Qual en el tronco del árbol
Dentro ensus corter as mismas,
Por veneer en gracia at arte
Naturaleza fabrica.
Unas aprieta con lazos
Aquella planta lasciva
Que basta las piedras abraza
Conser tan duras y frias.
Otras de amarillos musgos
Por el techose matizan,
Werdes, obscuros, y negros,
Y de color de ceniz a.
Toscos alli los portales
De serva y moho se pintan,
Y de salitre se labran
Queen gotas al agua imita.
Cada Ermitano a la puerta
Tiene una pequeña esquila,
En el ramo de algun arbol
Donde pendiente se arrima;
0 en el resoluicio gracioso
De alguna piedra metida,
Y quando toca la Iglesia
Todas a towar seaplican.

Note 3, page 498, col. 1. Bear witness those Old Towers. Torres Vedras. Turres Peteres,-a name so old as to have been given when the Latin tongue was the language of Portugal. This town is said to have been founded by the Turduly, a short time before the commencement of the Christian Era. In remembering the lines of Torres Vedras, the opinion of the wise men of the North ought not to be forgotten, “If they (the French) do not make an effort to drive us out of Portugal, it is because we are better there than any where else. We fear they will not leave us on the Tagus many days longer than suits their own purposes.”—Edinburgh Rev. No. XXP 11, p. 263. The opinion is delivered with happy precision of language:—Our troops were indeed, to use the same neat, and felicitous expression, better there than any where else.

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O triumph for the Fiends of lust and wrath
Ne'er to be told, yet ne'er to be forgot,
what wanton horrors mark their wrackful path:
The peasant butcher'd in his ruined cot,
The hoary priest even at the altar shot,
Childhood and age given o'er to sword and flame,
woman to infamy, no crime forgot,
By which inventive demons might proclaim
Immortal hate to Man, and scorn of God's great name.
The rudest sentinel, in Britain born,
With borror paused to view the havoc done,
Gave his poor crust to feed some wretch forlorn,
Wiped his stern eye, then fiercer grasp'd his gun.
Scott's Vision of Dun Roderick.

No cruelties recorded in history exceed those which were systematically committed by the French during their retreat from Portugal. “ Their conduct, (says Lord Wellington in his dispatch of the 14th of March, 18 1.) throughout this retreat, has been marked by a barbarity seldom equalled, and never surpassed.

* Even in the towns of Torres Novas, Thomar, and Pernes, in which the head-quarters of some of the corps had been for four months, and in which the inhabitants

