Note 58, page 433, col. 2. — their white signal-flag. A white flag, called El Alem, the signal, is hoisted cvery day at twelve o'clock, to warn the people out of hearing, or at a great distance, to prepare, by the neces sary preliminary ablutions, to prostrate themselves before God at the service of prayer.—Jackson's Marocco, p. 149. Note 59, page 433, col. 2. The Humma's happy wings have shadowed him. The humma is a fabulous bird: The head over which its shadow once passes will assuredly be encircled with a crown.—Wilkes, S. of India, v.i, p. 423.

Note 60, page 434, col. 2.
Life hath not left his body.

Among the Prerogatives et Propriétés singulières du Prophète, Gagnier states that, “ Il est vivant dams son Tombeau. Il fait la prière dans ce Tombeau a chaque fois que le Crieur en fait la proclamation, et au mème tems qu'on la recite. Il y a un Ange posté sur son Tombeau qui a le soin de lui donner avis des Prières que les Fideles font pour lui. a-Pie de Mahomet, 1.7, c. 18.

The common notion, that the Impostor's tomb is suspended by means of a loadstone is well known. Labat, in his Afrique Occidentale (t. 3, p. 143), mentions the lie of a Marabout, who, on his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, affirmed a que le tombeau de Mallomet étoit porté en l'air par le moyen de certains Anges quise relayent d'heure en heures pour soutenir ce fardeau. ” These fables, however, are modest in comparison with those which the Franciscans have invented to magnify their founder.

Note 61, page 434, col. 2. Hast thou not beard How when our clay is leaven'd first with life, The ministering Angel brings it from the spo" Whereon it is written in the eternal book, That soul and body must their parting take, And earth to earth return ? The Persians in their creed have a pleasant imagination concerning the death of men. They say, that every one must come and die in the place where the Angel took the earth of which he hath been made, thinking that one of these spirits has the care of forming the human creature, which he doth by mingling a little earth with the seed.—Thevenot.

Note 62, page 435, col. 2.
They perish, all their thousands perish there.

The battle of Covadonga is one of the great miracles of Spanish history. It was asserted for many centuries without contradiction, and is still believed by the people, that when the Moors attacked Pelayo in the cave, their weapons were turned back upon themselves; that the Virgin Mary appeared in the clouds, and that part of a mountain fell upon the Infidels, and crushed those who were flying from the destruction. In what manner that destruction might have been effected, was exemplified upon a smaller scale in the Tyrol in the memorable war of 1809.

Barret sums up the story briefly, and in the true strain of Mine Ancient:

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Purchas supposes this very curious poem to have been written about 200 years before he published it, i.e. about 1425. It is probably much older. In entering Castille from Elvas, the author says, Now into Castellschall we faire Over the river, the land is bare. Full of heath and hunger also, And Sarasyner Governouri, thereto. Now Badajoz and that part of the country was finally recovered from the Moors in the early part of the thirteenth century. Purchas perhaps judged from the age of the manuscript, which may have been written about the time on which he fixes, and the language modernised by the transcriber.

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Chrysto, e aquesto fue San Pablo. Otros departen que en España avia de nascer un principe chrystiano que serie señor de todo el mundo, e vald, ie mas por el todo ei linaje de los omes, bien como esclaresció toda la tierra por la claridad de aquella nuve en quanto ella duró.m.–Coronica General. ff. 71. A more extraordinary example of the divine favour towards Spain is triumphantly brought forward by Francisco de Pisa. “Our Lord God,” says he, “ has been pleased to preserve these kingdoms in the purity of the Faith, like a terrestrial Paradise, by means of the Cherubim of the Holy Office, which with its sword of fire has defended the entrance, through thc merits and patronage of the serenest Virgin Mary the Mother of God.” “ Hasido servido muestro Señor Dios couserwar estos reynos de España en la entereza de la Fe, como a un Parayso terrenal, incliante el Cherubin del Santo Officio, que con su.espada de fuego les ha defendido la entrada por los meritos y patrocinio de la seremissima Virgen Maria Madre de Dios.”—Desc. de Toledo, L. i. C. 25. This passage is truly and lamentably characteristic.

