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He laid him on the earth, thence to remove,
The herald soon
« I sent for thee,
My friend on with interrupted voice he cried,
So saying Conrade drew the javelin forth,
By this the scouts,
The morn was fair
When Rheims re-echoed to the busy hum
Of multitudes, for high solemnity
The mission'd Maid
« King of France la
She cried, “ at Chinon, when my gifted eye
Thou say'st, “I am a King! and fit it is
| Be fill'd with woe, and in thy streets be heard
The voice of mourning and the feeble cry
King of France!
Thus the Maid
Redeem'd her country. Ever may the All-Just
Note 1, page 3, col. 1. The Bastard Orleans. a Lewes Duke of Orleance murthered in Paris, by
Jhon Duke of Burgoyne, was owner of the castle of Concy, on the frontiers of Fraunce toward Arthoys,
whereof he made constable the lord of Cauney, a man not so wise as his wife was faire, and yet she was not so faire, but she was as well beloved of the Duke of Orleance as of her husband. Betwene the duke and her husband (I cannot tell who was father), she conceived a child, and brought furthe a prety boye called Jhon, whiche child beyng of the age of one yere, the duke deceased, and not long after the mother and the lord of Cawny ended their lives. The next of kynne to the lord Cawny chalenged the inheritaunce, which was worth foure thousande crounes a yere, alledgyng that the boye was a bastard; and the kynred of the mother's side, for to save her honesty, it plainly denied. In conclusion, this matter was in contencion before the presidentes of the parliament of Paris, and there hang in controversie till the child came to the age of eight years old. At whiche tyme it was demanded of hym openly whose sonne he was; his frendes of his mother's side advertised hym to require a day, to be advised of so great an answer, which he asked, and to hym it was granted. In the mean season, his said frendes persuaded him to claime his inheritance as sonne to the lorde of Cawny, whiche was an honorable livyng, and an auncient patrimony, affirming that if he said contrary, he not only slaundered his mother, shamed hymself. and stained his bloud, but also should have no livyng, nor any thing to take to. The scholemaster thinkyng that his disciple had wel learned his lesson, and would reherse it according to his instruccion,
brought hym before the judges at the daie assigned,
and when the question was repeted to hym again, he
boldly answered, “My harte geveth me, and my tonge telleth me, that I am the sonne of the noble duke of Orleaunce, more glad to be his bastarde, with a meane livyng, than the lawful sonne of that coward cuckolde Cawny, with his four thousand crownes.' The judges much merveiled at his bolde answere, and his mother's cosyns detested hym for shamyng of his mother, and his father's supposed kinne rejoysed in gaining the patri. mony and possessions. Charles Duke of Orleaunce heryng of this judgment, took hym into his family, and gave him greate offices and fees, whiche he well deserved, for (during his captivitie) he defended his landes, expulsed the Englishmen, and in conclusion, procured his deliverance.”—Hall, ff. 1 of. There can be no doubt that Shakspeare had this anecdote in his mind when he wrote the first scene wherein the bastard Falconbridge is introduced. When the duke of Orleans was so villanously assassinated by order of the duke of Burgundy, the murder was thought at first to have been perpetrated by Sir Aubert de Cauny, says Monstrellet (Johnes's translation, vol. i. p. 198), from the great hatred he bore the duke for having carried off his wife; but the truth was soon known who were the guilty persons, and that sir Aubert was perfectly innocent of the crime. Marietta d'Enguien was the name of the adulteress.
Note 2, page 3, col. 1. Cheer'd with the Trobador's sweet minstrelsy. Lorraine was famous for its poets.
There mightest thouse these flutours,
Note 3, page 3, col. 1.
The following account of JOAN of ARC is extracted from a history of the siege of Orleans, prise de mot a mot, sans aucun changement de langage, d'un vieil exemplaire escrit a la main en parchemin, et trouvé en la maison de la dicte ville d'Orleans. Troyes. 1621.
& Or en ce temps avoit une jeune fille au pais de Lorraine, aagee de dix-huict ans ou environ, nommee Janne, natifue d'un paroisse nommee Dompre, fille d'un Laboureur nomme Jacques Tart; qui jamais navoit fait autre chose que garder les bestes aux champs, a la quelle, ainsi qu’elle disoit, avoit este revele que Dieu vouloit qu’elle allast devers le Roi Charles septiesme, pour luy aider et le conseiller a recouvrer son royaume et ses villes et places que les Anglois avoient conquises en ses pays. La quelle revelation elle nosa dire a ses pere et mere, pource qu’elle scavoit bieu que jamais n'eussent consenty qu’elle y fust allee; et le persuada tant qu'il la mena devers un gentelhomme nomme Messire Robert de Baudricourt, qui pour lors estoit Cappitaine de la ville, ou chasteau de Vaucouleur, qui est assez prochain de la : auquel cle pria tres instanment qu'il la fist mener devers le Roy de France, en leur disant qu'il estoit tres necessaire qu’elle parlast a luy pour le bien de son royaume, et que elle luy feroit grand secours et aide a recouvrer son dict royaume, et que Dieu le vouloit aiusi, et que illuy avoit esté revelé par plusieurs fois. Des quelles parolles illne faisoit que
rire et se mocquer et la reputoit incensee : toutesfois t elle persevera tant et silonguement qu'il luy bailla un gentelhomme, nommé Ville Robert, et quelque nombre de gens, les quels la menerent devers le Roy que pour lors estoit a Chinon. »
Note 4, page 3, col. 1.