had been induced by promises of good treatment to re main, they were plundered, and many of their houses destroyed on the night the enemy withdrew from their position; and they have since burnt every town and village through which they have passed. The Convent of Alcobaça was biont by order from the French headquarters. The Bishop's Palace, and the whole town of Leyria, in which General Drouet had had his headquarters, shared the same fate; and there is not an inhabitant of the country, of any class or description, who has had any dealing or communication with the French army who has not had reason to repent of it, or to complain of them. This is the mode in which the promises have been performed, and the assurances have been fulfilled, which were held out in the proclamation of the French commander in chief, in which he told the inhabitants of Portugal, that he was not come to make war upon them, but with a powerful army of one hundred and ten thousand men to drive the English into the sea. It is to be hoped, that the example of what has occurred in this country will teach the people of this and other nations what value they ought to place on such promises and assurances, and that there is no security for life or for any thing that renders life valuable, except in decided resistance to the enemy.” As exact an account of these atrocities was collected as it was possible to obtain,_and that record will for ever make the French name detested in Portugal. In the single diocese of Coimbra, 2960 persons, men, women, and children, were murdered,—every one with some shocking circumstance of aggravated cruelty.— Mem huma so das 2969 mortes commettidas pelo inimigo, deixou de ser atroz e dolorosissima. (Breve Memoria dos Estragos Causados no Bispado de Coimbra pelo Exercito Francez, commandado pelo General Massena. Extrahida das Enformaçoens que deram os Reverendos Parocos, e remettida a Junta dos Socorros da Subscripsam Britannica, pelo Reverendo Provisor Governador do mesmo Bispado. p. 12.) Some details are given in this brief Memorial. “A de tels forfaits, o says J. J. Rousseau, a celui qui détourne ses regards est un lache, un déserteur de la justice: la véritable humanité les envisage pour les connoitre, pour les juger, pour les détester.” (Le Levite d'Ephrain.) I will not, however, in this place repeat abominations which at once outrage humanity and disgrace human nature. When the French, in 1792, entered Spire, some of them began to commit excesses which would soon have led to a general sack. Custine immediately ordered a captain, two officers, and a whole company to be shot. This dreadful example, he told the National Convention, he considered as the only means of saving the honour of the French Nation,-and it met with the approbation of the whole army. But the French armies had not then been systematically brutalized. It was reserved for Buonaparte to render them infamous, as well as to lead them to destruction. The French soldier, says Capmany, is executioner and robber at the same time: he leaves the unhappy wretch who is delivered over to his mercy, naked to the skin, stripping off the clothes that they may not be torn by the musket-shot!—The pen falls from my hand, and I cannot proceed! a Para que se junte à esta crueldad la mayor infamia. el soldado Frances es verdugo y ladron en una pieza: deja en cueros vivos al malaventurado que entregan 4 Note 5, page 498, col. 1. Onoro's Springs. Fuentes d'Onoro. This name has sometimes been rendered Fountains of Honour, by an easy mistake, or a pardonable licence.

su discrecion, quitándole la ropa antes que los fusilazos

se la destrozen. La pluma se cae de la mano, y no puede proseguir.”—Centinela contra Franceses, P. 2, p. 35. Yet the Edinburgh Review says, “ the hatred of the name of a Frenchman in Spain has been such as the reality will by no means justify; and the detestation of the French government has, among the inferior orders, been carried to a pitch wholly unauthorized by its proceedings towards them.” No XXVII. p. 262. This passage might be read with astonishment, if any thing absurd, any thing mischievous, or any thing false, could excite surprise when it comes from that quarter.

Note 6, page 498, col. 1.
Knowing that nought could e'er appal
The Spaniards' fortitude.

“The fate of Spain, we think, is decided, and that fine and misguided country has probably yielded, by this time, to the fate which has fallen on the greater part of continental Europe. Her European dominions have yielded already to the unrelaxing grasp of the insatiable conqueror.”—Edinburgh Review, No xxvi, p. 298.

• The fundamental position which we ventured to lay down respecting the Spanish question was this ;-that the spirit of the people, however enthusiastic and universal, was in its nature more uncertain and short-lived, more likely to be extinguished by reverses, or to go out of itself amidst the delays of a protracted contest, than the steady, regular, moderate feeling which calls out disciplined troops, and marshals them under known leaders, and supplies them by systematic arrangements:—a proposition so plain and obvious, that if it escaped ridicule as a truism, it might have been reasonably expected to avoid the penalties of heresy and paradox. The event has indeed wofully proved its truth.” –Edinburgh Rev. No XXPTI, p. 246.

These gentlemen could see no principle of permanence in the character of the Spaniards, and no proof of it in their history;-and they could discover no principle of dissolution in the system of Buonaparte;—a system founded upon force and falsehood, in direct opposition to the interest of his own subjects and to the feelings of human nature!

Note 7, page 498, col. 1.
What though the Tyrant, drunk with power,

Might vaunt himself, in impious hour,

Lord and Disposer of this earthly ball? “Lo he dicho varias veces, y lo repito ahora, que las tres épocas terribles en los anales del mundo son, el diluvio universal, Mahoma, y Buonaparte. Aquel pretendia convertir todas las religiones en una, y este todas las naciones, paraser el su cabeza. Aquel predicaba la unidad de Dios con la cimitarra; y este no le nombra uno nitrino, pues solo predica, 6 hace predicar su propia divinidad, dejándose dar de sus infaines y sacrilegos adoradores, los periodistas franceses, el dictado de Todopoileroso. £1 mismo se hallegado à creer tal, y sella hecho creer la cobardía y vilcza de las naciones que se

