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READINGS IN FRENCH.—III. Où, paisibles, comme eux, vécurent(b) leurs parents.

Ces époux, partageant (c) les doux soins du ménage,
LE SAPEUR DE DIX ANS.

Cultivaient leur jardin, recueillaient(d) leurs moissons ;:
SECTION VII.

Et le soir, dans l'été soupaxt sous le feuillage,
LE général qui commandait, voyant (a) que le salut d'une partie

Dans l'hiver devant leurs (e) tisons, de l'armée dépendait de la destruction de ce pont, voulut en. Ils prêchaient à leurs fils la vertu, la sagesse ;5 voyer quelques sapeurs pour abattre cette poutre et entraîner (6) Leur parlaient du bonheur qu'ils (f) procurent toujours. le reste de la charpente ; mais au moment où ils s'apprêtaient Le père par un conte égayait ses discours, à s'embarquer, l'ennemi arrive de l'autre côté de la rivière, et

La mère par une caresse.? commence un feu si terrible de coups de fusil, qu'il ne parais. L'aîné de ces enfants, né (g) grave, studieux, sait (c) pas probable qu'aucun sapeur pût (d) arriver vivant

Lisait (h) et méditait sans cesse ;8 jusqu'à la fatale poutre. Aussi allait-on se retirer en se défen- Le cadet, vif, léger, mais plein de gentillesse, dant, lorsque tout à coup on voit s'élancer un soldat dans la Sautait, riait (i) toujours, ne se plaisait () qu'aux jeux.' rivière, une hache sur l'épaule ; il plonge et reparaît bientôt,? Un soir, selon l'usage, à côté de leur père, et à (e) sa grande barbes on reconnaît que c'est un sapeur qui Assis près d'une table où s'appuyait la mère, se dévoue au salut de tous. Tout le régiment attentif le suit () L'aîné lisait Rollin : 10 le cadet, pen soigneux (k) des yeux tandis qu'il nage et que les ennemis font (9) bouillonner D'apprendre les hauts faits (1) des Romains ou des Parthes, l'eau autour de lui d'une grêle de balles ;10 mais le brave sapeur Employait tout son art, toutes ses facultés, n'en (h) avance pas moins vigoureusement. Enfin il arrive À joindre, à soutenir par les quatre côtés après des efforts inouïs, monte sur le pied de la pile," et, en

Un fragile château de cartes." quelques coups de hache, abat (i) le reste de la poutre qui de Il n'en respirait pas (m) d'attention, de peur. loin semblait énorme, mais qui était aux trois quarts brisée.

Tout à coup voici le lecteur Aussitôt la charpente des deux arches s'abime dans la rivière, 12 Qui s'interrompt (n); “Papa," dit-il, "daigne m'instruire l'eau jaillit en l'air avec un fracas terrible, et l'on ne voit plus Pourquoi certains guerriers sont nommés conquérants, le brave sapeur. Mais tout à coup, parmi les débris qui sur

Et d'autres fondateurs d'empire : nagent(1), on l'aperçoit se dirigeant (k) vers la rive.13 Tout le Ces deux noms sont-ils différents po 12 monde s'y élance rempli d'admiration et de joie ;14 car malgré Le père méditait une réponse sage, 13 tant de malheurs, on était joyeux de voir faire de si nobles Lorsque son fils cadet, transporté de plaisir, actions; on tend des perches au nageur, on l'excite, on l'en Après tant de travail, d'avoir pu () parvenir courage; le général lui-même s'approche jusqu'au bord de l'eau, À placer son second étage, 14 et n'est pas peu étonné de voir sortir Bilboquet avec une grande s'écrie : "Il est fini!” 15 Son frère murmurant, barbe noire pendue au menton.15

Se fache, (P) et d'un seul coup détruit (q) son long ouvrage; 16 “Qu'est-ce que cela ?” s'écrie-t-il, " et que signifie cette mas

Et voilà le cadet pleurant. carade ?”16

"Mon fils,” répond alors le père, "C'est moi,” (1) dit le tambour, " c'est Bilboquet,17 à qui vous

* Le fondateur c'est votre frère, avez promis qu'on lui donnerait la croix, quand il aurait de la

Et vous êtes lo conquérant."17 FLORIAN. barbe au menton. En voici une qui est fameuse, j'espère.18 . .. Allez, allez (m), je n'y ai rien épargné; il y en a pour (n)

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISES. votre argent, et vos vingt francs y ont passé."

1. Combien de personnes y avait- | 10. Que faisait l'ainé, un soir s Le général demeura stupéfait de tant de courage et de finesse

il dans cette famille ?

côté de son père ? à la fois.l' Il prit (o) la main à Bilboquet, comme s'il eut été 2. Quelle était leur habitation ? 11. De quoi le cadet s'occupaitun homme et lui donna sur-le-champ la croix que lui-même por

3. Quelles étaient les occupations il alors ?

de ces époux ? tait à sa boutonnière, 20 et qu'il avait gagnée aussi, à force de 4. Où soupaient-ils dans l'été et

12. Quelle question l'ainé fit-il à

son père ? bravoure et de services. Depuis ce temps, les anciens du régi dans l'hiver ?

13. Lo père lui répondit-il sur-lement saluaient Bilboquet avec amitié, 21 et le tambour-maitre ne 5. Que recommandaient-ils à leurs champ? lui donna plus de coups de canne.

enfants ?

14. De quoi le cadet était-il E. MARCO DE SAINT-HILAIRE. 6. De quoi leur parlaient-ils? joyeux ?

7. De quelle manière égayaient- 15. Que dit-il ? COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

ils leur conversation ?