This agrees with the account of her age given by Holinshed, who calls her w a young wench of an eighteene years old, of favour was she counted likesome, of person stronglie made and manlie, of courage great, hardie, and stout withall; an understander of counsels though she were not at them, greet semblance of chastitie both of bodie and behaviour, the name of Jesus in hir mouth about all her businesses, humble, obedient, and fasting divers daies in the weeke.”
De Serres speaks thus of her —“A young maiden named Joan of Arc, borne in a village upon the Marches of Barre called Domremy, neere to Vaucouleurs, of the age of eighteene or twenty years, issued from base parents, her father was named James of Arc, and her mother Isabel, poore countrie folkes, who had brought her up to keep their cattell. She said with great boldnesse that she had a revelation how to succour the king, how he might be able to chase the English from Orleance, and after that to cause the king to be crowned at Rheims, and to put him fully and wholly in possession of his realme.
« After she had delivered this to her father, mother, and their neighbours, she presumed to go to the lord of Baudricourt, provost of Vaucouleurs; she boldly delivered unto him, after an extraordinary manner, all these great mysteries, as much wished for of all men as not hoped for especially comming from the mouth of a poore country maide, whom they might with more reason beleeve to be possessed of some melancholy humour, than divinely inspired; being the instrument of so many excellent remedies, in so desperat a season, after the vaine striving of so great and famous personages. At the first he mocked and reproved her, but having heard her with more patience, and judging by her temperate discourse and modest countenance that she spoke not idely, in the end he resolves to present her to the king for his discharge. So she arrives at Chinon the sixt day of May, attired like a man.
“She had a modest countenance, sweet, civill, and resolute; her discourse was temperate, reasonable and retired, her actions cold, shewing great chastity. Ilaving spoken to the king, or noblemen with whom she was to negociate, she presently retired to her lodging with an old woman that guided her, without vanity, affectation, babling, or courtly lightnesse. These are the manners which the Original attributes to her.”
Edward Grimeston, the translator, calls her in the margin, “Joane the Virgin, or rather Witch.”
Note 5, page 3, col. 2. Lest he in wrath confound me. Then the word of the Lond came unto me, saying, Before I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb l sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations. Then said I, Ah, Lond God, behold I cannot speak, for 1 am a child.
But the Lord said unto me, Say not, I am a child, for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I command thee, thou shalt speak. Thou therefore gird up thy loins, and arise, and speak unto them all that I command thee : be not dismayed at their faces lest I confound thee before them. Jeremiah, Chap. I.
Note 6, page 4, col. 2. Taught wisdom to mankind But as for the mighty man he had the earth, and the honourable man dwelt in it. Days should speak, and multitude of years should teach wisdom. Job.
Note 7, page 4, col. 2. Rush o'er the land, aud desolate and kill.
« While the English and French contend for domi nion, sovereignty, and life itself, men's goods in France were violently taken by the license of war, churches spoiled, men every where murthered or wounded, others put to death or tortured, matrons ravished, maids forcibly drawn from out their parents' arms to be deflowered; towns daily taken, daily spoyled, daily defaced, the riches of the inhabitants carried whether the conquerors think good; houses and villages round about set on fire, no kind of cruelty is left unpractised upon the miserable French, omitting many hundred kind of other calamities which all at once oppressed them. Add here unto that the commonwealth, being destitute of the help of laws (which for the most part are mute in times of war and mutiny), floateth up and down without any anchorage at right or justice. Neither was England herself void of these mischiefs,
the highest classes were marked by hideous grossness and vices that may not be uttered. of acts so ill examples are not good. Sir William Alerander. | The following portrait of some of these outrages I extract from the notes of Andrews's History of Great Britain :-e Agricola quilibet, sponsam juvenem acqu tus, ac in vicina alicujus viri nobilis et prepotentis habitans, crudelissime vexabatur. Nempe nonnunquam in ejus domum irruensiste optimas, magna comitante caterva, pretium ingens redemptionis exigeret, ac si non protinus solveret colonus, istum miserum in magna area protrudens, venustae ac tenere uxori sur (super ipsan arcam prostrate) vim vir nobilis adferret; voce exclamans horrrenda, “Audine Rustice" jamjam, super hane arcam constupratur dilecta tua sponsa, atque | Peracto hoc scelere nefando relinqueretur (horresco reforens) suffocatione expirans maritus, nisi magno pretio sponsa nuper vitiata liberationem ejus redimeret.”— J. de Paris. Let us add to this the detestable history of a great cominander under Charles VII of France, the bastard of Bourbon, who (after having committed the most execrable crimes during a series of years with impunity) was drowned, in 1441, by the constable Richemont (a : treacherous assassin, but a mirror of justice when compared to his noble contemporaries), on its being proved against him “Quod super ipsum maritum vi prostratum, uror frustra repugnanti, vim adtuleret.” | Ensuite is avoit fait battre et découper le mari, tant que cetoit pitié à voir.—Mem. de Richemont.