handejado subyugar. Solo la España le ha obligado à reconocerse, que no era antes, ni es ahora, sino un hombre, y hombre muy pequeño, 4 quien la fortuna ciega ha hecho grande à los ojos de los pueblos espaniados del terror de su nombre, que miden la grandeza del poder por la de las atrocidades.”—Centinela contra Franceses, p. 48. * I have sometimes said, and I repeat it now, that the three terrible epochs in the annals of the World are the General Deluge, Mahommed, and Buonaparte. Mahommed pretended to convert all religions into one, and this man all nations into one, in order to make himself their head. Mahommed preached the unity of God with the scimitar; and this man neither his Unity nor his Trinity, for he neither preaches, nor causes to be preached, any thing except his own Divinity, letting his infamous and sacrilegious adorers, the French journalists, give him the appellation of Almighty. He has gone so far as to believe himself such, and the cowardice and baseness of the nations who have suffered themselves to be subdued, have made him believe it. Spain alone has compelled him to know himself, that he neither was formerly nor is now any thing more than a mere man. and a very little one, whom blind Fortune has made appear great in the eyes of people astonished at the terror of his name, and measuring the greatness of his power by that of his atrocities.”

Note 8, page 498, col. 2.
The Campeador.

The Cid, Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar. The word has been variously explained, but its origin seems to be satisfactorily traced by Verstegan, in his explanation of some of our English surnames.

« Cemp or Kemp, properly one that fighteth hand to hand, whereunto the name in Teutonic of Kemp-fight accordeth, and in French of Combat.

« Certain among the ancient Germans made profession of being Camp-fighters or Kemp-fighters, for all is one; and among the Dames and Swedes were the like, as Scarcater, Arngrim, Aruerod, Haldan, and sundry others. They were also called Kempanas, whereof is derived our name of Campion, which after the French orthography some pronounce Champion.”

« Dene or Den is the termination of sundry of our surnames, as for example of Camden, which I take anciently to have been Campden, and signifieth the Dene or Dale belonging to some Cemp or Camp-fighter (for both is one) in our now used language called a Champion, but in the Teutonic a Campion. A Campden may also have been some place appointed for Campions, Combat-fighters, or men of arms to encounter each other. And so the place became afterward to be the surname of him and his family that owned it, as others in like sort have done.”

• Kemp, — of his profession of being a Kemper or Combat-sighter, as divers in old time among our ancestors were.”

Note 9, page 498, col. 2. Wengeance was the word. This feeling is forcibly expressed by Capmany. • O Visperas Sicilianas tan famosas en la historia, quando os podremos acompanar con completas, para que los Angeles canten laudes en el Cielo.”—Centineia, contra Franceses, p. 96.

O Sicilian Vespers' so famous in history, when shall we be able to accompany you with Complines, that the Angels may sing Lauds in Heaven? Note to, page 499, col. 1. Behold the awaken'd Moscovite Mects the tyrant in his might. Ecce iterum Crispinus! What says the Edinburgh Review concerning Russia? • Considering how little that power has shown itself capable of effecting for the salvation of Europe, how wretched the state of its subjects is under the present government, how tritling an acquisition of strength the common enemy could expect to obtain from the entire possession of its resources, we acknowledge that we should contemplate with great composure any change which might lay the foundation of future improvement, and scatter the forces of France over the dominion of the Czars.”— No. XXVIII, p. 460. This is a choice passage. The reasoning is worthy of the writer's judgment, the feeling perfectly consistent with his liberality, and the conclusion as consistent with his politics. Note 11, page 499, col. 1.

