ページの画像
PDF
ePub
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic]

CASSELL, PETTER, AND GALPIN,

LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E.C.;

[blocks in formation]
[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][merged small]

INDEX TO CONTENTS.

PAGE

.

20, 62

.

• 219
• 276

.

[ocr errors]

• 405

.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

270

XCI., XCII., XCIII. Some

Peculiar Idioms

317, 318

XCIV. Idioms relating to

Monde, Gens, etc.

319

XCV. Idioms relating to

En, Entendre, etc. . 350

XCVI. The Present Par

ticiple-The Verbal Ad-

jective.

354

XCVII., XCVIII., Practical

Résumé of Rules on the

Past Participle 355, 406

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS

IN FRENCH :

Exercises Page Exercises Page
61-64
il 116-120.

222

65-72 30 121, 122, 239

73-78 69 123-126. 271

79-82

83 127-133..

286

83-92 106 134, 135 . . . 319
93-96

115 136-141. 835

97-102 .. 131 142-145 350

103,104 165 146.

105-109

190 147 ....

407

110-115 . . 198

FRENCH, READINGS IN ;

Le Sapeur de dix Ans 10, 82,

108

Le Château de Cartes . 106

Malle. de Lajolais 130, 189

Le Vieux Arbre et Le Jar.

dinier.

198

Un Bienfait n'est jamais
Perdu

198, 238, 285
Fedora
Jacopo


... 392

301, 334
• 371, 3m

.

. 259

.

• 342

[ocr errors]

358

[ocr errors]

.

. 359

.

111

159

.

• 385

.

• 386

.

PAGE
GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN :
Table of Latitudes and

Longitudes of Places in
Europe

26, 70
Asia

119, 175
Chief Political Divisions of
Asia

213
Construction of Projection
of Map of Asia

266
Table of Latitudes and

Longitudes of Places in
Asia

267
Africa

305, 355

GEOLOGY, LESSONS IN :

Introduction-Divisions of

the Subject -- Physical

Geology-The Geological

Systems Mineralogy

and Lithology - The

Solar System, etc. etc. . 1

Stratified Rocks - Un-

stratified Rocks-Strata

- Deposition of Strata-

Dip of Strata--Clinome-

ters

56

Geological Agents-Rain-

Springs—Wells

Springs, Rivers, etc.

She Action of the Ocean 193

Volcanoes

Igneous

Agency

241

Earthquakes and Altera:
tions in Level

299
Atmospheric, Organic, and

Chemical Agencies 351
Lithology-Petrology

GEOMETRICAL PERSPEC-

TIVE:

Problems XII.-XIV.

XV.XIX.

72

XX--XXIII. . 140
XXIV.-XXVI. 203
XXVII., XXVIII. 271
XXIX.-XXXII.. 332
XXXIII., XXXIV. 368

XXXV., XXXVI.. 388
GERMAN, LESSONS IN :
LXXII. Passive Verbs in
the Subjunctive

42
LXXIII. Idioms of Prepo-

sitions.

LXXIV. Idiomatic Phrases 90

LXXV. Idioms relating to

LXXVI.

ixxxiv.

Various Idiomatic

Phrases 91, 138, 178, 226

LXXXV. Dative of Pro-

nonns

228

LXXXVI.,

LXXXVII,

Idioms of Verbs 277

LXXXVIII.-XCIV. Idio-

matic Phrases 278, 326, 378

KEY TO EXERCISES IX LESSONS

IN GERMAN :

Exercises Page Exercises

Page

60-71 22 115

72-78 43 116-118.. 243

79-90

119-127 . . 278

91-94 78 123

95-98 92 129

327

99-103 126 130-133., 343

104-106 .. 139 134-136 380

107-114 . . 158

GERMAN, READINGS IN :

Introduction

21

Directions for the Use of

the Interlinear Pronun-

ciation

21

Das Rothkehlchen

Die Kleine Wohlthäterin

Die Canarienvögelchen 78

Der Morgentrum

126

Die Sieben Kindlein 158

PAGE

Die Pfirsichen

214
Das Angebinde

243
Die Vier Jahreszeiten
Die Rose und die Lilie 310
Die Katse, die alte und die
junge Maus

311
Die Biene

342
An den Mond
Byron und Polidori 358
Heinrich der Achte und

Thomas More

Der Binger Mäusethurm 358

Joseph II., Kaiser von

Oestreich

359

Friedrich der Grosse und

sein Arzt

359

Carl der Zweite und sein

Bischof

GREEK, LESSONS IN :

Review of the Three

Declensions

5

Exercises from the Book

of Proverbs and New

Testament

50

Comparison of Adjec-
tives. .

