« 前へ次へ »
READINGS IN FRENCH.-I.
1. Quel était le jour du mois ? | 9. L'opération était-elle dange
2. Quel ordre le général avait-il reuse ? SECTION I.
10. Que firent d'abord les voiti
geurs ? Il y avait (a) en mil huit cent douze au neuvième régiment de 3. où était la position?
4. Comment le ravin était-il dé. 11. Que dirent-ils en montrant ligne, un petit tambour qui n'avait que dix ans. C'était un
les canons ? enfant de troupe (6) qui s'appelait Frolut de son véritable 5. Que fallait-il faire pour arriver 12. Quel nombre envoyait-on nom, mais que les soldats avaient surnommé Bilboquet.* En à l'endroit désigné?
contre la redoute ? effet, il avait un corps si long, si maigre et si fluet, surmonté 6. Où était alors le régiment de 13. Que leur répondit l'aide ded'une si grosse tête, qu'il ressemblait assez à l'objet dont on Bilboquet? lui avait donné le nom ;6 Frolut ou Bilboquet, comme vous 7. À quel endroit cette histoire 14. Que dit le vieux sergent après voudrez (c), n'était pas au reste (d) un garçon autrement re
s'est-elle passée ?
le départ de l'aide-de-camp? marquable. Le tambour-maître lui avait si souvent battu la 8. Quel ordre apportait l'aide-de- 15. Qu'ajouta-t-il en parlant du
Petit Caporal ? mesure sur les épaules7 avec sa grande canne de jonc, que l'harmonie du ra et du fla avait fini par lui entrer dans la tête et
NOTES. dans les mains. Voilà tout. Mais il ne portait pas le bonnet
(6) Ces cadets-là, those fellows, i.e., de police suspendu sur l'oreille droite, comme les moindres (a) From recevoir.
at full the cannons. fifres le faisaient (e); il ne savait (1) pas marcher en se dandi au grand galop, nant, à l'exemple de ses supérieurs, et un jour de paie qu'il (6) Il y avait à parier, one might (g) From envoyer.
U Crachent, send forth. avait voulu laisser pendre son sabre par devant, comme les
easily think; lit., one might (h) From falloir. élégants du régiment, il s'était embarrassé les pieds en courant bet.
(0) From falloir. et était tombé sur son nez, lo qu'il s'était horriblement écorché, 11 (d) Est-ce qu'il croit, does he (1) A name given by the soldiers à la grande joie de ses camarades. On riait (g) beaucoup de
to the Emperor. lui,12 qui ne riait de personne.13 Aussi avait-il dans ses habi. tudes un fond de sauvagerie et d'éloignement 14 bien rare à
SECTION III. son âge.15
Cependant il entrait (a) encore quelque hésitation dans la COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.
compagnie, et déjà deux fois le capitaine qui commandait-avait Each question to be answered by the pupil in French. The
donné l'ordre au tambour-maître de prendre deux tambours, de reference numbers in the text indicate the replies to the ques. appuyé sur sa grande canne, hochant la tête et peu disposé à
se mettre en avant, et de battre la charge. Celui-ci restait tions in the Exercises.
obéir. Pendant ce temps Bilboquet, à cheval (b) sur son 1. Quel était le régiment du petit 9. Marchait-il comme ses supé- tambour et les yeux levés sur son chef, sifflait un air de fifre tambour ?
et battait le pas accéléré avec ses doigts. Enfin l'ordre venait 2. Quel âge avait-il ?
10. Que lui était-il arrivé un jour d'être (c) donné une troisième fois au tambour-maître, et il ne 3. Comment s'appelait-il ?
de paie ? · 4. Comment les soldats l'avaient- 11. Quelle avait été la consé- paraissait (d) pas disposé à obéir, lorsque tout à coup, Bilboquet ils sur nommé ?
quence de sa chute ?
se relève, accroche son tambour à son côté, prend ses baguettes,7 5. Pourquoi l'avaient-ils 12. Se moquait-on de lui?
et passant sous le nez (e) du tambour-maître, il le toise avec nommé Bilboquet ? 13. Riait-il des autres ?
orgueil, lui rend d'un seul mot toutes les injures qu'il avait sur 6. À quoi ressemblait-il ?
14, Qu'avait-il dans ses habi- le cour, et luit dit, “ Viens (1) donc, grand poltron!”8 7. Quel traitement le tambour tudes ?
Le tambour-maître veut (g) lever sa canne, mais déjà Bilmaître lui faisait-il éprouver ? 15. Ce caractèro est-il commun boquet était à la tête des doux compagnies, 10 battant la charge * 8. Imitait-il ses camarades dans aux enfants de l'âge du petit
comme un enragé (h). Les soldats, à cet aspect, s'avancent la manière de se coiffer ? (h) tambour ?
aprèo lui et courent vers la terrible batterie. 11 Elle décharge NOTES.
d'un seul coup ses six pièces de canon, et des rangs de nos (a) Il y avait, there was. (e) From faire.
braves voltigeurs s'abattent et ne se relèvent plus.12 La fumée, (6) Enfant de troupe, soldier's child. (1) From savoir.
poussée par le vent, les 'enveloppe, le fracas du canon les (c) From vouloir. (9) From rire.