Note 67, page 440, col. 1. The Oaken Cross.

The oaken cross, which Pelayo bore in battle, is said to have been preserved at Oviedo in the Camara Santa in company with that which the angels made for Alfonso the Great, concerning which Morales delivers a careful opinion, how much of it was made by the Angels, and low much has been human workmanship. The people of Cangas, not willing that Pelayo's cross should be in any thing inferior to his successor's, insist that it fell from Heaven. Morales, however, says, it is more certain that the king had it made to go out with it to battle at Covadonga. It was covered with gold and enamel in the year 908; when Morales wrote, it was in fine preservation, and doubtless so continued till the present :eneration. Upon the top branch of the cross there was this inscription : « Susceptum placide maneat hoc in honore Dei, quod offerunt famuli Christi Adefonsus Princeps et Scemena Regina." On the right arm, * Quisquis auferre haec donaria nostra presumpserit, fulmine divino intereat inse.” On the left, “ Hoc opus perfectum est, concessum est Sancto Salvatori oveten-is Sedis. Hoc signo tuctur pius, hoc signo vincitur inimicus.” On the foot, “ Et operatum est in Castello Gauzon anno Regni nostri XVIt discurrente Era i) GCCCXLVI.),

* There is no other testimony,” says Morales, a that this is the cross of King Don Pelayo, than tradition handed down from one age to another. I wish the king had stated that it was so in his inscription, and I even think he would not have been silent upon this point, unless he had wished to imitate Alonso el Custo, who, in like manner, says nothing concerning the Angels upon his cross.” This passage is very characteristic of good old Ambrosio.

Note 68, page 441, col. 2. Like a mirror sparklin; to the sun.

The Damascus blades are so highly polished, that when any one wants to arrange his turban, he uses his scymctar for a looking-glass-Le Brocquiere, p. 138.

Note 69, page 442, col. 1.

Oh who could tell what deeds were wrought that day, Or who endure to hear .

I have nowhere seen a more curious description of a battle between Christians and Saracens than in Iłarret's manuscript:

The forlorn Christian troops Moon'd troops encharge,
The Mooned troops requite them with the like;
Whilst Grevian lance cracks (thundering) Parthian targe,
Parth's flame-flash arrow Grecian through doth prick :
And whilst that Median scy metar unlimbs
The Christian knight, doth Christian curtle-axe
Unhead the Median horsemen; whilst here dims
The Pagan's goggling-eyes by Greekish axe,
The Greek unhorsed lies by Persian push,
And both all rageful grapple on the ground.
And whilst the Saraven with furious rush
The Syrian shocks, the Syrian as round
Down should reth Saracen: whilst Balel blade
Sends soul Byzantine to the starred cell,
Its zantine pike with like-employed trade,
Packs Label's spirit posting down to hell.

Note 7o, page 442, col. 1. who from their thirsty sands, Pray that the locusts on the peopled plain May settle and prepare their way. The Saharawans, or Arabs of the Desert, rejoice to

see the clouds of locusts proceeding towards the north, anticipating therefrom a general mortality, which they call elk here, the good, or the benediction; for, after depopulating the rich plains of Barbury, it affords to them an opportunity of emanating from their arid recesses in the desert, to pitch their tents in the desolated plains, or along the banks of some river.-Jackson's Marocco, p. 1 ob.

Note 71, page 442, col. 2. But where was he whose hand Had wielded it so well that glorious day? The account which the Fabulous Chronicle gives of Roderick after his disappearance, is in so singular a strain of fiction that I have been tempted to translate it. It strikingly exemplifies the doctrine of penance, of which monastic history supplies many instances almost as extraordinary as this fable.