16. Que fit alors l'aîné? 1. La destruction du pont était- 12. Que se passa-t-il aussitôt? 8. Quel était le caractère de 17. Quelle fut enfin la réponse da elle nécessaire ? 13. Que vit-on parmi les débris l'aîné?

père ? 2. Qu'est-ce que le général voulut qui surnageaient ?

9. Le cadet ressemblait-il à l'aîné? faire ?

14. Que s'empressa-t-on de faire 3. Que se passa-t-il lorsque les alors?

NOTES. sapeurs allaient s'embarquer ? 15. Pourquoi le général fut-il sur

(a) Coulaient, spent.

1 (h) From lire. 4. Qu'est-ce qui ne paraissait pas

pris ?
(b) From vivre.

(i) From rire.
probable ?
16. Que dit-il au petit tambour ?

(c) Partageant, from partager, () Se plaisait, delighted. 5. Qu'allait-on faire alors ? 17. Que répondit Bilboquet ?

sharing.

(6) Soigneux, desirous. 6. Que vit-on tout à coup ? 18. Que dit-il en montrant sa (d) From recueillir.

(1) Faits, deeds. 7. Que fit ce soldat ?

barbe?

(e) Leurs tisons, their fire; literally, (m) Il n'en respirait pas, he hardly 8. À quoi le reconnut-on pour un 19. Quel sentiment le général

fire-brands.

ventured to breathe. sapeur ?

éprouva-t-il ?

() The ils is here a poetical li- (n) From interrompre. 9. Le régiment le regardait-il ? 20. Comment récompensa-t-on cence; the pronoun should be! (0) Prom pouvoir. 10. Que faisaient les ennemis pen notre héros?

elles, as it relates to rertu andí () Se fâche, gets angry. dant ce temps-là ?

21, De quelle manière fut-il traité sagesse, which are feminine. (9) From détruire. 11. Arriva-t-il enfin au pont ! après, par les anciens du régiment? (9) Né, by nature ; literally, born ;

from naître. NOTES. (a) From voir.

6) Surnagent, float. (6) Entrainer, throw down, (k) Se dirigeant vers, swimming

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. (c) From paraitre. towards.

EXERCISE 83 (Vol. I., page 394). (d) From pouvoir. (1) C'est moi, It is I.

1. To whom did your sisters apply? 2. They applied to me. I (e) A, by.

(m) Allez, allez, I assure you ; liter. Have they not made a mistake? 4. They have made a mistake. 5. () From suirre.

ally, go, go.

Did you perceive your error ? 6. I have not perceived it. 7. Did (9) From faire.

(n) Il y en a pour votre argent, you become weary of the country? 8. We became weary of it. %. (h) En, on that account,

thero is the north of your money. Did those young ladies become weary of remaining at your house? (i) From abattre. (0) From prendre.

10. They did. 11. What did you use for writing, Miss ? used a gold pen.

13. Did not those scholars uso steel pens? 14. LE CHÂTEAU DE CARTES.

They used silver pens. 15. Did the Dutch lady sit down? 16. She

did not sit down. 17. Has a misfortune happened to her? 18. Un bon mari, sa femme, et deux jolis enfants,

Nothing has happened to her, she is not very well. 19. Has she not Coulaient (a) en paix leurs jours dans le simple ermitage? given herself trouble for nothing? 20. Has not that silk sold well ?

12. I

21. It has sold very well.22. Has it not been fine wenther the whole me. 23. Is it too light? 24. It is too dark. 25. Dark colours never day? 3. No, Sir, it has rained, snowed, and hailed. 24. Has nothing become me. happened to the two ladies whom we have seen this morning ? 25.

EXERCISE 88 (Vol. I., page 406). No, Madam, nothing has happened to them.

1. Vos amis s'en sont-ils allés ? 2. Ils ne s'en sont pas encore EXERCISE 84 (Vol. I., page 394).

allés, ils sont encore ici. 3. À quelle heure Mme. votre mère s'en 1. A-t-il pla avjourd'hui? 2. Il n'a pas plu, mais il a grêlé et neigé. est-elle allée ? 4. Elle s'en est allée ce matin de bonne heure. 5. . Est-il arrivé quelque chose à votre petit garçon? 4. Il ne lui est

Votre petite scur s'en est-elle allée tard ? 6. Elle s'en est allée trop rien arrivé, mais il est malade aujourd'hui. 5. Votre seur s'est-elle assise tôt. 7, La robe neuve de Mlle. votre seur lui sied-elle ? 8. Elle ne

lui sied pas.

9. Pourquoi ne lui sied-elle pas ? 10. Les conleurs chez vous ? 6. Elle ne s'est pas assise, elle était malade. 7. Ce drap s'est-il bien vendu? 8. Il s'est très-bien vendu, nous l'avons tout

vendu foncées ne lui siéent jamais. 11. Les couleurs claires siéent-elles à

12. Elles lui siéent fort bien. 13. Vos 1. Vous êtes-vous aperçu de votre erreur? 10. Nous nous en sommes l'épouse de M. votre frère.

14. Elles ne aperçus. 11. Mlles, vos sæurs ne se sont-elles pas trompées dans cette bottes neuves sont-elles trop étroites ou trop larges? affaire ? 12. Elles ne se sont pas trompées. 13. Vos cousines ne se sont sont ni trop étroites ni trop larges, elles vont très-bien. 15. Le gilet elles pas ennuyées à la campagne? 14. Elles se sont ennuyées chez mon

de votre frère lui va-t-il bien? 16. Il lui va bien, mais il ne lui sied trère. 15. De quoi vous êtes-vous servi pour écrire vos thèmes ? 16. pas. 17. Les couleurs claires ne lui siéent jamais. 18. Votre habit Je me suis servi d'une plume d'or, et mon frère s'est servi d'une plume vous serre-t-il? 19. Il ne me gêne pas, il est de beaucoup trop large. d'argent. 17. Vous êtes-vous servi de mon canif? 18. Je m'en suis 20. À qui est cette maison ? 21. Elle est à mon père et à mon frère. krvi. 19. Que vous est-il arrivé? 20. Il ne m'est rien arrivé. 21.