étourdit; mais la fumée passe, le bruit cesse un instant, et ils (d) Au reste, besides. (1) Se coiffer, to put on his cap. voient (i) debout, à vingt pas devant eux, l'intrépide Bilboquet
battant la charge, 13 et ils entendent son tambour, 14 dont le SECTION II.
bruit, tout faible qu'il soit, semble narguer tous ces gros canons Un jour, c'était le vingt-sept juillet' mil huit cent douze, le qui viennent (1) de tirer. Les voltigeurs courent toujours, et général reçoit (a) de l'Empereur l'ordre de s'emparer d'une po- toujours, 15 devant eux le tambour et son terrible rran rran les sition qui était de l'autre côté d'un énorme ravin.3 Ce ravin appelle; enfin une second décharge de la batterie éclate et perce était défendu par une batterie de six pièces de canon, qui d'une grèle de mitraille les débris acharnés des deux belles comenlevait des files entières de soldats, et pour arriver à l'endroit pagnies. 16 À ce moment, Bilboquet se retourne et voit qu'il qu'avait désigné l'Empereur, il fallait s'emparer de cette bat reste à peine cinquante hommes des deux cents qui étaient terie. À ce moment, le régiment de Bilboquet était sur le bord partis, 17 et aussitôt, comme transporté d'unc fureur de ven. de la Dwina ; car l'histoire que je vous rapporte s'est passée geance, il redouble de fracas : 18 on eût dit (k) vingt tambours dans la fameuse campagne de Russie.? Tout à coup, on voit battant à la fois; jamais le tambour-maître n'avait si hardiarriver au grand galop (6) un aide-de-camp du général, qui appor- ment frappé une caisse. Les soldats s'élancent de nouveau tait l'ordre à deux compagnies de voltigeurs de s'emparer de et entrent dans la batterie, 19 Bilboquet le pr mier, criant à cette batterie. C'était une opération hardie où il y avait à tue-tête (1) aux Russesparier (c) que périraient plus des trois quarts de ceux que l'on y
“Les morceaux en sont bons, les voici; 20 attendez, attendez!" envoyait; aussi les voltigeurs, malgré leur intrépidité, se regardèrent-ils entre eux 10 en secouant la tête et en haussant les
COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE. épaules : on en entendit même quelques-uns et des plus anciens, qui dirent tout bas en grognant et en montrant les canons
1. Que remarquait-on néanmoins 8. Cominent apostropha-t-il le dans la compagnie ?
tambour-maitre ? "Est-ce qu'il croit (d), le général, que ces cadets-là (e) crach 2. Quel ordre le capitaine avait 9. Que voulut faire le tambour. ent (f) des pommes cuites ? 11 Ou bien est-ce qu'il a envie il donné au tambour-maitre ? maitre ? de nous servir en hachis aux Cosaques, qu'il nous envoie (9) 3. Que fit celui-ci après avoir 10. Où était alors notre héros? deux cents contre cette redoute ?" 12
reçu cet ordre?
11. Que firent les soldats en voyant “Soldats !” s'écria l'aide-de-camp, "c'est l'ordre de l'Em
4. Où était Bilboquet pendant ce son intrépidité P pereur;" et il repartit au galop. 13
temps là ?
12. Quel effet produisit la dé"Il fallait (h) donc le dire tout de suite," 14 dit alors un vieux
5. Que faisait-il ?
charge des six pièces de canon ?
6. Le tambour-maitre paraissait. 13. Que virent les soldats quand la sergent en assujettissant sa baïonnette au bout de son fusil :
il disposé à obéir au troisième fumée fut dissipée ? "allons, allons, il ne faut (i) pas faire attendre le Petit Caporal ());
14. Qu'entendaient-ils malgré le quand il vous a dit de vous faire tuer il n'aime pas qu'on 7. Que fit alors le petit tam. bruit du canon ? hésite." 15
15. Que firent alors nos voltigeurs?
16. Quel fut l'effet d'une seconde 18. Que fit Bilboquet à la vue du 15. Bilboquet prit-il la pièce ? 19. Qu'allait-on faire en sa fadécharge ? carnage ?
16. Regardait-on le petit tam17. Combien d'hommes restait- 19. Que firent alors les soldats ? bour?
20. Que dit-il enfin au généil? | 20. Que cria alors le petit tambour? 17. Que faisait-il alors ?
18. Les voltigeurs su moquaient 21. Que fit-il après avoir mis NOTES.
ils de lui ?
l'argent dans sa poche ? (a) Il entrait, there was. (9) From vouloir.
NOTES. () À cheval, seated across. (h) Enragé, madman. (a) From dire.
(k) J'en étais, I was one of them, of (0) Venait d'étre, had just been. (1) From voir.
(b) Se mirent, commenced.
the number. (2) From paraitre. (j) From venir.