109, 154

Adverbs and their Forma-

tion - Comparison of

Adverbs

205

The Pronouns -- Personal

Pronouns

254

Demonstrative Pronouns:

Relative Pronoun--Inde.

finite and Interrogative

Pronouns

29

The Numerals-Recapitula-

tory Exercises . 339
The Numeral Adverbs
The Key to the Exercises

in any Lesson in Greek
will be found at the end

of the next Lesson.

HISTORIC SKETCHES :

The Thirty Years'. War 37

Swiss Independence

93

The English in France-

Joan of Arc

117

The Spaniards in America 143

The Moslems in Europe 180

Alva's Master-The Nether.
lands

236
The Inquisition

. 287

The Papacy

330

The Murder of the Guises 372

HYDROSTATICS :

Laws of Pressure--Safety

Valve-Solids immersed

in Liquids Specific

Gravity

Modes of determining

Specific Gravity-Hydro-

meters--Table of Specific
Gravities

52
Equilibrium of Flonting

Bodies - Metacentre
Capillary Attraction
Hydraulic Machines
Water Wheels

99
Breast Wheels-Overshot

Wheels - Turbines
Barker's Mill-Hydraulic
Ram-Machines for rais-
ing Water - Persian
Wheel Archimedian
Screw

151

Lifting Wheel-Chain Pump

-Lifting Pump-Com-

mon Pump-Force Pump

--Fire-engine

199

Centrifugal Pumps-Ma-

chines for propelling

Vessels-Rivers-Power

stored up in Rain-Tides

-Wares

252

PAGE

ITALIAN, LESSONS IN :

Iutroduction

On the Pronunciation of

Italian

14

Pronunciation of Vowels

and Consonants

58, 102

The Semi-vowels

102, 148

The Diphthongs

202

Pronunciation of C, G, S,

in combination with
other Letters

244, 298
Pronunciation of Double
Consonants

316
The Accents : 347, 394
The Apostrophe

394

LATIN, LESSONS IN :

Regular Verbs- The Second

Conjugation ,

18

The Third Conjugation 19, 74

The Fourth Conjugation 74

The Four Conjugations 122

Deponent Verbs, First Con.

jugation

123

Construction of Hortor

170

Deponent Verbs, Second

Conjugation.

171

Construction of Vercor 212

Deponent Verbs, Third

Conjugation

262

Construction of Timeo-

Deponent Verbs, Fourth

Conjugation.

307

Deviations from the Medel

Conjugations-First Con-

jugation - Construction

of Circumdo

365

Deviations in the First

Conjugation,

403

The Key to the Exercises

given in any Lesson in

Latin will be found at tho

end of the next Lesson, or

the next Lesson but one,

MUSIC, LESSONS IN :

Illustrations of Mental

Effect of Fah and Lah 15, 59

Process to be adopted in

studying the Exercises

in these Lessons

103

Use of the Black Board,

etc.

156

Examination of the Notes
Te and Ray

206
Illustrations of the Effect

of Te and Ray 248, 347
Organs of the Human

Voice-Pitch-Quality-

Strength-Force, etc. 398

OUR HOLIDAY :

Gymnastics

The Pangymnasticon 63

Climbing Exercises 319

The Climbing Pole 320

The Double Pole

320

Climbing the Mast . 320

Climbing the Wall 320

Ladder Exercises. 369

The Horizontal Beam
Athletic Sports-
Training

127
Walking

127
Running
Starting and Coming in . 188
Running or Walking in
Hents

188
Handicap Races

188
Consolation Races 189
Hurdle Racing

189

Steeple Chasing

Hare and Hounds 189

Jumping and Leaping 255

Throwing or Putting

Weights.