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Hear the Edinburgh Reviewers w It would be as chimerical to expect a mutiny amongst the vassal states of France who are the most impatient of her yoke, as amongst the inhabitants of Bordeaux, or the couscripts of the years 1808 and 1809. In making this comparison, we are indeed putting the case much more strongly against France than the facts warrant, for with the exception of Holland, and the States into which the conscription has been introduced, either immediately, or by means of large requisitions of men made to their Government, the changes effected by the French invasion have been favourable to the individual happiness of the inhabitants,” so that the hatred of France is liable to considerable diminution, inasmuch as the national antipathy and spirit of independence are gradually undermined by the solid benefits which the change of masters has conferred.”—No. XX1711, p. 458.

Great as a statesman, profound as a philosopher, amiable as an optimist of the Pangloss school, -but not altogether fortunate as a Prophet!


As a proper accompaniment to the preceding Notes, upon their republication, I subjoin an extract from a PWilliam-Smithic epistle, begun a few wears ago upon sufficient provocation, but left unfinished, because better employments delayed its completion till the offence, gross as it was, seemed no longer deserving of a thought.

My fortune has been somewhat remarkable in this respect, that, bestowing less attention than most men upon contemporary literature, I am supposed to concera myself with it in a degree which would leave me

* N.B. These little exceptions include all the countries which were annexed to the French Empire, all Italy, and all the States of the Confederation of the Rhine.

* Particularly the commercial part of them.

no time for any worthier occupation. Half the persons who are wounded in the Quarterly Review fix upon me as the object of their resentment; some, because they are conscious of having deserved chastisement at my hands; others, because they give credit to an empty report, a lying assertion, or their own conceited sagacity in discovering a writer by his style. As for the former, they latter themselves egregriously in supposing that I should throw away my anger upon such subjects. But by the latter I would willingly have it understood, that I heartily disapprove the present fashion of criticism, and sincerely wish that you, Sir, and your friend, had taken out an exclusive patent for it, when you brought it into vogue. With regard to literary assailants, I should as little think of resenting their attacks in anger, as of making war upon midges and mosquitos. I have therefore never noticed your amiable colleague in his critical capacity. Let him blunder and misquote, and misrepresent, and contradict himself in the same page, or in the same sentence, with as much ingenuity as he will: “'T is his vocation, Hall" and some allowances must be made for habit. I remember what Lord Anson's linguist said to him at Canton, upon the detection of some notable act of dishonesty: “Chinaman very great rogue truly; but have fashion: no can help." Concerning me, and any composition of mine, it is impossible that this gentleman can write wisely unless his nature should undergo a radical change; for it is written in the wisest book which ever proceeded from mere humanity, that “ into a malicious soul, wisdom shall not enter. x. You may have seen a mastiff of the right English breed assailed by a little, impertinent, noisy, meddling cur, who runs behind him, snapping and barking at his heels, and sometimes gets staggered by a chance whisk of his tail. The mastiff continues his way peaceably; or if he condescends to notice the yelper, it is only by stopping half a minute, and lifting his leg over him. Just such, Sir, is the notice which I bestow upon your colleague in his critical character. But for F. J., Philomath, and Professor of the Occult Sciences, he is a grave personage, whose political and prophetical pretensions entitle him to high consideration in these days. He is as great a man as Lilly in the time of the Commonwealth, or as Partridge after him. It is well known what infinite pains he bestowed in casting the nativities of Lord Wellington, Buonaparte, and the Emperor of Russia; all for the good of mankind! and it is also notorious that he mistook the aspects, and made some very unfortunate errors in his predictions. At a time when he was considerably indisposed in consequence of this mortification, I took the liberty of administering to him a dose of his own words, mixed, perhaps, Sir, with a few of yours, for you were his fellow-student in astrology, and are known to have assisted him in these his calculations. The medicine was given in the form of extract; but the patient could not have used more wry faces had it been extract of coloquiutida. And indeed it produced a most un pleasant effect. Ever since that time his paroxysms have been more violent, and he has been troubled with occasional ravings, accompanied with periodical discharges of bile in its most offensive state. Nevertheless, dreadfully bilious as he is, and tormented with acrid humours, it is hoped that by a cool diet, by the have been with Mr Wordsworth, this your colleague and you being the Gog and Magog of the Edinburgh Review. Had it not been for a difference of opinion upon political points between myself and certain writers in that journal who laid claim to the faculty of the second sight, I suspect that I should never have incurred your hostility. What those points of difference were I must here be permitted to set forth for the sa. tisfaction of those readers who may not be so well acquainted with them as you are: they related to the possibility of carrying on the late war to an honourable and successful termination.