Note 1 1, page 6, col. 2. think that there are such horrors.
| I translate the following anecdote of the Black
Prince from Froissart — | The Prince of wales was about a month, and not longer, before the city of Lymoges, and he did not assault it, but always continued mining. When the miners of the prince had finished their work, they said to him, a Sir, we will throw down a great part of the wall into the moat whenever it shall please you, so that you may enter into the city at your ease, without dan£er a These words greatly pleased the prince, who said to them, “I chuse that your work should be mani. fested to-morrow at the hour of day-break.” Then the miners set fire to their mines the next morning as the
prince had commanded, and overthrew a great pane of the wall, which filled the moat where it had fallen. The English saw all this very willingly, and they were there all armed and ready to enter into the town; those who were on foot could enter at their ease, and they entered and ran to the gate and beat it to the earth and all the barriers also; for there was no defence, and all this was done so suddenly, that the people of the town were not upon their guard. And then you might have seen the Prince, the duke of Lancaster, the count of Canterbury, the count of Pembroke, Messire Guischart Dangle, and all the other chiefs and their people who entered in, and ruffians on foot who were prepared to do mischics, and to run through the town, and to kill men and women and children, and so they had been commanded to do. There was a full pitiful sight, for men and women and children cast themselves on their knces before the prince, and cricd “ mercy!» but he was so
enflamed with so great rage, that he heard them not, neither man nor woman would he hear, but they were all put to the sword wherever they were found, and these people had not been guilty. I know not how they could have no pity upon poor people, who had never been powerful enough to do any treason. There was no heart so hard in the city of Lymoges which had any remembrance of God, that did not lament the great mischief that was there; for more than three thousand men and women and children had their throats cut that day; God has their souls, for indeed they were martyred. In entering the town a party of the English went to the palace of the bishop and found him there, and took him and led him before the prince, who looked at him with a murderous look (feloneusement), and the best word that he could say to him was that his head should be cut off, and then he made him be taken from his presence.—I, 235. The crime which the people of Lymoges had cominitted was that of surrendering when they had been besieged by the duke of Berry, and in consequence turning French. And this crime was thus punished at a period when no versatility of conduct was thought dishonourable. The phrases tourner Anglois—tourner François-retourner Anglois, occur repeatedly in Frois. art. I should add that of all the heroes of this period the Black Prince was the most generous and the most humane. After the English had taken the town of Montereau, the seigneur de Guitery, who commanded there, retired to the castle; and Henry V threatened, unless he surrendered, to hang eleven gentlemen, taken in the town. These poor men intreated the governor to comply, for the sake of saving their lives, letting him at the same time know how impossible it was that his defence could be of any avail. He was not to be persuaded; and when they saw this, and knew that they must die, some of them requested that they might first see their wives and their friends. This was allowed : the women were sent, la y eut de piteux regrets au prendre congé, says Pierre de Fenin, and on the following morning they were executed as Henry had threatened. The governor held out for fifteen days, and then yielded by a capitulation which secured himself. (Coll. des Mémoires. T. v., p. 456.) In the whole history of these dreadful times I remember but one man whom the cruelty of the age had not contaminated, and that was the Portuguese hero Nuno Alvares Pereira, a man who appears to me to have been a perfect example of patriotism, heroism, and every noble and lovely quality, above all others of any age or country. Atrocious however as these instances are, they seem as nothing when compared to the atrocities which the French exercised upon each other. When Soissons was captured by Charles VI (1414) in person, “ in regard to the destruction committed by the king's army (says Monstrellet), it cannot be estimated ; for after they had plundered all the inhabitants, and their dwellings, they despoiled the churches and monasteries. They even took and robbed the most part of the sacred shrines of many bodies of saints, which they stripped of all the precious stones, gold and silver, together with many other jewels and holy things appertaining to the aforesaid churches. There is not a christian but would have shuddered at the atrocious excesses committed by the soldiery in Soissons : married women violated before their husbands; young damsels in the presence of their parents and relatives; holy nuns, gentlewomen of all ranks, of whom there were many in the town; all, or the greater part, were violated against their wills by divers nobles and others, who, after having satiated their own brutal passions, delivered them over without mercy to their servants : and there is no remembrance of such disorder and havoc being done by christians, considering the many persons of high rank that were present, and who made no efforts to check them. There were also many gentlemen in the king's army who had relations in the town, as well secular as churchmen; but the disorder was not the less on that account.”—Wol. iv, p. 31. What a national contrast is there between the manner in which the English and French have conducted their civil wars' Even in the wars of the Fronde, when all parties were alike thoroughly unprincipled, cruelties were committed on both sides which it might have been thought nothing but the strong feelings of a perverted religious principle could have given birth to.
