« 前へ次へ »
Compounds of xapus interpose w, as
remains, which indicate slow changes of species, but we pass Pos. eriyapis, bo Gen. EriXapıt-os, pleasing.
directly from highly inclined strata to systems resting horizonCoτη. επιχαριτ-ω-τερος. Sup. επιχαριτ-ω-τατος.
tally upon them—from rocks of one mineral composition to VOCABULARY.
those of a totally different character--from an assemblage of
organic remains in one stratum, to find in its neighbour immer Artn, -175, , Ætna. | EvoeBys, -es, pious. 'Opun, ons, i, im- diately above it a world of life well nigh totally distinct, and Ada, suddenly. Ευχαρις, , (gen. pulse,
only possessing a few species in common with it. These facts Arderns, -es, power - Tos), attractive. eagerness, zeal. were understood to indicate that the surface of the earth had less, weak. "HBn, -95, h, youth. Ovõe, nor, not even.
been subject to catastrophes, which overwhelmed the existing Aruxin -as, i, mis- Kpetias, -ov,d, Critias. Tlapepxoual, I pass orders of life. These periods of disorder were succeeded by fortune. Μεσοτης, -ητος, ή, by.
ages of repose, during which the usual order of things con. Αφροδίτη, -ης, the middle, mode- MpeoBus, & (the only tinued, new strata were deposited on the shattered and upheaved Aphrodite(Venus). ration.
1 cases besides the crust, and new species of life arose from the wreck of the overBabus, -ELO, -V, deep. Nonja, ŠTOS, to, a
acc. thrown world. But do the observed facts demand such a theory Bapus, -eta, -v, heavy, thought (some apegbuy, and voc. for their explanation ? Suppose, for example, that Wales
burdensome. thing in the vous, atpeoBu; in the where the oldest stratified rocks are developed, the SilurianEyrpatns, -es, selfmind).
plural, aperbers), was now submerged, and upon the present land a deposition of controlled, absti- Oplos,-n, ov,straight, old, an old man.
sediment was made, in which specimens of the various animals nent. right. KUS, -Ela, -v, swift.
now living in the Irish Channel were fossilised; and suppose EXERCISE 55.-GREEK-ENGLISH.
that, in process of time, the upheaving force lifted the ocean1. Αιψα, ως νοημα, παρερχεται ηβη, ουδ' ίππων ορμη γιγνεται | bed, and it became again dry land, whose surface was studied ταχυτερα. 2. Το γηρας βαρυτερον εστιν Αιτνης. 3. ο θανατος | by the then existing race of geologists: what would be the facts τα βαθυτατα υπνω παραπλησιωτατος εστιν. 4. Οι νεοι τοις των
which presented themselves ? A series of strata reposing hori. πρεσβυτερων επαινοις χαιρoυσιν. 5. Φιλιας δικαιας κτησις εστιν zontally upon rocks of a distinct mineral character, which were ασφαλεστατη. 6. Η μεσοτης εν πασιν ασφαλεστερα εστιν. 7. highly inclined ; the fossils of the upper rocks being utterly Οι γεροντες ασθενεστεροι εισι των νεων. 8. Bovans op ons ouder distinct from those of the lower. Would they then be warranted εστιν ασφαλεστερον. . 9. Οι κορακες μελαντατοι εισιν. . 10. in coming to the conclusion that when the period of the depoΣωκρατης εγκρατεστατος ην και σωφρονεστατος. 11. Εν ταις
sition of the Silurian had come to an end, a mighty convulsion ατυχιαις πολλακις οι ανθρωποι σωφρονεστεροι εισιν, η εν ταις
upheaved the strata, killed all existing life, and that a new EUTXIALS. 12. Κριτιας ην αρπαγιστατος. . 13. Αφροδιτη ην
creation peopled the seas with new types of life? We see how χαριέστατη πασων θεων. .
erroneous such a speculation would be.
The student must bear in mind a few prominent truths, which EXERCISE 56.-ENGLISH-GREEK.
we shall illustrate, from facts observation has procured. 1. Old age is very burdensome. 2. Nothing is swifter than
1. That no rocks can be formed on dry land. Hence the surthought. 3. Moderation is the safest. 4. No bird is blacker face of the earth may be divided into areas of deposition and than the raven. 5. The boy is swift, the man is swifter, the of non-deposition. horse is swiftest. 6. Youth is more attractive than old age. 2. That in the making of rocks no new matter is used; it is 7. The Ethiopians are very black. 8. No one of the Athenians only a re-arrangement of materials already in existence. was more self-controlled than Socrates. 9. Critias was more 3. That the material deposited in one place represents the given to plunder (robbing) than Alexander. 10. Nothing is degrading action which has taken place in another. more pleasing than beautiful flowers.