256

PAGE

PNEUMATICS:

Objects of the Science-

Properties of the Air

Its Weight-Diving Bell

-Air - Pump Fire

Balloon

• 302

Gas Balloon-Pressure of

the

Air - Magdeburg

Hemispheres - Sucker

Spile-Peg-Syphon 337

Cup of Tantalus-- Inter-

mittent Springs-Sab-

batic River-Barometer

-Wheel Barometer . 396

SHORTHAND, LESSONS IN :

Introduction

12

Explanation of Terms

Phonographic Alphabet
- Directions for Practice
-Consonants-On Join-

ing the Consonants 76

On Joining the Consonants

(continued)-Circle S and

Z -- Upward R - Long

Vowels Methods of

Placing the Vowels-On

Writing Phoneticnlly , 132
Short Vowels-Diphthongs

-Double Letters of the
W and V Series—The

Aspirate or Breathing H 196
The Circle S and Stroke S

--Vocalisation of Words
---Single and Double Con-
sonants - Vowels and
Diphthongs - Double
Letters of the Wand
Y Series-Double and

Treble Consonants 260

S P R Series of Con.

sonants-Grammalogues

-Learner's List of Gram-

malogues-Tho Circle S

--Prefix Con and Affix

ing

296

Various Exercises

828

Abbreviations : N Hook-

For V Hook — Tion

Hook-Halving Princi-

ple, adding Tor D-ST

and STR Loops, etc.-

Prefixes-Affixes

363

Method of Practice-Gram-

malogues

392

SKETCHING FROM NATURE:

Materials-Choice of Sub-

jects, etc.

97

Retiring Lines-Point of

Sight, etc.

167

Objects with Retiring Sides,

etc.

225

Theory of Sketching:

291

RECREATIVE NATURAL

HISTORY:

The Crab

23

The House-Fly.

81

The Newt and Salamander 145

Tortoises and Turtles

222

The Ox Family

273

Sheep

344

The Deer Family

401

UNIVERSITIES, THE:

Oxford -

The Middle-Class Exami.

nations

172

Unattached Students 228

Private Halls

231

Collegiate Life

231

Cambridge

Examinations and Mode

of Proceeding to

Degrees

289

University Expenses and

Fees .

380

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

... 180

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

POPULAR EDUCATOR.

THE SUBJECT - PHYSICAL

- THE

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-1.

plausible of the theories yet produced to account for the can.

struction of our system, and therefore of our earth. INTRODUCTION -- DIVISIONS OF GEOLOGY

The solar system, of which we are one of the members, consists GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS MINERALOGY AND LITHOLOGY—THE SOLAR SYSTEM, ETC. ETC.

of the sun and eight planets-four of which are very much larger

than the earth-and a number of very small planets, called asteThe derivation of the word Geology (m [ghee], the earth, and roids, which revolve in the space separating the four exterior and tóyas [log'as), a discourse, or a reasoning) indicates the main larger planets from the interior and smaller ones. The position of direction of the science. It confines its attention to a description the earth is the third from the sun. The earth is accompanied by of the solid crust of the earth, and to the elucidation of those a moon, which is not the case with any of the other interior forces and causes which have produced the changes the surface of planets, whilst the exterior planets are all attended by satellitesour planet has undergone. To aid him in his investigation, the Saturn and Uranus by eight, Jupiter by four. All these bodies geologist needs the aid of the botanist, the zoologist, the chemist, revolve round the sun in the same direction, and all move within the mineralogist, the physicist, and even of the mathematician. a narrow belt. The exterior planets are much lighter than the

Although the subject looks formidable to the general reader, interior. If the density of water be taken as 1, the density of it is not only franght with the deepest interest, but by far its the sun will be about 1}; of Mercury, 91; of Venus, 51); of greatest part may be traversed by common sense. Moreover, the Earth, 53; of the Moon, 3}; of Mars, 3}; of Jupiter, 1.4; its study commends itself to all, since it requires no expensive of Saturn, }}; of Uranus, 1.apparatas, nor yet a preparation which all other sciences The sun's magnitude is immense, as may be judged by the demand ere the student can enter on their practice. Young fact that if he were a hollow shell, and the earth placed at the and old, gifted with observation, may at once become practical centre, there would be sufficient room for the moon to revolve, geologists; and by never passing a stone-heap without an ex as she now does, at 240,000 miles from the earth, and there amination, or never leaving a quarry or gravel-pit unsearched, would still be some 200,000 miles beyond the moon ere the shell they will soon lay the foundation of a geological cabinet, and be of the sun were reached. The planets cannot be said strictly efficient labourers in the extension of geological research. to revolve round the sun, but the sun and the planets revolve