(c) Ils s'y connaissaient, they (1) From battre. (c) Sous le nez, close to the face; (k) On'eût dit, one would have
were good judges of such things. (m) Que veux-tu, how can I help it, lit., under the nose. thought that; lit., said. (d) From courir.
what can I do? From tenir. (1) À tue-tête, with all his might. (0) From revenir.
(n) En attendant, meanwhile. (1) From prendre.
(0) From dire. SECTION IV.
(9) Remit, presented.
(P) Il s'était fait, there was. Pendant ce temps, Napoléon monté sur un tertre, regardait (h) Fit entendre, uttered. (q) From paraitre. exécuter cette prise héroïque. À chaque décharge, il tressaillait ) Accent, tone.
(1) Toujours, notwithstanding; lit.,
always. sur son cheval isabelle; puis, quand les soldats entrèrent dans () Planté, standing; lit., planted,
posted. la batterie, il baissa sa lorgnette en disant (a) tout bas : "Braves
KEY TO EXERCISES TO LESSONS IN FRENCH. Et dix mille hommes de la garde, qui étaient derrière lui,
EXERCISE 61 (Vol. I., page 316). de mirent (6) à battre des mains et à applaudir3 en criant, ** Bravo, les voltigeurs ! Et ils s'y connaissaient (c), je same, I write another. 3. Does your clerk write rapidly? 4. He
1. Are you still writing the same lesson ? 2. I no longer write the vous assure."
writes very well, but he does not writo quickly, 5. Have you not Aussitôt, sur l'ordre de Napoléon, un aide-de-camp courut (a) money enough to buy that estate ? 6. I have money enough, but I jusqu'à la batterie* et revint (e) au galop.
intend to make a journey to France. 7. There is your book, do you ** Combien sont-ils arrivés ?" 5 dit l'empereur.“
want it? 8. I do not want it, I have another. 9. Do you still want “ Quarante,” répondit l'aide-de-camp.
my penknife? 10. I do not want it any more, I am going to return it "Quarante croix demain,”6 dit l'empereur en se retournant to you. 11. Does our cousin live in the city: 12. He lives no longer vers son major-général.
in the city, he lives in the country. 13. Does he like to go hunting? Véritablernent, le lendemain, tout le régiment forma un grand 16. Is our partner in Paris or in Rouen? 17. He is at Marseilles.
14. He does not like to go hunting. 15. He goes fishing every day. cercle autour des restes des deux compagnies de voltigeurs, et 18. Where do you intend to conduct your son ? 19. I am going to on appela suocessivement le nom des quarante braves qui take him to Italy. 20. Do you live in Milan or in Florence! 21. I avaient pris (1) la batterie, et l'on remit (9) à chacun d'eux la live neither in Milan nor in Florence, I live in Turin. 22. Does your eroix de la Légion-d'Honneur. La cérémonie était finie, et friend live in Switzerland ? 23. He lives no longer in Switzerland, he tout le monde allait se retirer, lorsqu'une voix sortit du rang et lives in Prussia. 24. Is your servant at church? 25. No, Sir, he is it entendre (h) ces mots,10 prononcés avec un singulier accent at school. (1) de surprise
EXERCISE 62 (Vol. I., page 316). "Et moi ! moi! je n'ai donc rien ?”
1. Votre commis écrit-il aussi bien que M. votre fils ? 2. Il écrit Le général qui distribuait les croix, se retourna et vit passablement bien, mais pas si bien que mon fils. 3. Avez-vous planté (G) devant lui notre camarade Bilboquet, les joues rouges livres
, mais j'ai l'intention d'en acheter encore,
assez de livres dans votre bibliothèque ? 4. Je n'ai pas assez de et l'ail presque en larmes.11
5. Voici la lettre "Toi?” lui dit-il, “que demandes-tu ?”
de Mlle. votre scur, voulez-vous la lire ? 6. J'ai l'intention de la
lire. "Mais, mon général, j'en étais” (k) dit Bilboquet presque en
7. M. votre fils aime-t-il à aller à la pêche ? 8. Il aime à
aller à la pêche et à la chasse. 9. Quand aime-t-il à aller à la pêche ? colère; " c'est moi qui battais (1) la charge en avant, c'est moi 10. Quand je suis à la campagne. 11. Que faites-vous quand vous qui guis entré le premier.”
êtes à la ville ? 12. Quand je suis à la ville, je lis et j'apprends ma "Que veux-tu (m), mon garçon on t'a oublié,” répondit le leçon. 13. Avez-vous l'intention d'aller en France cette année? 14. général; “ d'ailleurs, ajouta-t-il en considérant que c'était un J'ai l'intention d'aller en Allemagne. 15. Voulez-vous aller à la ville, enfant, ta es encore bien jeune, on te la donnera quand tu auras s'il pleut? . 16. Quand il pleut, je reste toujours à la maison. 17. de la barbe au menton ; 13 en attendant, (n) voilà de quoi te combien d'amis avez-vous à la ville ? 18. J'y ai beaucoup d'amis. consoler."