Chap. 238.-How the King Don Rodrigo left the battle and arrived at a hermitage, and of that which befell him.

a Now when the King Don Rodrigo had escaped from the battle, he began to go as fast as he could upon his horse along the banks of the Guadalete, and night came on, and the horse began to fail by reason of the many wounds which he had received; and as he went thus by the river side deploring the great ruin which had come upon him, he knew not where he was, and the horse got into a quagmire, and when he was in he could not get out. And when the king saw this he alighted, and stript off all his rich arms and the furniture thereof, and took off his crown from his head, and threw them all into the quagmire, saying, Of earth was made, and evenso are all my deeds like unto mud and mire. Therefore my pomp and vanity shall be buried in this mud till it has all returned again to earth, as I myself must do. And the vile end which I have deserved will beseem me well, seeing that I have been the principal cause of this great cruelty. And as he thus stript off all his rich apparel, he cast the shoes from his fect, and went his way, and wandered on towards Portugal; and he travelled so far that night and the day following, that he came to a hermitage near the sea, where there was a tood man who had dwelt there serving God for full forty years; and now he was of great age, for he was well nigh a hundred years old. And he entered into the hermitage, and found a crucifix therein, being the image of our Lord Jesus Christ, even as he was crucified; and for the remembrance of Ilim, he bent both his knces to the ground, and claspt his hands, weeping and confessing his sins before God, for he weened not that any man in the world saw or heard him. And he said thus, O true Lord, who by thy word last made all the world from nothing which it was, and hast created all things, those which are visible to men, and those which are invisible, the heavenly as well as the earthly, and who didst incarnate thyself that thou mightest undergo thy passion and death, to save those who firmly put their trust in thee, giving up thy holy ghost from thy glorified body upon the tree of the true crossand who didst descend into liell, and deliveredst thy friends from thence, and didst regale them with the glory of Heaven: And afterward thy holy spirit came again into that most holy body, which thou wast pleased to take upon thee in this world; and, manifesting thyself for the true God which thou wert, thou didst deign to abide in this dark world forty days with their nights, and then thou didst ascend into thy heavenly glory, and didst enlighten with the grace of the Holy Ghost thy beloved disciples. I beseech thee, O Lord, that thou wouldst enlighten me, a king in tribulation, wretched and full of many sins, and deserving all evils; let not the soul which is thine, and which cost thee so dear, receive the evil and the desert of this abominable flesh; and may it please thee, O Lord, after the downfall, destruction, perdition, and desolation, which I, a miserable king, have suffered in this world, that my disconsolate soul may not be forgotten by thee, and that all this misery may be in satisfaction for my errors. And I earnestly beseech thee, O Lord, that thy grace may breathe upon me, that in this world I may make satisfaction for my sins, so that at the Great Day of Judgment I may not be condemned to the torments of hell.


« Having said these words, weeping as though he would burst, he remained there a long hour. And when the her. mit heard him say all this, he was greatly astonished, and he went unto him. And when the king saw him he was little pleased; howbeit after he had talked with him, he would rather have found him there than have been restored again to the great honour which he had lost; for the Hermit comforted him in such wise in this his tribulation, that he was right well eontentcd; and he confessed unto him, and told him all that concerned him. And the Hermit said to him, King, thou shalt remain in this hermitage, which is a remote place, and where thou mayest lead thy life as long as it shall please God. And for me, on the third day from hence, I shall pass away out of this world; and thou shalt bury me, and thou shalt take iny garments, and fulfil the time of a year in this hermitage. Take no thought as to provision for thy support, for every Friday thou shalt have it after the same manner as I, and thou shalt so husband it, that it may suffice thee for the whole week: That flesh which hath beca fostercd in great delight shall suffer


abstinence, lest it should grow proud; and thou strait endure hunger and cold and thirst in the love of cur Lord, that he may have compassion upon thee. Thy station till the hour of sleep must always be upon tha rock, where there is an oratory facing the east : and thou shalt continue the service of God in such manner as God will direct thee to do. And take heed that thy soul fall not into temptation. And since thou hast spoken this day of penitence, to-morrow thou shal: communicate and receive the true body of our Lord Jesus Christ, who will be thy protection and support against the enemy and the persecutor. And put thou thy firin trust in the sign of the Cross; and thus slait thou please thy Saviour.

