
The mammals, by their superiority in organization and