22. À qui sont les livres que vous avez apportés ce matin ? 23. J'ai

24. À qui sont ces Yme. Fotre mère s'est-elle bien portée ? 22. Elle ne s'est pas bien apporté ceux de mon frère et ceux de ma sœur. portbe. 23. Vos frères se sont-ils appliqués à leurs études à l'école?

robes ? 25. Elles sont à ma mère, à ma sœur, et à ma cousine. 26. 24. Ils se sont appliqués à leurs études et ils ont fini leurs leçons. 25.

Ces livres allemands ne sont-ils pas à vous ? 27. Ils ne sont pas à Quel temps a-t-il fait ce matin? 26. Il a fait très-beau temps.

27 moi,

ils sont à mon ami. 28. Ces plumes sont-elles à vous ou à moi ? Mle, votre sour s'est-elle donné beaucoup de peine dans cette affaire ?

29. Elles ne sont ni à vous ni à moi, elles sont

mon frère. 30. Ce

31. Oui, Monsieur, il me va bien, mais il 38. Elle s'est donné beaucoup de peine pour rien. 29. Les Hollandaises chapeau vous va-t-il bien ? se sont-elles promenées ? 30. Elles se sont promenées ce matin. 31.

ne me sied pas. 32. Votre chapeau est-il-trop petit ? 33. Il est trop Jusqu'où se sont-elles promenées ! 32. Elles se sont promenées jusque grand. 34. Vos gants sont-ils trop grands ? 35. Ils sont trop petits, chez M. votre frère. 33. Vous êtes-vous donné la main ? 34. Nous

je ne puis les mettre. Bous sommes donné la main, 35. Ces dames se sont beaucoup flattées.

EXERCISE 89 (Vol. I., page 406).
EXERCISE 85 (Vol. I., page 405).

1. What is it necessary to do to-day? 2. To-day it is necessary to

work. 3. Has it been necessary to work much, to finish the work in 1. Is your mother loved by her sister? 2. She is loved by her

time? brother and by her sister. 3. Are the Italians loved by the French? must we write to our friend ?

4. It has been necessary to work the whole day, 5. When

6. It is necessary to write to him Are not your scholars blamed? 5. They are blamed sometimes. to-day. 7. Must I go to my father ? 8. You must go to him, he d. An they often punished? 7. They are seldom punished. 8. By wishes to speak to you. 9. Does he need anything? 10. He needs whom are you punished when you are idle ? 9. I am never punished. books, pens, and ink. 11. Does he not need money also ? 12. Ho 10. Has his conduct been approved ? 11. It has been approved by needs much to pay those debts. 13. Do you need anything more? Everybody. 12. It has been approved by his friends. 13. Is that

14. I need nothing more, I have all that I need. 15. Must not your anthor esteemed? 14. He is esteemed by everybody. 15. Is the

sister have paper? 16. She needs no more. 17. What must be sent bookbinder's garden to be sold or to be let? 16. They say that it is

to the surgeon ? 18. Money must be sent him, he has great need of it. to be let. 17. Has the joiner had a coat made? is. He has had

19. Has the milliner all that she needs ? 20. She has not all that she two made. 19. Are the coats which you have bought worn out? 20. needs. 21. How much must you have? 22. I must have five francs. They are worn out, I have had others made. 21. Is it said that our

23. Do you not need more? 24. I need no more. 25. What must he friends are loved by everybody? 22. People do not say so, for people have for his trouble? 26. He asks for one franc twenty-five centimes. do not believe it. 23. Are the ladies whom we saw at church last evening, sisters! 24. They are not, it is said that they are cousins.

EXERCISE 90 (Vol. I., page 406). 25. It is said that the officer who is just arrived is called s.

1. Que nous faut-il faire ? 2. Il vous faut apporter votre livre, et EXERCISE 86 (Vol. I., page 405).

apprendre votre leçon. 3. Faut-il écrire à M. votre frère aujourd'hui ? 1. Etes-vous blâmé ou loué? 2. Je ne suis ni blâmé ni loué. 3. 6. Il a fallu lui parler. 7. Faut-il aller à D. aujourd'hui? 8. Il faut

4. Il ne faut pas lui écrire. 5. A-t-il fallu parler à M, votre père ? Vetre cousine n'est-elle pas estimée de tout le monde ? 4. Elle n'est

y aller. 9. Me faut-il aller trouver Mlle. votre seur? 10. Il vous stimée de personne. 5. Qu'a-t-on dit de mon frère ? 6. On n'a rien faut aller la trouver, elle désire vous parler. 11. Combien d'argent dit de Ini. 7. Savez-vous si la maison de votre frère est à louer ? 8.

faut-il à votre frère ? 12. Il lui faut dix francs cinquante centimes. On m'a dit qu'elle est à vendre. 9. Un paresseux n'est-il pas à plaindre ?