Note 12, page 6, col. 2. Yet hangs and pulls for food. Holinshed says, speaking of the siege of Roan, “If I should rehearse how deerelie dogs, rats, mise, and cats were sold within the towne, and how greedilie they were by the poore people eaten and devoured, and how the people dallie died for fault of food, and young infants laie sucking in the streets on their mothers breasts, being dead starved for hunger, the reader might lament their extreme miseries.” P. 566.
Note 13, page 6, col. 2. The sceptre of the wicked *
“Do not the tears run down the widow's cheek? and is not her cry against him that causeth them to fall?
«The Lord will not be slack till he have smitten in sunder the loins of the unmerciful, till he have taken away the multitude of the proud, and broken the sceptre of the unrighteous.”—Ecclesiasticus.
Note 14, page 7, col. 1. The fountain of the Fairies. In the Journal of Paris in the reigns of Charles wi.
and VII, it is asserted that the Maid of Orleans, in answer to an interrogatory of the doctors, whether she had ever assisted at the assemblies held at the Fountain of the Fairies near Domprein, round which the evil spirits dance, confessed that she had often repaired to a beautiful fountain in the country of Lorraine, which she named the good Fountain of the Fairies of our Lord.—From the notes to the English version of Le Grande Fablaux.
Note 15, page 7, col. 1.
They love to lie and rock upon its leaves. Being asked whether she had ever seen any fairies,
she answered no ; but that one of her god-mothers pretended to have seen some at the Fairy-tree, near the village of Dompre.—Rapin.
Note 16, page 7, col. 1.
Memory, thought, were gone.
• In this representation which I made to place myself near to Christ (says St Teresa), there would come
suddenly upon me, without either expectation or any preparation on my part, such an evident feeling of the presence of God, as that I could by no means doubt, but that either he was within me, or else I all engulfed in him. This was not in the manner of a vision, but I think they call it Mistical Theology; and it suspends the soul in such sort, that she seems to be wholly out of herself. The Will is in act of loving, the Memory seems to be in a manner lost, the Understanding, in my opinion, discourses not; and although it be not lost, yet it works not as I was saying, but remains as it were amazed to consider how much it understands.”—Life of St. Teresa written by herself.
Teresa was well acquainted with the feelings of enthusiasm. I had, however, described the sensations of the Maid of Orleans before I had met with the life of the saint.
Note 17, page 7, col. 2. – and they shall perish who oppress. • Raise up indignation, and pour out wrath, and let them perish who oppress the people!»—Ecclesiasticus, 36.
Note 18, page 7, col. 2. Sung shrill and ceaseless.
The epithets shrill and hoarse will not appear incongruous to one who has attended to the grasshopper's chirp. Gazaeus has characterised the sound by a word certainly accurate, in his tale of a grasshopper who perched upon St Francis's finger, and sung the praise of God and the wonders of his own body in his vernacular tongue, St Francis and all the grasshoppers listening with equal edification:— Cicada Canebat (ut sic efferam) cicadice. Pia Hilaria Angelini Gazei.
St Francis seems to have laboured much in the conversion of animals. In the fine series of pictures representing his life, lately painted for the new Franciscan convent at Madrid, I recollect seeing him preach to a congregation of birds. Gazaeus has a poem upon his instructing a ewe. His advice to her is somewhat curious :
Wide ne arietes, neve in obvios runs:
Cave devovendos flosculos altaribus
Vel ore laceres, vel bifurcato pede,
Male seriatae felis instar, proteras. There is another upon his converting two lambs, whose prayers were more acceptable to God, Marot! says he, than your psalms. If the nun, who took care of them in his absence, was inclined to lie a-bed—
Frater Agnus hanc bed bee suo
Devotus excitabat. 0 agne jam non agne sed doctor bone!
Note 19, page 8, col. 1.
The Maid declared upon her trial, that God loved the duke of Orleans, and that she had received more revelations concerning him, than any person living, except the king.—Rapin.
Orleans, during his long captivity, a had learnt to court the fair ladies of England in their native strains:, among the Harleian MSS. is a collection of a love poems, roundels, and songs,” composed by the French prince during his confinement.