19. Y a-t-il beaucoup d'Anglais en France ? 20. Il y a beaucoup En disant () ces paroles, le général tendit une pièce de vingt d'Anglais en France et en Italie. 21. Y a-t-il plus d'Anglais en
22. Il y a plus d'Anglais en Italie qu'en francs 14 au pauvre Bilboquet, qui la regarda sans penser à la Allemagne. 23. Fait-il beau temps en Italie ? 24. Il y fait très beau prendre. Il s'était fait (P) un grand silence autour de lui, et temps. 25. Y gėle-t-il souvent ? 26. Il y gèle quelquefois, mais pas chacun le considérait attentivement ; 16 lui, demeurait immobile souvent. 27. Cette demoiselle lit-elle aussi bien que så seur? 28. devant le général et de grosses larmes roulaient dans ses Elle lit mieux que sa seur, mais sa soeur lit mieux que moi. 29. Y yeur." Ceux qui s'étaient le plus moqués de lui paraissaient (q) a-t-il quelqu'un chez vous ? 30. Mon père est à la maison. 31. M. attendris, 18 et peut-être allait-on élever une réclamation en sa
votre beau-frère est-il absent? 32. Mon beau-frère est chez vous. faveur, lorsqu'il releva vivement la tête, comme s'il venait de 33. Il n'y a personne à la maison anjourd'hui. prendre une grande résolution, et il dit au général
EXERCISE 63 (Vol. I., page 316). * C'est bon, donnez toujours (r), ce sera pour une autre 1. Do they bring you money every day? 2. It is not brought to
me every day. 3. Do they furnish you clothes when you want them? Et sans plus de façons, il mit la pièce dans sa poche et s'en 4. They furnish me some every time that I want them. 5. Do we retourna dans son rang en siffant d'un air délibéré et satisfait.21 want money when we are sick ? 6. When we are sick we want it
much. 7. Have you heard from my son ? 8. I have not heard from COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.
him. 9. Is it not said that he is in Africa ? 10. They say that he 1 Que faisait Napoléon pendant 8. Qu'appela-t-on successive- They say that he is to commence it next month.
is to go to Algiers. 11. When is he to commence his journey? 12.
13. Does that ce temps-là ?
marriage take place to-day or to-morrow? 14. We are told that it is 2. Que fit-il quand les soldats 9. Que donna-t-on à ces braves
to take place this afternoon. 15. It will take place at half-past five. entrèrent dans la batterie?
gens ? 2. Que firent les soldats de sa
16. Do you wish to come instead of your brother ? 17. My brother 10. Qu'arriva-t-il lorsque la cé
is to come instead of our cousin. 18. Do you intend to tell him garde?
rémonie fut finio ? Quel ordre Napoléon donna- 11. Que vit alors le général ?
what he is to do? 19. He knows what he is to do. 20. Do you t-il å un aide-de-camp?
know anything new? 21. There is nothing new. 22. Is much gold 12. Quo répondit le petit tam
found in California ? 23. Much is found there. 24. Do they also 5. One dit-il à l'aide-de-camp à bour à la question du géné- find diamonds ? 25. They do not find any, they find only gold. son retour ?
ral? 6. Quel ordre donna-t-il au 13. Que dit le général, quand il
EXERCISE 64 (Vol. I., page 317). général?
eut remarqué que Bilboquet 1. Que dit-on de moi ? 2. On dit que vous n'êtes pas très7. Que fit le régiment le len n'était qu'un enfant ?
attentif à vos leçons. 3. Dit-on qu'on trouve beaucoup d'or en denanin? 14. Que lui donna-t-il ?
Afrique ? 4. On dit qu'on trouve beaucoup d'or en Californie. 5.
Vous apporte-t-on des livres tous les jours ? 6. On m'apporte des the Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic, contain sounds very dissimilar livres tous les jours, mais je n'ai pas le temps de les lire. 7. Que to the European, with, of course, some similar or identical ; doit-on faire quand on est malade ? 8. On doit envoyer chercher un and the first imperfect attempt to represent these sounds in a médecin. 9. Envoyez-vous chercher mon frère ? 10. Je dois l'en- kind of skeleton character, was brought by commerce from voyer chercher ce matin. 11. Recevez-vous tous les jours des nouvelles de M. votre fils ? 12. Je reçois de ses nouvelles toutes les Phænicia to Greece. The Greeks adopted the characters of the fois que M. votre frère vient, 13. La vente a-t-elle lieu aujourd'hui ? Phænicians, and as their pronunciation of the Phænician names 14. Elle a lieu cette après-midi. 15. À quelle heure a-t-elle lieu ? for the first two characters in the scheme was alpha, béta, the 16. Elle a lieu à trois heures et demie. 17. J'ai envie d'y aller, mais term “alphabet” has descended to modern times as the name of mon frère est malade. 18. Que dois-je faire ? 19. Vous devez écrire any collection of symbols which represent the elements of spoken à M, votre frère, qui, dit-on, est très-malade. 20. Doit-il partir pour sounds. That this alphabet did not represent the Phænician lanl'Afrique ? 21. Il doit partir pour Alger. 22. Venez-vous au lieu de guage with great accuracy, is more than probable; but it certainly M. votre père ? 23. Je dois écrire au lieu de lui. 24. Le concert
represented the Greek language much worse. The Greeks cona-t-il lieu ce matin ? 25. Il doit avoir lieu cette après-midi,
tented themselves with rounding the forms of the letters, and addSavez-vous à quelle heure ? 27. À cinq heures moins un quart.