13. Combien de livres faut-il à Mlle. votre scur? 14. Il lui faut 14. Le paresseux est à plaindre. 11. Votre fils est-il quelquefois puni i l'école? 12. On le punit toujours quand il est paresseux. 13. Vos

beaucoup de livres, elle lit beaucoup. 15. Que voulez-vous envoyer iscaliers sont-ils loués quand ils sont diligents? 14. Ils sont loués malade. 17. Ne lui faut-il pas du papier ?

au chirurgien ? 16. Il nous faut lui envoyer notre cheval, le sien est

18. Il lui en faut, il a des quand ils sont diligents, et ils sont blâmés quand ils sont paresseux. lettres à écrire. 15. Cette dame est-elle estimée et respectée ? 16. Elle est aimée, es

19. Lui en faut-il beaucoup ? 20. Il lui en faut une

main. 21. Vous faut-il encore quelque chose? 22. Il me faut encore tinée et respectée de tout le monde. 17. Que vous a-t-on dit? 18. quelque chose. 23. Il ne me faut plus rien. 24. Vous faut-il cent On nous a dit que M. votre frère est respecté de tout le monde. 19. Madame, etes-vous la sour de M. S. ? 20. Non, Monsieur, je ne la

francs ? 25. Il me faut dix piastres. 26. Que faut-il au chirurgien ?

27. Il lui faut de l'argent pour payer ses dettes. 28. Le tailleur a-t-il snis pas. 21. Madame, êtes-vous contente de la conduite de votre ! 22. Non, Monsieur, je ne le suis pas, car il est blâmé de tout

tout ce qu'il lui faut ? 29. Il n'a pas tout ce qu'il lui faut. 30. La le monde. 23. Comment ce gros homme s'appelle-t-il? 24. On dit

modiste a reçu tout ce qu'il lui faut. 31. Que vous faut-il pour votre qu'il s'appelle H. 25. Comment M. votre frère s'appelle-t-il? 26. n

peine ? 32. Combien vous faut-il ? 33. Combien nous faut-il ? 34. X'appelle Jacques.

Que me faut-il faire ? 35. Il vous faut écrire une lettre. 36. Que 27. Vous a-t-on dit que mon frère est arrivé ? 28.

lui faut-il écrire ? 37. Il lui faut écrire quatre pages. 38. Il lui faut On nous l'a dit. 29. Les marchandises que votre frère a apportées, aller à l'église. wat-elles å vendre ? 30. Elles ne sont pas à vendre. 31. Le relieur l'eut-il fait faire un habit ? 32. Il en a fait faire un.

EXERCISE 91 (Vol. II., page 10).

33. Son autre kabit est-il usé ? 34. L'habit qu'il a acheté l'année dernière est usé. 1. Does it become you to reproach us with our neglect? 2. It EXERCISE 87 (Vol. I., page 405).

becomes me to reproach you when you deserve it. 3. Does it suit you

to go to my brother? 4. It does not suit me to go to him, I have 1. Do not your boots fit well? 2. They do not fit me well, something else to do. 5. How much may that field be worth? 6. they pinch me too much. 3. Are they too narrow?

4. They are too It may be worth about twenty thousand francs. 7. Are you better Darrow and too short, they hurt me. 5. Is the shoemaker gone away? than your brother? 8. My brother is much better than I. 9.' Is

He is not yet gone away. 7. At what hour did your sister's com not that knife worth more than yours ? 10. Mine is better, it is panious go away? 8. They went away about six in the afternoon. 9. worth more. 11. How much is your watch worth? 12. It is not Is the cont which you hold yours or your brother's ? 10. It is neither worth much, it does not go well. 13. How much is the merchant is nor mine, it is my brother-in-law's. 11. Does it fit him well? worth ? 14. I ondnot tell you exactly, he is worth about a hundred . It its him very well, and becomes him well. 13. Where has he thousand francs. 15. Is it not better to remain here than to go to bi it made? 11. He had it made in France or in Germany. 15. market? 16. It is better to go to market. 17. Is your gold chain Wasse books are those which your sister rends? 16. They are mine. worth more than mine? 18. It is worth quite as much. 19. It is not 17. Does your waistcoat fit better than your brother-in-law's? 18. It worth much, it is broken. 20. Is that worth fifty francs ? 21. It is its > nach better. 19. Does not your cont hurt you 20. It worth at the most two francs. 22. Have you asked the merchant cause hurt me, it is by far too wide. 21, Have you tried on your what that is worth? 23. I have not asked him. 24. He assures me new cout? 22. I have tried it on, but the colour does not become that it is worth about one hundred francs.

POTASSIUM.

EXERCISE 92 (Vol. II., page 10).

The usual method of obtaining this compound is by boiling 1. Combien ma maison vaut-elle ? 2. Elle vaut une vingtaine de one part of potassium carbonate with twelve parts of water, mille francs. 3. Ce cheval-là vaut-il autant que celui-ci ? 4. Ce cheval and adding slaked lime made from two-third parts of quick. ci vaut deux cents piastres, et celui-là trois cents. 5. Vaut-il la peine lime. The reaction isd'écrire à M. votre frère ? 6. Il n'en vaut pas la peine. 7. Vaut-il

K,OCO + H,00a0 = 2 (HKO) + CaOCO,. la peine de sortir, quand on n'a pas envie de se promener ? 8. Il n'en vaut pas la peine. 9. Vous convient-il d'écrire deinain à mon The calcium carbonate (chalk) sinks to the bottom, while the frère ? 10. Il ne me convient pas de lui écrire. 11. Vous sied-il de clear liquid is decanted and evaporated without contact with the me reprocher ma négligence ? 12. Il me sied de vous blâmer, quand air. The residue may be cast into sticks, but the fusion should vous le méritez. 13. De combien cet homme est-il riche ? 14. Je be carried on in silver vessels. ne puis vous le dire au juste, d'une cinquantaine de mille francs. 15.