proper use of refrigerants, above all, by paying due at- a Mutiny (hear, Germany' for so they qualified it !) tention to the state of the prima vie, and observing amongst the vassal states of France, it would be as a strict abstinence from the Quarterly Review, the dan- chimerical,” they said, “as to expect one amongst the ger of a cholera morbus may be averted. inhabitants of Bordeaux.” And here these lucky I have not been travelling out of the record while prophets were peculiarly felicitous; the inhabitants of thus incidentally noticing a personage with whom you, Bordeaux having been the first people in France who Sir, are more naturally and properly associated than I threw off the yoke of Buonaparte's tyranny, and

It was in our state of feeling, Sir, as well as in our state of knowledge that we differed, in our desires as much as in our judgment. They predicted for us nothing but disgrace and defeat; predicted is the word; for they themselves assured us that they were “seriously occupied with the destinies of Europe and of mankind; n

As who should say I am Sir Oracle:

They ridiculed “ the romantic hopes of the English nation,” and imputed the spirit by which the glory of that nation has been raised to its highest point, and the deliverance of Europe accomplished, to “the tricks of a paltry and interested party They said that events had a verified their predictions,” had a more than justified their worst forebodings.” They told us in 1810 that the fate of Spain was decided, and that that a misguided, country (misguided in having ventured to resist the most insolent usurpation that ever was attempted) * had yielded to the Conqueror.” This manner of speaking of an event in the preter-pluperfect tense, before it has come to pass, may be either a slight ;rammatical slip, or a prophetical figure of speech: but as old Dr. Eachard says, “I hate all small ambiguous surmises, all quivering and mincing conjectures: give me the lusty and bold thinker, who when he undertakes to prophecy, does it punctually.” It would be blood-thirsty and cruel,” they said, a to foment petty in surrections, (meaning the war in Spain and Portugal,) after the only contest is over from which any good can spring in the present unfortunate state of affairs.” France has conquered Europe. This is the melancholy truth. Shut our eyes to it as we may, there can be no doubt about the matter. For the present, peace and submission must be the lot of the vanquished.” “Let us hear no more of objections to a Buonaparte ruling in Spain. »

Harry, the wish was father to that thought ! They told us that if Lord Wellington was not driven out of Portugal, it was because the French government thought him a better there than any where else.” They told us they were prepared to a contemplate with great composure, the conquest of Russia, by Buonaparte, as a “change which would lay the foundation of future improvement in the dominions of the Czars.”—

Simens sit larta tibi crederis esse propheta,

says an old Leonine rhymester.—And as for expecting

mounted the white cockade. Omnia jam finnt, fieri quae posse negaham.

Poor Oracle! the face is double-bronzed; and yet it is but a wooden head!

I stood upon firm ground, while they were sticking in the Slough of Despond. Hinc illae lachrynnae. I charged them at the time with ignorance, presumption, and pusillanimity. And now, Sir, I ask of you. were they or were they not ignorant? Here are their

assertions!—Were they or were they not presumptu

ous Here are their predictions !—were they or were they not pusillanimous? Have they or have they not been confuted and confounded, and exposed, and shamed, and stultified by the event They who know me will bear witness, that before a rumour of war was heard from the Peninsula, I had looked toward that quarter as the point where we might hope first to see the horizon open ; and that from the hour in which the struggle commenced, 1 never doubted of its final success, provided England should do its duty: this confidence was founded upon a knowledge of the country and the people, and upon the principles which were then and there first brought into action against the enemy. At the time when every effort was made (as you, Sir, well know) to vilify and disgust our allies, to discourage the public, to inpede the measures of government, to derange its finances, and thereby cut off its means, to paralyse the arm and dcaden the heart of England;—when we were told of the irresistible power and perfect policy of Bue