ing one or two characters, chiefly contractions, and thus left the
alphabet to come down to posterity. But the mischief of the LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-I.
original error still remains. The Romans adopted the Greek cha
racters, with a few unimportant variations; notwithstanding INTRODUCTION.
which, it remained very inadequate to the representation of Latin ; The system of shorthand which we shall present to our readers while the northern nations who came down like locusts upon the for their study and practice is that invented by Mr. Isaac Roman empire, seized upon the Roman letters among the other Pitman, of Bath. The merits and the justly earned popularity spoils, and violently contorted them for the representation of lanof this system are so great that we are convinced no other guages which differed most remarkably from the Latin, both in system would be accepted by our readers. The author holds the number and quality of the elementary sounds. Some few copyright in it, and we have obtained his consent for its appear. (the Sclavonic, for example) were happy enough to escape this ance in the POPULAR EDUCATOR. Our first lesson will consist second Babel, and rejoice in a convenient alphabet of their own. of a few preliminary observations on language in general, and its But each nation that did use the Roman alphabet, used it in representation by alphabetic signs. In the next lesson we shall its own fashion, and the variety of fashions thus introduced set our pupils to work in writing the shorthand characters. The was, as may be supposed, very great. At length, out of a editors of this work employ this style of writing, and thereby save mixture of Saxon, Danish, French, Latin, and Greek elements, much time. They can, therefore, with confidence recommend arose our own tongue, harsh and uncouth at first, but gradually it to their readers.
winning its way, and now bidding fair, by its own inherent An easy and distinct mode of communicating our thoughts merits, by the richness of its literature, and by the extent of and feelings to similarly constituted beings, is one of the first our commerce, to become, if not the universal language itself, and most pressing wants of social life. Looks, signs, gestures, its immediate progenitor. " The English language," observes are not in all cases sufficiently expressive, and it would be diffi- the late eminent philologist, Professor Jacob Grimm, “possesses cult to imagine that two human beings, whose vocal organs were a power of expression such as was never, perhaps, attained by unimpaired, should pass any considerable length of time in each any human tongue. Its altogether intellectual and singularly other's company without using articulate sounds as their medium happy foundation and development has arisen from a surprising of communication. Indeed, we never find a family of human alliance between the two noblest languages of antiquity--the beings without a common language. As long as intercourse German and the Romanesque--the relation of which to each between family and family remains difficult, each family has its other is well known to be such that the former supplies the own language. Facilitation of intercourse diminishes the num- material foundation, the latter the abstract notions. Yes, ber of dialects; and now that travelling is becoming so general, truly, the English language may with good reason call itself a we may look forward with some degree of hope to time when universal language, and seems chosen, like the English people, “the whole earth" shall again be " of one language and of one to rule, in future times, in a still greater degree, in all the corners speech.” But however great the facility of travelling may be of the earth. In richness, sound reason, and flexibility, no come, there will always exist a necessity for a means of com- modern tongue can be compared with it—not even the German, munication independent of personal intercourse. To effect this, which must shake off many a weakness before it can enter the recourse must necessarily be had to durable, visible signs. The lists with the English." day may be far distant in which a universal language will be But into this language, which grew up almost unawares, ás a realised, but the means by which it will be expressed when it has wild plant in a fertile soil, the mode of writing each word was grown into existence, and which, if previously prepared, may (with, of course, frequent variations) copied from the language have great influence on its formation, may be already developed. from which the word itself was derived; each of these languages
The human organs of speech are the same in all the world, using the Roman alphabet after its own fashion. Custom sanctheir mode of action is the same, and therefore the sounds which tioned the abuse, and at the present day we have a mode of they are capable of producing are the same. From these sounds, spelling so far removed from any apparent attempt to represent which probably do not exceed one hundred for the expression the sounds of speech, that we should scarcely have guessed of all the languages in the world, each group of families, called there had ever been any intention of doing so, had we not known a nation, has adopted a comparatively small number to express its history. The English language, although arrived at a high its own ideas. But the first persons who struck out the noble pitch of refinement, is, in its dress, almost in the primitive ideaidea of representing the sounds of speech, were not acquainted graphic stage. Its words are symbols of ideas rather than of with any languages beyond their own; or, at most, beyond the sounds, and it is only after severe, long, and harassing practice group of languages to which their own belonged; and they that we can be sure of associating the right sound with the right consequently limited their signs to the expression of those sign. “ The present alphabet,” observes Mr. Ellis, in his adelements only with which they were acquainted. Their success mirable "Plea for Phonetic Spelling," "considered as the groundwas various; but in one of the oldest systems of writing ar- work of a system of orthography in which the phonetic system ranged on this principle, the Sanscrit, we have an example of prevails, is an entire failure. It is defective in means for reprethe most perfect attempt at representing the elements of spoken senting several sounds, and the symbols it employs are used in sounds by visible signs that has yet been adopted by a whole senses so various that the mind of the reader becomes perplexed. nation as the dress of their literature.