It deserves the name * caustic" from its severe action on Ce drap est-il bon ? 16. Non, Monsieur, il ne vaut rien. 17. Votre

animal tissues. fusil vaut-il autant que le mien ? 18. Oui, Monsieur, il vaut davantage. 19. Voulez-vous aller chez mon père? 20. Non, Monsieur, j'ai autre

Potassium Carbonate (K,OCO.).—This is imported from the chose à faire. 21. Vaut-il mieux aller au marché de bonne heure que forests of Russia and America in large quantities as pot-ashes or tard? 22. Il vaut mieux y aller de bonne heure. 23. Combien votre pearl-ashes. cheval peut-il valoir ? 24. Il ne vaut pas beaucoup, il est très-vieux. To render it pure it is calcined like potassic hydrate. It is 25. Votre montre est-elle meilleure que la mienne ? 26. Elle ne vaut a strong alkali, and if exposed long enough to the air, absorbs pas grand chose, elle ne va pas. 27. Ce livre vaut-il deux francs ? 28. moisture and becomes an oily liquid. By passing a current of nl en vaut un, au plus. 29. Avez-vous demandé à votre seur eombien carbonic dioxide through a solution of this salt, one of the vaut ce livre ? 30. Je ne le lui ai pas demandé. 31. Que me faut-il atoms of K may be replaced by one of H, forming hydric potas l'argent ? 34. Il lui en faut. 5. Na t il pas vendu

son cheval? 36. sium carbonate #poco.. This salt is not so soluble as the Il l'a vendu, mais il ne valait pas beaucoup.

carbonate, and is almost neutral, having no effect on reddened

litmus paper. LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XVIII.

Potassium Nitrate, Nitre, or Saltpetre (KNO) is found as a CLASS I.-METALS OF THE ALKALIES.

efflorescence upon the soil in certain districts in the East Indies.

The soil favourable to its production is of a loose limy nature, SYMBOL, K-ATOMIC WEIGHT, 39-1--SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 0-865—MELTING necessity there must be present more or less organic matter

. mixed with decomposing felspar, which contains potash, and of POINT, 62-5°

The process by which the salt is produced is called " nitrificaSIR HUMPHRY Davy, in 1807, included this metal in the list tion, and is little understood. It is supposed that the decom of brilliant discoveries which he made by means of the electro- posing organic matter which contains nitrogen gives off ammonia; lytic action of the galvanic current. He slightly moistened that this ammonia becomes oxidised into nitric acid, which with some hydrate of potash, in order to render it a conductor, and the potash forms nitre. In Sweden, the farmers have " nitre then applied to it the poles of a strong battery. At the nega- plantations,” that is, they throw all the refuse of their farms, etc., tive wire the metal potassium appeared.

into a heap, which they continually turn to expose it to the air. The preparation of the metal may be conducted with much After three years, the bed is lixiviated, or washed with water

, less expense by either of the following processes :

To this water pearl-ash is added, by which the nitrates of lime 1. Melted potassic hydrate is allowed to run over iron turn- and magnesia are decomposed, and the nitrate of potash formed. ings in a bent gun-barrel, which is raised to a considerable Upon evaporation the nitre crystallises out, the insoluble car. temperature in a charcoal furnace. The iron deprives the bonates having fallen. potash of its oxygen, and the metal potassium passes over in Saltpetre contains nearly one-half its weight of oxygen, with vapour, which is condensed in naphtha.

which it readily parts when in contact with carbon. To this 2. The present mode of procuring the metal, however, was property it owes its commercial value, it being the chief ingreinvented by Curandau. It consists in intimately mixing 69 dient of parts of potassic carbonate and 12 parts of carbon. This Gunpowder, a compound which is said to have been discovered mixture is heated in a crucible, and then the porous mass is about o1336 by a certain Cordelier monk of Breslau, named broken into small pieces and introduced into an iron retort, Berthold Schwartz. This is unlikely, for the Arabians and whieh is submitted to a high heat.

Chinese had used an explosive substance for many centuries, K,OCO + 2C = 3CO + 2K

and even Roger Bacon, who died about 1294, in his treatise explains the action and intimates that the mixture is entirely gunpowder. Our English

powder consists of 75 parts of nitre, 15

“De Nullitate Magiæ,” gives a receipt for making a kind d converted

into carbonic oxide and potassium. The delivery tube of charcoal, and 10 of sulphur. The process of manufacture from the retort projects a few inches out of the furnace, and carried on at the Government mills at Waltham Abbey is the dips into a receiver of naphtha, which is kept cool by being sur

following: rounded by water. Properties.--At ordinary temperatures potassium is a soft The charcoal is that of alder-wood; the proper proportien of

The ingredients are with great care procured perfectly pare, metal. When cut, it is found to be of a white colour. It has each to make a " charge” of 52 lbs. is taken and ground great affinity for oxygen, and will at a red-heat deprive almost any gas of that element. As we have seen, it can even decom. mixed, and water is added to make them into a paste; this is

separately into impalpable powder. The powders are then pose water, the heat evolved in the action being sufficient to set placed beneath two broad wheels

fixed on the same axle, one of fire to the escaping hydrogen, the flame of which is tinged by which rolls within the other, on a smooth iron plate. By this the beautiful purple colour which is characteristic of the “ potash " incorporating

mill” the ingredients are thoroughly mixed

, and flame." Potash is the widely-diffused oxide of potassium. It takes square inch; the press cake” thus produced rings, when struck,

the paste is then submitted to a pressure of 70 tons on the its name from the fact that it is obtained from the

“ ashos” of like a piece of metal. This cake is next broken by spiked the wood with which the “ pot” has been boiled. Plants have rollers, and the grains sifted on sheets of parchment, perforated the power of abstracting potash from the soil. It is a con with different sized holes; these being placed one above the other, stituent of granite rocks, from which all soils are originally the large grains are delivered into their proper receptacle from solved by the water, and upon evaporating this solution “Pearl- powder in this condition is of a dull leaden colour, and is glazed ash” is obtained, which is really not potash, but an impure by being placed in a barrel which revolves

very rapidly on its carbonate of potash, and forms one of the sources from which axis;

the grains polish each other by mutual friction ; occasionour potassium and its salts are derived. Potassic Hydrate, or “ Caustic Potash" (HKO).-If thin slices the powder less liable to contract damp.

ally a little

black-lead is added. This latter process renders of potassium be exposed to dry oxygen, Potassium Monoxide

When ignited the following reaction occurs :(K,O) is formed—a white, brittle substance. It absorbs moisture with avidity, forming potassic hydrate (HKO), in which it will

2KNO, + 3C + S = K,5 + 3C0 +2N ; be seen that one atom of K has been replaced by one of H. that is, the solid becomes entirely gas, with the exception of the

Borax

LITHIUM.