Every generation of our race has produced men of inquiring about the centre of gravity of the system; and, owing to the minds, and it is but natural that such men should turn their preponderating bulk of the sun, this centre of gravity lies not research to discover the origin of the world we inhabit, espe- far from his own centre. cially in the early times when but few channels were opened In searching for a record of the process of creation, we along which they were invited to expend the natural vigour of naturally turn our attention to that only Book the human their intellect; hence, in the earliest records of eastern nations library contains which did not emanate from the mind of man. we find theories which attempt to account for the existence of But the Bible was not written as an instructor in physical our earth these it is unnecessary to dwell upon.

science, hence we only find the sacred historian dedicating a few It is evident that the only sound mode of procedure is to collect verses to the subject of “the creation of the world." Yet we all the information which observation of the various existing may rest assured that, although the short notice only touches phenomena of nature can give; to search the crust of the earth the prominent points, yet every word is true; and the more for any facts which the rocks, their position, their character, their science has discovered, the more has she proved to be the comfossil contents, can afford; to notice the arrangement of conti- mentator and unfolder of the great truths contained in those bents and seas, the position and directions of mountain chains, few words. etc., and from these letters of the geological alphabet to spell A generation since, geologists were looked upon as the oppoout the history of our globe.

nents of revealed truth, the friends and abettors of infidels and The history of the progress of geology, like that of any other atheists; but now we have learnt not to generalise from too seience, can furnish many instances of theories built up with few facts, but patiently to explore before pronouncing a definite out any facts for foundations; but as patient research gradu- judgment. The interesting questions, “the development of elly amassed information, these erroneous suppositions were species” and “ the antiquity of man,” are to-day in the same atradoned, and geologists have, from so many warnings, be position as the questions of “the universality of the deluge" come extremely careful of hazarding opinions. The experiences and “the six periods of creation” at the close of the last century. by which we have been taught not to speculate, though interest. But we know in these days nothing of the rancour with which ing and instructive, we cannot record in these pages, as our the contest was then carried on. Explorers now in every part limited space requires us to attend to facts and the deductions of the world collect information, and every right-minded man which may be reasonably drawn from them.

rests assured that in the end Scripture will not be contradicted, The division of the subject we propose is the following : but confirmed.

1. Physical Geology—that is, the geological agencies which The chief points in the description of the creation given in have worked the various changes in the surface of our planet, Genesis will be found to be fairly explained by Laplace's

nebular both as to their present existence and as to the traces of their hypothesis, which has been extended to the explanation of the pore which the rocks reveal.

contour of the earth's surface. The first fiat of the creation was, 2. The Geological Systems.-As we pass through these, we “Let there be light.Now we are well aware that light is shall enomerate the fossils the rocks contain, the history of the nothing more than the rapid vibration of an invisible existence animal and vegetable life of our globe, and the localities in called ether; so that our word " light” in the expression quoted which the members of these systems appear.

must mean “ light-giving matter.” This corresponds to the fire3. Mineralogy and Lithology.--In our last division we hope cloud of the hypothesis. All bodies of our acquaintance are to describe the composition of the various kinds of rocks, as capable of existing in a state of vapour. The temperature at well as the physical and chemical properties of the minerals which this change of state takes place is so high that the vapours they contain

are luminous. Hence the first fiat of creative power called into Before we enter upon the immediate province of geology, it existence all the matter of which the solar system is composed will be well to consider our position in the universe, and some in a state of highly luminous vapour. In the expression that siat of the character of our world as a globe, noticing the most ' “ the light was divided from the darkness," there seems to be ar

VOL. III.

53

« 前へ次へ »