• Many other things the holy Hermit said, which made the King right joyful to hear them; and there they continued till it was the hour for sleep. And the holy Tiermit shewed him his bed, and said, When I shall have left thy company, thou wilt follow the ways which have followed, for which our Lord will have mercy upon thee, and will extend his hand over thee, that thou mayest persevere in good, and in his holy service. Aud then they laid down and slept till it was the hour of matins, when they should both arise. And the liermit awoke him, for as the King had not slept for a long time, and was inoreover full weary, he would not have awaked so soon, if the Hermit had not roused hitn; and they said their hours. And when it was time the llermit said mass, and the King heard it with great devotion, and communicated with great contrition, and remained in prayer for the space of two hours. And the liour for taking sood came, and the llermit took a loaf which was made of pannick and of rye, and gave half thereof to the King, and took for himself the other half: And they ate little of it, as men who could not eat more, the oue by reason of age, and the other be: cause he was not used to such fare. And thus they cortinued till the third day, when the holy Hermit departed tlis life.

Ch. 239-How the Hermit died, and the King found a writing in his hand.

• On the third day, the pious Hermit expired at the same hour which he had said to the King, whereat the King was full sorrowful, as one who took great cousolation in the lessous which he gave. And when he had thus deceased, the King by himself, with his hands, and with an oaken stick which was there, made his grave. And when he was about to bury him, he found a writing in his hand; and he took it and opened it, and found that it contained these words.

ch. 240.—of the rule of life which the Hermit left written for King Don Rodrigo.

« O King, who through thy sins has lost the great honour in which thou wert placed, take heed that thy soul also come not into the same judgment which hath fallen upon thy flesh. And receive into thy heart the instructions that I shall give thee now, and see that thou swerve not from them, nor abatest them a jot; for if thou observest them not, or departest in ought from them, thou wilt bring damnation upon thy soul; for all that thou shalt find in this writing is given illee for Ponance, and thou must learn with great coutrition of re

pentance, and with humbleness of patience, to be con- which he came, and when he saw him of so great age, tent with that which God hath given thee to suffer in he thought that it was some holy man who knew of this world. And that thou may est not be deceived in the death of the Hermit, and was come to bury him ; case any company should come unto thee, mark and and he hambled himself, and went to him to kiss his

observe this and pass it in thy life. Thou shalt arise two hours after midnight, and say thy matius within the hermitage. When the day breaks thou shalt go to the oratory, and kneeling upon the ground, say the whole hours by the breviary, and when thou hast finished them thou shalt say certain prayers of our Lord, which thou wilt find there. And when thou hast done this, contemplate then upon the great power of our Lord, and upon his mercy, and also upon the most holy passion which he suffered for mankind upon the cross, being himself very God, and maker of all things; and how with great humility be chose to be incarnate in a poor virgiu, and not to come as a king, but as a mediator among the nations. And contemplate also upon the poor life which he always led in this world; to give us an example; and that he will come at the day of judgment to judge the quick and the dead, and give to every one the meed which he hall, deserved. Then shalt thou give sustenance to thy flesh of that bread of pannick and rye, which shall be brought to thee every Friday in the manner that I have said; and of other food thou shalt not eat, although it should be given or sent thee; neither shalt thou change thy bread. And when thou hast eaten give thanks to God, because he has let thee come to repentance; and then thou shalt go to the oratory, and there give praise to the Virgin our Lady holy Mary, mother of God, in such manner as shall come to thee in devotion. If when thou hast finished, heaviness should come upon thee, thou mayest sleep, and when thou shalt have rested as long as is reasonable, return thou to thy oratory, and there remain, making thy prayers always upon thy knees, and for nothing which may befall thee depart thou from thence, till thou hast made an end of thy prayers, whether it rain or snow, or if a tempest should blow. And forasmuch as the flesh could sustain so many mundane pleasures, so must it suffer also celestial abstinences; two masses thou hast heard in this hermitage, and in it it is God's will that thou shalt hear no more, for more would not be to his service. God will have compassion upon thy deserts. And when the King had read this, he laid it upon the altar, in a Place where it would be well preserved.