KS (potassium sulphide), which is dissipated in smoke. allowed constantly to trickle; this water absorbs the gas, and is These products of the combustion occupy, at the high tempera- the source of the hydrochloric acid of commerce; when the action ture of the explosion, about 1,400 times the volume of the becomes sluggish, the hydrosodic sulphate is raked out and expowder.

posed to a higher heat in a chamber of brick-work, the fluo Pulvis fulminans is a mixture of 3 parts of nitre, 2 potassium from which also enters the vertical flue. By this means tho carbonate, and 1 sulphur, which, when heated on an iron shovel | atom of hydrogen which is associated with the sodic salt is antil fusion takes place, explodes violently.

driven off, thusOf the other salts which potash makes with every acid Potas

HNSO. + NaCl = Na,so, + HCI. sium Chlorate (KCIO,) is the most important. It is procured by submitting a mixture of potassium carbonate and slaked This sodium sulphate which is the result of this process is lime, moistened, to the action of chlorine gas; the chlorate known as salt-cake. formed is separated by lixiviation and crystallisation.

2. Soda-ash Process.--The salt-cake is ground up with an Potassium combines with the halogens and sulphur, when equal weight of chalk (CaoCo.) and half its weight of coal. heated with them, forming many salts of great medicinal The mixture is then submitted to the heat of a “reverberatory' value.

furnace--that is, it is spread on a hearth, over which the flamo All the salts of potassium, if introduced on a platinum wire of the furnace passes. The mixture melts, and these two reacinto the reducing flame of the blowpipe, impart to the flame a

tions take place :purple tinge; and with bichloride of platinum, a concentrated

1. Na,so, + 4C = Na,s + 4CO. solation containing potash gives a yellow precipitate.

2. Nags + Caoco, = Na,oco, + Cas. SODIUM

The calcium sulphide and the other impurities being insoluble, STYBOL, Na-COMBINING WEIGHT, 23-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 0.97—

the sodium carbonato, or soda-ash, is washed out. Soda MELTING POINT, 980.

crystals, used in washing, are got by saturating a solution with The discovery of sodium was immediate upon that of potassium. soda-ash, and allowing it to crystallise. The metal is obtained frm sodium carbonate by an analogous

The Bicarbonate of Soda, which is used in effervescing drinks,

Na method to that which produces potassium; it distils over with is Hoco,, and is made by exposing soda crystals to the carbonic oxide, with which, unlike potassium, it does not combine.

action of carbonic acid. Sodium is now prepared in large quantities, for it is used in

Sodium Hyposulphide (Na,OH,OH,O, + 4H,O) has the power the extrication of magnesium and aluminum from their salts. of dissolving some silver salts ; hence its employment in photoWhen thrown on water it decomposes it, but the action, unless graphy. Sodium is an element of these salts :the water be thickened by starch paste, is not sufficiently

Sodium phosphate Na, HPO, + 12H,0. violent to ignite the escaping hydrogen.

Microcosmic Salt | NaNH,HPO,. Its compounds are widely distributed in Nature. Indeed,

= Na,B,O, + 101,0. the “ spectrum analysis " would indicate that the presence of The other sodium salts are of less importance. sodium, in some form, is all but universal. The sea is its great repository, its waters containing 3 per cent. of sodium chloride, or common salt.

SYMBOL, Li.-COMBINING WEIGHT, 7-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 0-59— The Oxide of Sodium, or "caustic" soda (Na,0), may be pro

MELTING POINT, 180°. cured in a manner analogous to that which gave potash, and

Lithium is the lightest of the metals. The spectrum analysis the same is the case with the hydrate that is, by the action declares it is widely distributed. By this means it has been of milk of lime on carbonate of soda.

detected in most waters, in milk, and in tobacco. Lithium Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3), or Chili Saltpetre, is found in that chloride imparts to filame a brilliant crimson tinge. The metal country in large quantities. Indeed, the natives of Chili and itself is obtained by decomposing this salt by means of the Pera build their houses of blocks of the salt. It cannot be galvanic current. used in the manufacture of gunpowder for it is deliquescent;

Lithia (Li,O) stands between the alkalies and the alkaline however, it is of indirect use, for nitre may be made from it.

earths. Sodium Chloride (NaCl may be procured from the sea by

AMMONIUM (NH) has been noticed. evaporation, but is generally supplied by salt mines, the prin.

RUDIBIUM and CÆSIUM owe their discovery to the spectrum cipal of which are in Cheshire, Poland, and Spain. The Polish analysis. Rudibium takes its name from the red line its mine of Wieliczka is a mass of salt 500 miles in length, 20 compounds form in the spectrum. Cæsium gives two bluo in breadth, and at least 1,200 feet thick, a quantity suffi- lines. These metals closely resemble potassium. Their salts eient to supply the culinary demands of the world for ages. are widely distributed, but in very small quantities. As yet Salt when crystallised

is rock salt, or sal gem; the crystals they have no commercial and but little chemical interest. are cubic.