Digraphs must be looked upon as single letters quite as much The European languages, it is well known, are closely related as the single letters themselves; for they have not the value of to the Sanscrit, and a very slight modification of the Sanscrit a combination of letters, but of one letter. Viewed in this characters would have fitted them for the representation of the light, the English alphabet will be found to consist, not of elements of European sounds. But it was not to be. The twenty-six letters only, but of more than 200! and almost every Europeans probably left India before the invention of writing; one of these 200 symbols varies its meaning at times, so that, and the idea of representing the elementary sounds of speech by after having learned one meaning for each of them, the reader visible signs, seems to have been conveyed to them from a totally has not learned all their meanings; and having learned all their different quarter. The languages known as the Semitic, namely, meanings, he has no means of knowing which one he is to apply
at any time. These assertions are so extraordinary, that they at the Fonetik Nux. One argument which might be supposed require to be strictly proved." This Mr. Ellis proceeds to do to weigh with the student of language, namely, the obscuration in an elaborate series of tables. “We violate every principle of the etymological structure of words, I cannot consider very of a sound alphabetical system more outrageously than any formidable. The pronunciation of languages changes according pation whatever. Our characters do not correspond to our to fixed laws; the spelling is changed in the most arbitrary articulations, and our spelling of words cannot be matched for manner, so that if our spelling followed the pronunciation of irregularity and whimsical caprice."
words, it would in reality be a greater help to the critical student To this disregard of the principles of a true orthography, and of language than the present uncertain and unscientific mode the consequent difficulty of acquiring a correct knowledge of of writing." spelling and pronunciation, may be referred the fact that mil But it is not merely the inconsistency of English orthography lions speak the English language who cannot read or write it. of which we have to complain. The characters employed in It also causes a great waste of time in the attainment of the ordinary writing are too lengthy and complicated to allow of elements of learning by the young. Many practical educators their being written with expedition. A system of writing is hare considered the adoption of a system of orthography by required that shall bring the operations of the mind and of the which these evils would be removed, as highly desirable, but it hand into close correspondence; and, by making writing as has generally been thought to be unattainable. The truth easy and as rapid as speech, shall relieve the penman from which Shakespeare has embodied in the well-known lines the drudgery inseparable from the use of the present system. " There's a Divinity that shapes our ends,
In allusion to this great want of the present age, it was remarked Rough-hew them how we will,"
in the Introduction to the fifth edition of Phonography, 1842,
" There has hitherto existed among all nations the greatest disshould ever inspire men with energy and perseverance to do parity, in point of facility and dispatch, between speaking and something, however small, to rectify error, and replace evil by writing: the former has always been comparatively rapid, easy, good. That which few had courage even to hope for, has been and delightful; the latter tedious, cumbrous, and wearisome. realised through the apparently unimportant circumstance of It is most strange that we, who excel our progenitors so far the publication, in 1837, of a new system of shorthand, based in science, literature, and commerce, should continue to use on an analysis of the English spoken language. The author of the mode of writing which they have handed down to us (with this system of Phonography had originally no intention to dis- but very slight changes in the forms of the letters), though, turb the established orthography of the language, and in the by its complexity, it obliges the readiest hand to spend at third edition of his work, published in 1840, he observed, " It least six hours in writing what can be spoken in one.” Phois, of course, Utopian to hope to change the printed medium of nography supplies this great want by presenting a system of intercourse of the millions who speak the English language; alphabetic writing, capable of being written with the speed of but it is not extravagant or hopeless to attempt to find a sub- the most rapid distinct articulation, and of being read with the stitute for the complicated system of writing which we at pre- certainty and ease of ordinary longhand. This perfect legibility sent employ.". In about a year after this opinion was published, is not possessed by any of the common systems of shorthand the success of phonetic shorthand writing led many who em. writing, which, being based upon the Roman alphabet, necesployed the system to ask why the principle of phonetic spelling, sarily partake of its inconsistencies and deficiencies. It is well so advantageous in writing, should not be applied to printing. known that manuscripts written in accordance with other The blessings that would follow the introduction of a natural systems of shorthand, can seldom be read by more than one or system of spelling, and the evils of the current orthography, two persons besides the writer, and after a short time, usually then began to appear in their true light; and after many become undecipherable to the writer himself. On the other attempts to construct a phonetic printing alphabet, with corre- hand, phonography, which has for many years been used by spending forms for longhand writing, phonetic printing com- thousands of persons in letter-writing, is found to be even more menced in January, 1844, in the Phonotypic Journal. We are legible than ordinary longhand. encouraged to hope, from what has already been effected in the By phonography, as adapted to reporting, in a work entitled production and dissemination of books printed phonetically, that, “The Reporter's Companion,” the most fluent speaker may be in the course of time, the current orthography will give place to taken down, absolutely word for word, and the reporter's notes a system in which the phonetic idea will be uniformly respected. may be set up in type by any phonographic compositor who can