naparte, the consummate skill of his Generals, and the

invincibility of his armies, my language was this: “ The one business of England is to abate the power of France: that power she must beat down or fall herself; that power she will beat down, if she do but strenuously put forth her own mighty means.” And again, -o For our soldiers to equal our seamen, it is only necessary for them to be equally well commanded. They have the same heart and soul, as well as the same flesh and blood. Too much, indeed, may be exacted from them in a retreat: but set their face toward a foe, and there is nothing within the reach of human achievement which they cannot perform.” And again; • Carry on the war with all the heart, and with all the soul, and with all the strength of this mighty empire, and you will beat down the power of France a Was I wrong, Sir? Or has the event corresponded to this considence?

'Autozt irt, atrot

Morvos; ao; orzzot.

Bear witness Torres Vedras, Salamanca, and Vittoria! Bear witness Orthes and Tluoulouse! Bear witness Waterloo, and that miserable tyrant, who was then making and unmaking kings with a breatlı, and now frets upon the rock of St Helena, like a tiger in his cage'

Carmina 3 tilità,


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Of the UNITED kix Gino Mi or GREAT BRITAIN
AND in Fland.

Prince of the mighty Isle! Proud day for thee and for thy kingdoms this, When Britain round her spear The olive garland twines, by Victory won.

II. Rightly mayst thou rejoice, For in a day of darkness and of storms, An evil day, a day of woe, To thee the sceptre fell. The Continent was leagued, Its numbers wielded by one will, Against the mighty Isle; All shores were hostile to the Red-Cross flag, All ports against it closed; Save where, behind their ramparts driven, The Spaniard, and the faithful Portugal, Each on the utmost limits of his land, Invincible of heart, Stood firm, and put their trust In their good cause and thee.

iii. Such perils menaced from abroad, At home worse dangers compassed thee, Where shallow counsellors, A weak but clamorous crew, Pester'd the land, and with their withering breath Poison'd the public ear. For peace, the feeble raised their factious cry: Oh, madness, to resist The Invincible in arms: Seek the peace-garland from his dreadful hand! And at the Tyrant's feet They would have knelt, to take The wreath of aconite for Britain's brow. Prince of the mighty Isle! Rightly mayst thou rejoice, For in the day of danger thou didst turn From their vile counsels thine indignant heart; Rightly mayst thou rejoice,

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When Britain round her spear The olive-garland twines, by Victory won.

IV. Rejoice, thou mighty Isle, Queen of the Seas, rejoice! Ring round, ye merry bells, Till every steeple rock, And the wide air grow giddy with your joy! Flow, streamers, to the breeze : And ye victorious banners, to the sun Unroll the proud Red-Cross' Now let the anvil rest; Shut up the loom; and open the school-doors, That young and old may with festivities Hallow for memory through all after years This inemorable time: This memorable time, When Peace, long absent, long deplored, returns! Not as vile Faction would have brought her home, Her countenance for shame abased, In servile weeds array'd, Submission leading her, Fear, Sorrow, and Repentance following close; And War, scarce deigning to conceal Beneath the mantle's folds his armed plight, Dogging her steps with deadly eye intent, Sure of his victim, and in devilish joy Laughing behind the mask. .

W. Not thus doth Peace return 1– A blessed visitant she comes :— Honour in his right hand Doth lead her like a bride, And Victory goes before; Hope, Safety, and Prosperity, and Strength, Come in her joyful train. Now let the churches ring With high thanksgiving songs, And the full organ pour Its swelling peals to Heaven, The while the grateful nation bless in prayer Their Warriors and their Statesmen and their Prince, Whose will, whose mind, whose arm Have thus with happy clid their efforts crown'd. Prince of the mighty Isle, Rightly mayst thou rejoice, When Britain round her spear The olive garland twines, by Victory won.

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