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course which the King had taken, and he cast about for means how he might deceive him; and he found none *o certain as to come to him in the figure of a hermit, and keep company with him, to turn him aside from those doctrines which the Ilermit had given him, that he might not sulfil his penitence. And the King bein; in great haste to bury the body, the Devil came to him with a long white beard, and a great hood over the eyes, and soine pateriosters hanging from his girdle, and supporting himself upon a staff as though he were lame, and could not go. And when he came where the King was he humbled himself, and said unto him, Peace be with thee! And the King turned toward that side from

And if thou observest these things,

hand, and the Devil would not, saying, It is not fitting that a King should kiss the hand of a poor servant of God. And the King was astonished at hearing himself named, and believed that this must needs be a man of holy life, and that he spake by some revelation; nevertheless he said, I am not a king, but a miserable sinner, for whom it had been better never to have been born, than that so much evil should have happened through me. And the false Hermit said to him, Think not that thou hast so much fault as thou imaginest in what has now been done, for even if thou hadst had no part in it, this destruction would have fallen at this time. And since it was ordained that it should be so, the fault is not thine; some fault thou hadst, but it was very little. And think not that I speak this of myself; for my words are those of a spirit made and created by the will of God, who speaks through me this and many other things, which hereafter thou shalt know, that thou mayest see how God has given me power that I should know all thy concerns, and counsel thee in what manner thou shouldst live. And albeit I have more need of rest than of labour, by reason of my age, which is far greater than my countenance shows, yet I have disposed myself to labour for the love of thee, to console thee in this thy persecution, knowing that this good man was about to die. Of a truth you may believe that on this day month I was in Rome, being there in the church of St John de Lateran, out of which I had never gone for thirty years, till I came now to keep thee company according as I am commanded. Marvel not that a man of so great age and crippled as I am, should have been able to traverse so much land in so short time, for certes I tell thce that he who speaks in this form which thou seest hast given me strength to go through so great a journey; and sans doubt I feel myself as strong now as on the day when I set forth. And the King said to him, Friend of God, I rejoice much in thy coming, for that in my misfortunes I shall be by thee consoled and instructed in that which must be done to fulfil my penitence; I rejoice also that this holy Herunit here shall receive burial from the hands of a man much more righteous than I. And the false Hermit said, Think not, King, that it is for the service of God to give to any person a name not appertaining to lim. | And this I say because I well know the life of this person, what it was ; and as thou knowest nothing of celestials, thou thinkest that as the tongue speaketh, even such is the heart. But I tell thee the habit doth not make the monk, and it is from such persons as these that the saying arose which is common in the world, I would have justice, but not for my own house. This say to thee, because he commanded thee to perform a penance such as never man did, the which is, that thou shouldst cat only once a day, and that of such bread that even the shepherds' dogs would not eat it: and of this that thou shouldst not eat as much as thou couldst; and appointed thee the term of a year that thou shouldst | continue in this diet. Also he commanded thee that thou shouldst not hear mass during the time that thou abidest here, for that the two masses which thou hast | heard should suffice; look now if that doctrine be good, |- bids a man forget the holy sacrament! Certcs I tell that only for that which he commanded thee to observe, his soul is consigned to a place where I would not that thine should go for all the world, if it were in my power, with all its riches. Nevertheless, to be rid of the ill smell which he would give, it is sit that you should bury him, and while you do this I will go for food. And the King said, Friend of God, do not take this trouble, but remain still, and before moon there will come food, which will suffice for you and for me: help me now to give burial to this good man, which will be much for the service of God, although he may have been a sinner. And the false hermit answered, King, it would be less evil to roll him over these rocks into the sea; but if not, let him lie thus upon the earth till the birds and the beasts devour his flesh. And the King marvelled at this: nevertheless, though he believed that this false liermit was a servant of God, he left not for that to bury the good Hermit who there lay without life, and he began by himself to carry him to the grave which he had made. And as he was employed in burying him, he saw that the false Hermit went away over the mountains at a great rate not as one who was a cripple, but like a stout man and a young; and he marvelled what this might mean.

Ch. 242. –How King Don Rodrigo informed himself concerning the penance which he was to perform, from the writing which the holy Hermit left him.