Several attempts to construct and bring into use a phonetic read the reporting style; or if the reporter reads over his notes, Alphabet have been made at different times, by men eminent in and inserts a few vowels, his manuscript may then be read, with literature; but these attempts were characterised by extreme the facility of ordinary writing, by any one who has learned the inattention to details, and society had not in any degree been system. Verbatim reports of speeches have been set up by the prepared for the change. The cause of orthographic reform compositors of the Bath Journal, Norfolk News, New York Tribune, was pioneered by Sir John Cheke in 1540, by Bishop Wilkins and other English and American newspapers, without having in 1668, and by Dr. Franklin in 1768. The fear which is enter- been transcribed into longhand. As it is calculated that six tained by some, that the etymology of words will be obscured hours are required to transcribe for the press what occupied one by the introduction of phonetic spelling, is groundless. One hour in delivery, this new system of reporting, while it is incomof the highest English authorities on this subject, Dr. Latham, parably more accurate than the old systems, has the additional 8053, "All objections to change (in spelling) on the matter of advantage of saving five hours out of every six at present detheoretical propriety, are as worthless as they ever could be voted to preparing the report for the press. thought to be;" and the late learned Chevalier Bunsen asserts The system of shorthand writing here presented, is the result that phonetic spelling is “ comparative philology combined with of innumerable stenographic experiments, extending over a universal ethnology," that the introduction of a phonetic alpha- period of thirty years. These experiments were undertaken in bet is the "generally-felt desideraturn of the age," and that order to ascertain the signs best adapted for the expression of "the theory of etymology is inseparable from that of phonology." the acknowledged sounds of the language. The great practice Max Müller observes, "I feel convinced of the truth and rea- which the system has received, and is still receiving, from the sonableness of the principles on which phonetic spelling rests, many thousands who constantly use it, not merely for reporting, and as the innate regard for truth and reason, however dormant but for the various purposes of every-day life, such as writing or timid at times, has always proved irresistible in the end, letters, making notes and extracts, keeping accounts, composienabling men to part with all they hold most dear and sacred, tion, etc., and the great liberality with which they have comwhether corn laws, or Stuart dynasties, or papal legates, or municated their suggestions to the author, have enabled him to heathen idols, I doubt not that the effete and corrupt orthography produce a work far exceeding in completeness, beauty, and will follow in their train. Nations have before now changed ntility, anything he could have hoped for at its first publication their numerical figures, their letters, their chronology, their in 1837; and he believes that as no other system of shorthand weights and measures ; and though Mr. Pitman may not live to has had such great advantages, or is based upon so just and see the results of his persevering and disinterested exertions, philosophical a view of the elements of spoken language, so no it requires no prophetic power to perceive that what at present other has attained the same degree of perfection, or possesses is pook-poobed by the many, will make its way in the end, the same undeniable legibility, combined with the same adaptaunless met by arguments stronger than those hitherto levelled bility to the most rapid execution.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-I.
shall give the before-mentioned indispensable foundation and
skeleton; and a grammatical treatise which shall, with philoINTRODUCTION.
sophical reasons, satisfactorily explain the ornaments, the I PROPOSE to teach the grammar, structure, and vocabulary of delicacies, the accidents, and exceptions of the language. the Italian language by a method not commonly adopted by As I have said, I shall not divide my grammar into parts of the learned. A considerable experience in tuition has con- speech, but into paragraphs. In the paragraphs I shall disvinced me that a strict adherence to scientific forms, though tinctly mark the line of separation between the elementary all-important in the cultivation of a language, does not tend to grammar and the grammatical treatise by the title of “ADDIthe advantage of the learner. Writers of practical grammar TIONAL REMARKS.' The student who only desires to learn the err, for the most part, in studying system too much. They language sufficiently to enable him to read, speak, and write teach grammar as they would the pure mathematics, as if an with tolerable accuracy, need only attend to the numbered paraabstract science of itself, and not as a practical guide through graphs; but he who would learn the language thoroughly, must the idiomatic intricacies of living languages. Such instructions follow me closely and carefully in all I may find occasion to say may be very scientific in form, but they do not follow nature: in the additional remarks. there is no due separation of that which is the foundation, or, Each paragraph will be complete in itself—a decided step in as it were, the skeleton of a language, from those things which the knowledge of the language. Every principle of the language are the ornaments, the delicacies, the accidents, and exceptions will be clearly illustrated by examples, including vocabularies of speech. A language should be taught as anatomy is taught. and exercises. We must first thoroughly study the bones, if we would success- I have now only to ask the earnest and patient attention of fully trace the intricate ramifications of nerves and arteries. my pupil readers. The learner of a foreign tongue cannot for himself judge of
I.-ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF ITALIAN.. what is material or immaterial to his sure and rapid progress. It will be my endeavour to instruct by a colloquial and natural, I shall teach the pronunciation of the Italian language in rather than a grammatical and purely scientific method. more detail than is generally pursued in English tuition. The
The Italian language has for a long time been regarded in profit to be derived from the study of any living language is this country as a fashionable branch of education. Knowledge much less if we are unable to pronounce it correctly. We can of it has been reckoned an indispensable accomplishment of make little practical use of our theoretical acquirements, if in cultivated society, but rather, as it would seem to me, as a communication with those to whom this language is the mother serviceable attendant at Italian picture galleries and operas, tongue; we can neither make ourselves understood when we than as a guide to the philosophy of a Dante, the invention of speak, nor understand when we are spoken to. And besides, an Ariosto, or the sagacity of a Machiavelli. The present is no man, though he may gather the sense, can relish or even perhaps the first considerable attempt that has been made to comprehend the beauties or delicacies of great poets, and prose popularise this noble and melodious tongue.
