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for, having every help and accommodation at hand, he
had no need of uncommon expedients.

Being driven from all publick stations, he is yet too
great not to be traced by curiosity to his retirement;
where he has been found by Mr. Richardson, the fondest
of his admirers, fitting before his door in a grey coat of
coarse cloth, in warm sultry weather, to enjoy the fresh
air ; and so, as well as in his own room, receiving the
vifits of people of distinguished parts as well as quality.
His visitors of high quality must now be imagined to
be few; but men of parts might reasonably court the
conversation of a man fo generally illustrious, that fo-
reigners are reported, by Wood, to have visited the
house in Bread-street where he was born.

According to another account, he was seen in a small house, neatly enough dressed in black cloaths, sitting in a room bung with rusty green; pale but not cadaverous, with chalkstones in his hands. He said, that if it were not for the gout, his blindness would be tolerable.

In the intervals of his pain, being niade unable to use the common exercises, he used to swing in a chair, and sometimes played upon an organ

He was now confessedly and visibly employed upon his poem, of which the progress might be noted by those with whom he was familiar; for he was obliged, when he had composed as many lines as his memory would conveniently retain, to employ some friend in writing them, having, at least for part of the time, no

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* Milton's father, as has been mentioned in a preceding note, was well killed in music; and we are told by Aubrey, that he taught it to his son, who, as Wood adds, besides that he could play on the organ, was able to bear a part in vocal and instrumental music, an accomplishment which, in his time, it was deemed disgraceful for persons well educated to want.

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regular attendant. This gave opportunity to observations and reports.

Mr. Philips observes, that there was a very remarkable circumstance in the composure of Paradise Lost, “ which I have a particular reason,” says he, “ “ member; for whereas I had the perusal of it from “the very beginning, for some years, as I went “ from time to time to visit him, in parcels of ten, “ twenty, or thirty verses at a time (which, being “ written by whatever hand came next, might possibly “ want correction as to the orthography and pointing), “having, as the summer came on, not been sewed

any for a considerable while, and desiring the reason “ thereof, was answered, that his vein never happily “ flowed but from the Autumnal Equinox to the Ver“ nal; and that whatever he attempted at other times " was never to his fatisfaction, though he courted his “ fancy never so much; so that, in all the years he “ was about this poem, he may be said to have spent “ half his time therein.”

Upon this relation Toland remarks, that in his opinion Philips has mistaken the time of the year; for Milton, in his Elegies, declares that with the advance of the Spring he feels the increase of his poetical force, redeunt in carmina vires. To this it is answered, that Philips could hardly mistake time so well marked; and it may be added, that Milton might find different times of the year favourable to different parts of life, Mr. Richardson conceives it impossible that such a work should be suspended for fix months, or for one. go on fafter or slower, but it must go on. By what necesfity it must continually go on, or why it might not be laid aside and resumed, it is not easy to discover.

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This dependance of the soul upon the seafons, those temporary and periodical ebbs and flows of intellect, may, I suppose, justly be derided as the fumes of vain imagination. Sapiens dominabitur aftris. The author that thinks himself weather-bound will find, with a little help from hellebore, that he is only idle or exhausted. But while this notion has possession of the head, it produces the inability which it supposes. Our powers owe much of their energy to our hopes; pollunt quia posle videntur. . When success seems attainable, diligence is enforced; but when it is admitted that the faculties are suppressed by a cross wind, or a cloudy sky, the day is given up without resistance ; for who can contend with the course of Nature ?

From such prepoffessions Milton seems not to have been free. There prevailed in his time an opinion that the world was in its decay, and that we have had the misfortune to be produced in the decrepitude of Nature. It was suspected that the whole creation languished, that neither trees nor animals had the height or bulk of their predecessors, and that every thing was daily sinking by gradual diminution *. Milton appears to suspect that souls partake of the general degeneracy, and is not without some fear that his book is to be written in an age too late for heroick poesy.

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* This opinion is, with great learning and ingenuity, refuted in a book now very little known, “An Apology or Declaration of the

Power and Providence of God in the Government of the World," by Dr. George Hakewill, Lond. folio, 1635. The first who ventured to propagate it in this country was Dr. Gabriel Goodman, bifhop of Gloucester, a man of a versatile temper, and the author of a book entitled, “ The Fall of Man, or the Corruption of Nature “proved by natural reason." Lond. 1616 and 1624, quarto. He was plundered in the Usurpation, turned Roman Catholic, and died in obscurity. Vide Athen. Oxon, vol. 1. 727.

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Another opinion wanders about the world, and sometimes finds reception among wise men; an opinion that restrains the operations of the mind to particular regions, and supposes that a luckless mortal may be born in a degree of latitude too high or too low for wisdom or for wit. From this fancy, wild as it is, he had not wholly cleared his head, when he feared left the climate of his country might be too cold for flights of imagination.

Into a mind already occupied by such fancies, another not more reasonable might casily find its way. He that could fear left his genius had fallen upon too old a world, or too chill a climate, might conlistently magnify to himself the influence of the seasons, and believe his faculties to be vigorous only half the year.

His submission to the seasons was at least more reafonable than his dread of decaying Nature, or a frigid zone ; for general causes must operate uniformly in a general abatement of mental power; if less could be performed by the writer, less likewise would content the judges of his work. Among this lagging race of frosty grovellers he might still have risen into eminence by producing something which they should not willingly let die. However inferior to the heroes who were born in better ages, he might still be great among his contemporaries, with the hope of growing every day greater in the dwindle of pofterity. He might still be a giant among the pygmies, the one-eyed monarch of the blind.

Of his artifices of study, or particular hours of composition, we have little account, and there was perhaps little to be told. Richardson, who seems to have been very diligent in his enquiries, but discovers al

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Ways a wish to find Milton discriminated from other
ien, relates, that “ he would sometimes lie awake"
“ whole nights, but not a verse could he make; and
" on a sudden his poetical faculty would rush upon
“ him with an impetus or æftrum, and his daughter

was immediately called to secure what came. Ac * other times he would dictate perhaps forty lines " in a breath, and then reduce them to half the < number."

These bursts of light, and involutions of darkness; these transient and involuntary excursions and retrocellions of invention, having some appearance of deviation from the common train of Nature, are eagerly caught by the lovers of a wonder. Yet something of this inequality happens to every man in every mode of exertion, manual or mental. The mechanick cannot handle his hammer and his file at all times with equal dexterity; there are hours, he knows not why, when his hand is out. By Mr. Richardson's relation, casually conveyed, much regard cannot be claimed. That, in his intellectual hour, Milton called for his daughter to secure what came, may be questioned; for unluckily it happens to be known that his daughters were never taught to write ; nor would he have been obliged, as is universally confessed, to have employed any casual visiter in disburthening his memory, if his daughter could have performed the office.

The story of reducing his exuberance has been told of other authors, and, though doubtless true of every fertile and copious mind, seems to have been gratuitously transferred to Milton.

What he has told us, and we cannot now know more,
is, that he composed much of his poem in the night
VOL. II.
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