Sodium Sulphate (Na,80, + 10 H,0), or Glauber Salt, is re-
markably efflorescent; that is, it gives off its water and LESSONS IN GREEK.—XVI.
crumbles to powder. It has a saline bitter taste, and is used

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
as a medicinal purgative.
Its preparation will be referred to in the making of

SUPERLATIVE (from super, above, beyond, and latus, carried) is Sodium Carbonate (Na,000,), which constitutes the most which signifies the greatest degree or amount of the quality

in grammar applied to adjectives when they are in that form important of chemical manufactures. It is used in the manufacture of glass and soap, in calico printing, in softening hard the quality, is called the comparative; and the simple state

described by them. The degree below, or an inferior degreo of waters, and in the preparation of all the other salts of soda. Formerly it was procured, as potash is still, from the ash of the positive, suceet-er the comparative, and sweet-est the super

of the adjective is named the positive: for example, sweet is certain plants, but this has been superseded by its manufacture from the chloride.

lative. The process consists of two stages :

The Greek language has two forms of comparison. The first, 1. The Salt-cake Process.-A charge of five or six cwt. of and by far the most common, adds to the positive - Tepos, -tepa, diameter, and 12 inches deep at the centre. The lid of this lative; the

second adds for the comparative -iw,-iov, or -wv, -ov, phuric acid is introduced. The following reaction occurs when -os, -a, -ov, etc., respectively point out the masculine, the femi

nine, and the neuter gender.

As in Latin and English, the superlative in Greek denotes H,80, + NaCl = HNaso, + HCl.

either the highest degree of a quality, or a very high degree. T'he hydrosodic sulphate remains, and the hydrochloric acid Instead of these ordinary forms the comparative may be passes throngh the other opening to the bottom of a vertical indicated by Maxtov, more, and the superlative

by Madista, most, due, which is packed with pieces of coke, over which water is put before the adjective.

beat is applied :

THE FIRST FORM OF COMPARISON.

«ου,

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name.

N. -τερον. -τατον.

-TaTOS

Let us consider the forms of comparison of adjectives. Ινδος, -ου, δ, Indian. | Νομιζω (νομος), ΙΙ Σπαρτιατικος, -η, -69,

Καλλιας,

και, think, I hold as Spartan. Callias, & proper customary. Τιμιος, , -ον, hon

Ουδεις, -ενος, no one; oured, esteered,
Comparative -Tepos -τερά

Κυκλωψ, -ωπος, και, ουδεν, nothing. valuable.
Superlative
«τατη

Cyclops.

Πατρις, -ιδος, ή, one's Χρησιμοs,
ADJECTIVES IN -ος, -η (-ά), -ον.

| Λακεδαιμονιος, -ου, και, mother country. useful. Most of the adjectives of this class add the forms of com

8 Lacedaemonian, | Σιωπη, -ης, ή, silence, parison to the stem by means of the connecting vowel o or w. The English adverb of comparison than is represented by a The connecting vowel is o when a long syllable precedes; if a (Latin quam); thus, the son is wiser than the father, is in Greek, short syllable precedes, the connecting vowel is w. A short o vios copwrepos EOTIV 7 8 marnp. Another form of comparison syllable is a syllable the vowel of which is short ; a long syllable drops the n, and instead, as in the previous instance, of having is a syllable the vowel of which is long. Diphthongs are long, the same case after the n, than, as before it, puts the second and a vowel followed by two consonants, or one double consonant, noun in the genitive, as d vios oopwrepos Tou Tatpos cotiv. is long. A long vowel or a diphthong is said to be long by nature;

EXERCISE 53.-GREEK-ENGLISH. a vowel made long by standing before two consonants, or one double consonant, is said to be long by position. The rule is 1. Αριστειδης πτωχιστατος ην, αλλα δικαιοτατος. exemplified in these words:

Κυκλωπες βιαιοτατοι ησαν.

3. Καλλιας πλουσιωτατος

Αθηναιων. 4. Ουδεν σιωπης εστι χρησιμώτερον. 5. Σιγη ποτ' Positive. . Comparative. Superlative,

εστιν αιρετώτερα λογου. 6. Ουδεν εστι σοφιας τιμιωτερον. 7. Σοφια κουφ-ος, light ; κουφ-ο-τερος, lighter ; κουφ-ο-τατος, lightest. ισχύρ-os, strong; ισχύρ-ο-τερος, stronger; ισχύρ-ο-τατος, strongest. | απλουστατη. 9. Οι γεραιτεροι ταις των νεων τιμαις αγαλλονται.

πλουτου κτημα τιμιώτερον εστιν. 8. Η Λακεδαιμονιων διαιτα την λεπτ-ος, thin; λεπτ-ο-τερος, thinner; λεπτ-ο-τατος, thinnest.

10. Η πατρις τοις ανθρωποις φιλτατη εστιν. 11. Οι Ινδοι παλεςσοφ-ος, wise; σοφ-ω-τερος, wiser ; σοφ-ω-τατος, wisest.

τατον εθνος νομιζονται. 12. Ω παιδες, εστε ήσυχαιτατοι.

13. εχύρ-os, secure; εχύρ-ω-τερος, securer; εχύρ-ω-τατος, securest.

Οι Σπαρτιατικοι νεανιαι ερρωμενεστεροι ησαν των Αθηναιων. 14. Contracted words in -εος, -ούς, and -00ς, -ούς, undergo con- Πολλοι των χελιδονων εισι λαλιστεροι. 15. Οι δουλοι πολλακις tractions also in the comparative and superlative; the former ψευδιστατοι και κλεπτιστατοι εισιν. blend e and w into w; the latter assume the connecting syllable er, and blend it with the foregoing o; thus

EXERCISE 54.