writers, too, in any language, and more especially in that of The Italian is the first-born of the old language of Rome, Italy, without an accurate knowledge of the sounds. In reading and owns a strength and beauty worthy of its noble origin. such poets as Ariosto or Tasso, the pleasure does not consist In cultivation, it is the oldest of European tongues. When altogether in appreciating the thoughts, or even shades of Dante wrote, English, French, and German were comparatively thoughts, but in the faculty to enjoy that divine harmony to rude dialects. To Italy the world owes the preservation and which they have attuned the language. One may relish the regeneration of learning and the arts; and its fine soil, the beauty of the rose, but if he be deprived of the sense of smell, fertile mother of great spirits of old, has produced to the latest he can admire only a lifeless beauty. Such students of the times men who have enriched every intellectual pursuit alike by Italian poets, to use a more homely figure, may read their poetry their genius and learning. The language in which they expressed with the satisfaction with which one might admire a Turkey that infinite variety of thought and sentiment, contains a lite- carpet, who has seen the reverse side only. There is no insurature, the rich mine of which is in foreign countries only known perable or even very considerable difficulty in mastering Italian to solitary and toilsome explorers. The time may not be dis- pronunciation, but a thoughtful attention to some leading tant when the increased intercommunication of nations, and principles, and a student-like diligence, are conditions essential the progress of popular education, will lay these rich treasures to success. My thoughtful and industrious pupils will very open to the many.
soon find that a prolixity in this the very outset of my labours For its own intrinsic merits, however, as a language, Italian which might seem trifling, is really most important-one of the deserves to be studied by every one who would enjoy the fundamental parts of the language. pleasures of style, inexhaustible in variety: the energy of Dante, I am aware that I am writing for the most part for adult the graphic power of Boccaccio, the lyrical grace of Petrarca, readers; but let them for a little space forget the dignity of the refinement of Ariosto, the ornament of Tasso, the satire of manhood; for every learner of a language, be he as old as Cato Berni and Aretino, the historical dignity of Guicciardini and was when he learnt Greek, should be regarded as a child learning Botta, the point and perspicuity of Machiavelli, the hilarity of to express his thoughts. Indeed, the more he is taught a foreign Casti, the music of Metastasio, and the Roman manliness of tongue as the child his mother's speech, the better for him. Alfieri. And they who would cultivate language for its excel- A living language can never be accurately and completely lence must seek that of Italy for the ideal beauty of expression. expressed by signs. They who profess the contrary only mis
My method will be a natural, a simple, and, I trust, an easy lead the uninformed. But a tolerable approach to accuracy in one. I shall discard, as much as possible, all the conventional fixing pronunciation may be made by letter-signs representing terms of grammar. I shall not travel by the old beaten path- analogous sounds familiar to the ear in one's own language. way through the parts of speech. My grammatical progress If one has made himself so familiar with the imitated sounds, will imitate the action of the mind in the formation of a sen- as to have acquired a considerable vocal command of the tence, with a due regard to peculiarities of idiom. As a child leading ones, he may very soon accurately and permanently first learns the name of a thing, I begin with the noun, as soon acquire them, by a few brief communications with an educated as I have clearly explained the principles of pronunciation; and native. as the child demonstrates its progress in thinking by connecting Perhaps the most useful beginning I can make, is to point out an action or suffering with the object named, I shall proceed at the leading errors which Englishmen commit in pronouncing once to the verbs. The verb is the life of a language, and he Italian. The reason of this is, that men are apt to transfer who knows the verbs thoroughly has mastered the chief diffi- involuntarily the peculiarities of their own language to that culty of his task. The remaining kinds of words will be taught which they are studying. The first effort, therefore, in learning and discussed in the same natural order.
to pronounce Italian, should be to forget your native peculiarities, These lessons will contain, if I may so speak, two grammars. In the mastery of the pronunciation of the continental lanPresuming that I may find two classes of readers—one anxious guages, and particularly of Italian, the Englishman's great for knowledge by the most easy and rapid manner, the other difficulty is in the vowels. with more preparation, inelination, and leisure for study-I The Englishman, perhaps from childhood, has heard no vowel have so shaped my labour as to combine in a form sufficiently sounds but those of his own island-his four sounds of a, his marked, though not separated, an elementary grammar which four sounds of o, his three sounds of u, his two sounds of e, and