« When the King had finished burying the good servant of God, he went to the altar, and took the writing in his hand, and read it to inform himself well of it. And when he had read it, he saw that of a certainty all that was said therein was for the service of God, and was of good doctrine for his soul; and he said, that, according to the greatness of his sins, it behoved that his penitence must be severe, if he wished to save his soul. And then he called to mind the life which St Mary Mat:dalene endured, for which God had mercy on her. And forthwith he went to his oratory, and began his prayers; and he remained there till it was near noon ; and he knew that he had nothing to eat, and awaited till it should be brought him.

Ch. 243.-How the Devil brought meat to King Don Rodrigo that he should eat it; and he would only eat of the Hermit's bread.

« After it was mid-day the false hermit came with a basket upon his shoulders, and went straight to where the King was, and he came sweating and weary. And the King had compassion on him, howbeit he said nothing, neither did he leave his prayer. And the false Hermit said to him, King, make an end of thy prayers, for it is time to eat; and here I bring food. And the king lifted up his cyes and looked toward him, and he saw that there came into the hermitage a shepherd with a wallet upon his back, and he thought this must be he who brought him that which he was to eat. And so in truth it was, that that shepherd brought every Friday four loaves of pannick and rye for the holy Hermit, upon which he lived during the week. And as this shepherd knew not that the good man was dead, he did no more than put his bread upon the altar, and go his way. And the King, when he had ceased praying, rose up from the oratory, and went to the false licrimit. And he

found the four loaves, and he took one, and brake it in the middle, and laid by the rest carefully, and he went out of the hermitage into the Portal, where there was a table full small, and he laid a cloth upon it, and the bread which he was to eat, and the water; and he began to bless the table, and then seated himself. And the false Hermit noted well how he blest the table, and arose from where he was, and went to the King, and said, King, take of this poor fare which I have brought, and which has been given me in alms. And he took out two loaves which were full white, and a roasted partridge, and a

fowl, of which the legs were wanting; and he placed it

upon the table. And when the King saw it, his eyes were filled with tears, for he could not but call to mind his great honour in former times, and how it was now fallen, and that his table had never before been served like this. And he said, addressing himself to the Lord. Praised be thy name, thou who canst make the high low, and the low nothing. And he turned to his bread and did eat thereof. could he scarcely eat thereof, for he had never used it till in that hermitage, and now it seemed worse by reson of the white bread which that false Hermit had brought. And the false Hermit, who saw that he gave no regard neither to the bread, nor the meat which he had brought, said to the King, Why eatest thou not of this which God has sent thee! And the King said, I came not to this hermitage to serve God, but to do penance for my sins, that my soul may not be lost. And the renance which is given me in this life, I must observe for a year and not depart from it, lest it should prove to my great hurt. And the false Hermit said, How, King, hath it been given thee for penance, that thou should-tile thyself die for despair? The Gospel commands not so contrariwise it forbids man to do any such penantthrough which the body might be brought to death. for if in killing another, he who causes the death is held for a murderer, much more is he who killeth himself; and such thou wouldst be. And now through depair thou wouldst let thyself die of hunger, that than mightest no longer live in this world, wherefore I saw eat of this food that I have brought ther some little that thou mayest not die. And with that he begun to eat right heartily. And the King, when he beheld him, was seized with affection to do the like, howbeit he was withheld, and would eat nothing thereof. And as is was time when he would drink of the water, the fake IIermit said to him, that he should drink of the wine; and the King would only taste of that water; and as he went to take of it, the false Hermit struggled with him. but he could not prevail, and the King did according to his rule, and departed not from it. And when he had eaten, he began to give thanks to God. And the fake Hermit, who saw that he would have to cross himself at arising from the table, rose up before him, as one who was about to do something; and the King heeded it not. And when he had thus eaten, he went to the oratory, and began to give praises to the Virgin Mary, according as the good man had commanded him; when that traitor went to him and said, Certes this doctrine which thou holdest is no way to serve God, for sans doubt when the stomach is heated with food the will shall have no power to pray as it ought; and although the tongue may say the prayers, the heart confirms them not, being hindered by the force which nature derives from the food. Therefore I say to thce that thou

And though he had great hunger, vet

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