ENGLISH-GREEK. πορφυρ-eos, purple; πορφυρ-ους.

1. The father is wiser than the son. 2. The mother is more πορφυρ-εω-τερος, πορφυρ-ω-τερος.

talkative than the daughter. 3. Virtue is the most valuable

4. Socrates was the wisest Athenian.
πορφυρ-εω-τατος,
possession.

5. The
πορφυρ-ω-τατος.
απλοος, simple;
απλούς.

Athenians were wiser than the Lacedæmonians. 6. No one of

the ancient Greeks was wiser than Aristides. 7. Men are απλο-εσ-τερος,

απλ-ουσ-τερος.
απλο-εσ-τατος,
απλ-ουσ-τατος.

quieter than boys. 8. The Lacedæmonians were very strong.

9. Swallows are very chattering. 10. The raven is very thievish. Here belong also contracted adjectives of two terminations 11. Socrates' manner of life was very simple. in -ους And -ουν, ας ευ-νοος, ευ-νους (well-disposed), ευ-νοον, ευ-νουν; Comparativo, ευνο-εσ-τερος, ευ-νουσ-τερος ; superlative, ευνο-εσ

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. τατος, ευ-νονσ-τατος.

In adjectives of the third declension, the comparison-forme The ensuing four adjectives in -alos---namely, yepalos, old; are added to the adjective stem, either immediately or by means Talalos, of old, ancient ; nepatos, belonging to the other side (of of the connecting syllable eo or 10. The adjective stem appears the river) ; o xodalos, idle-take the endings -tepos and -ratos, in either the neuter or in the genitive, after the removal of the without any connecting vowel, as

termination -0ς. .
Positive.
Comparative.
Superlative.

The adjectives in -US, -Ela, -v; in -os, -ES ; in-os, -av, as well as

uarap, blessed, affix the comparison-forms immediately to the γεραι-OS. γεραι-τερος. γεραι-τατος.

stem; asNote that pinos, loving, commonly has in the comparative

Positive. Neuter. Comparative. Superlative. μαλλον φιλος, and in the superlativo φιλτατος.

γλυκυς, Sweet,

γλυκυ-τερος, γλυκυτατος. The following adjectives in -os-namely, evoios, fair (weather);

αληθης, true, -€5, αληθεσ-τερος, αληθεσ-τατος. ήσυχος (δ and ή), quiet; ισος, like; παραπλησιος, similar; ορθριος,

πενης, poor,

πενεσ-τερος, early (in the morning); o4los, late; apwlos, in the dawn--append

μελας, black,

μελαν-τερος, μελαν-τατος. the connecting syllable ai to the stem, so that the comparative and superlative exactly correspond to the forms of the preceding, The adjectives nous, sweet, Taxus, swift, and nodus, much, take

μακαρ, blessed,

«αρ. μακαρ-τερος, μακαρ-Τατος. Positive, , Comparative.

ν,

πενεστατος.

•ES,
-αν,

as

Superlative. the second comparison-forms, namely, those in -1ων and -ων. μεσ-ος. μεσ-αι-τερος. μεσ-αι-Τατος.

The adjectives in -wv, -ov (gen. -ovos), assume the connecting Two adjectives in -0s-namely, ερρωμενος, strong, and ακράτος, | syllable εσ; for example, ευδαιμων (nom. -ον), fortunate, happy. unmixed-append the connecting syllable co to the stem, as Positive. Neuter. Comparative.

Superlative. ερρωμεν-εσ-τερος, ερρωμεν-εσ-τατος και ακρατ-εσ-τερος, ακρατ-εσ ευδαιμων, ευδαιμον, ευδαιμον-εσ-τερος, ευδαιμον-εσ-τατος. So αιδοιος, -α, -ον, modest, has in the superlative αιδοι

Adjectives in - & take as their connecting syllable partly ec The following four adjectives in -os-namely, nalos, talka

partly ισ, astive; uovopayos, eating alone; oyopayos, fond of good eating;

αφηλιξ, Genitive, αφηλίκος, growing old. and mtwxos, poor, begging-take co for their connecting syllable,

Comparative, αφηλικ-έστερος. as λαλ-ος, λαλ-ισ-τερος, λαλ-ισ-τατος.

Superlative, αφηλικ-εσ-τατος. Adjectives in -975 (gen. -ov), after dropping the ns, take the

αρπαξ, Genitive, αρπάγ-25, robbing. connecting syllable co, as

Comparative, αρπαγ-ισ-τερος.
Positive.
Comparative.

Superlative, αρπαγ-ισ-τατος.

Superlative. κλεπτ-ης, thiewish.

κλεπτ-ισ-τερος. κλεπτ-ισ-τατος. The adjectives in -ers, -ev, whose stem ends in yt, append the So also one in -ης of the third declension-namely, ψευδης, -ες

terminations - Tepos and -Tatos immediately to the stem; but in (gen. -ος, -ους), false–makes ψευδιστερος, ψευδιστατος.

the coming together of two t's the first changes into o, whereon

the foregoing v is dropped ; the process and the result may be VOCABULARY.

presented thus:-Αγαλλω, I adorn; in| Αίρετος, -ον,| Βιαιος, , -ον, violent. Pos. χαριεις, -ιεν. Gen. χαριεντ-0s, pleasing. the middle voice chosen. Δικαιος, -α, -ον, just.

χαριεντ-τερος. 1 with the dative, I Αριστειδης, -ου, o, Εθνος, -ους,

χαριεν-τερος. am proud of. Aristides.

people, nation,

Com. χαριεσ-τερος. Sup. χαριεσ-τατος.

τατος. . εστασOS.

το,

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