4. That at all times there have been continents and seas, for
in every class of rocks we have fossil evidence of the existence LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-III.
of land; and that the wearing down of the continents has been
the chief source of the sediment deposited upon the oceanGEOLOGICAL AGENTS-RAIN-SPRINGS-WELLS.
bed. HAVING given a general idea in the last chapter of the appear. 5. That the earth's crust has from all time been subject to anice which stratified and unstratified rocks present, we proceed local upheavings and subsidings, which have now caused the to answer the natural question, What causes have contributed to ocean-bed to become dry land, and now the dry land to be subthe composition of these rocks, and by what means have they merged. Thus, with the exception of those localities where been placed in their present positions ?
the primary rocks lie exposed, the whole surface of the earth We shall confine our attention first to the stratified rocks. has alternately served as " an area of deposition," or of “non
These rocks owe their existence to aqueous action. A casual deposition.” And even with regard to the primary rocks which acquaintance with their appearance is sufficient to indicate this ; now form the surface, we cannot declare positively that they but as we proceed we shall find that they contain, in a fossil never were submerged, for they may have been covered with state, innumerable remains of animal and vegetable life; and that sedimentary strata which has subsequently been washed off ; these are so universally the remains of marine and aquatic life, though this may generally be decided by the appearance of the that when the fossil of a land animal or a bird is discovered, it face of the rock. These are the main principles which observais considered a rare exception to the rule. No other proof is tion of existing causes has enunciated. We shall treat of these required beyond this of the fact that stratified rocks were causes in the order of their observation, taking the most imorice sediment, deposited at the bottom of seas and lakes ; in portant agent first. the course of their accumulation, shells, dead fish, occasionally
THE GEOLOGICAL ACTION OF WATER. the wody of a land animal brought down by a river, sea-weeds, corals, etc., became embedded in the sediment, and by processes, Rain.—The atmosphere is capable of holding in solution a to be described in due time, impressions were taken of them in vast quantity of water. When its temperature is raised, this the matter of the deposit then being made, and they are pre- capability of holding moisture is greatly increased ; c. the sented to us as fossils, a word which is derived from the Latin other hand, if by any cause its temperature be decreased, the fossus, " dag up."
moisture it contains first condenses into clouds ; and if the temThis action is now going on, and there is no reason for be- perature fall still lower, the minute globules of which the clouds lieving that it has ever varied, but that existing causes have are composed coalesce into drops, and descend to the earth as rain. been the agents by which all the stratified rocks have been pro The amount of water thus suspended in the firmament above duced.
us is beyond our conception. A thunder shower even has been Geologists have only lately arrived at this conclusion. At known to pour down upon a limited area as much as 200,000 first sight, many facts seem to oppose it. For when the fossi- tons of water in a few hours. liferous strata are arranged in chronological order—that is, The fall of rain varies with localities. In the equatorial when they are piled one above the other in the order in which regions Humboldt calculates that 96 inches fall annually. Here they were deposited--the series does not, as we might expect, the great solar heat causes the distillation of the ocean-waters prezent a gradation of rocks gradually passing from one mineral to be carried on with vigour. At
a latitude of 45°, the
rain-fall character to another, and containing
animal and vegetable is only 29 inches; and 15o further north, 17 inches. In the
British Islands the average is about 36 inches; but even in our | effaced, but a layer of mud is deposited upon them. In process small island the difference of the rain-fall in neighbouring locali- of time this becomes rock, and when split the rain-prints are ties is very remarkable: for instance, at Whitehaven, in Cum-exhibited, faithfully registering the fact of the shower, and berland, there fell, in 1849, 32 inches; while in the Vale of frequently showing the direction of the wind, by the cavity Borrowdale, only 15 miles distant, the fall was 142 inches- formed by the drop being deeper on that side to which the drop almost four times the amount. This is due to the position of was driven. the valley ; it is traversed by the prevailing winds, which come Springs.—Not satisfied with the work done as individuals, the loaded with moisture from the sea. The mountains condense rain-drops seek to combino their power, and collecting in cavithis moisture, and the valley receives the rain.
ties in the hills, and in the more porous rocks, form springs The most remarkable instance of this combination of local which permanently feed rivers. Although the degrading action causes is perhaps found in the case of the Khasia Hills, which of springs cannot be compared to that of rivers, yet it is by no form the southern side of the valley
means despicable; their action is of the Brahmapootsa, just as it
continuous, and every spring wears enters the delta of the Ganges.
for itself a valley, of greater or less These mountains are some 4,000 or
size, according to the length of time 5,000 feet high, and their south
it has flowed, the quantity of water flank looks over the delta towards
it discharges, and the nature of the the Bay of Bengal. When the south
rock from which it issues. monsoon blows, it traverses the
The origin of one class of springs river-flats, and arrives at the foot of
will be at once conceived by watchthe Khasias loaded with moisture.
ing a child dig a hole on the seaImpinging upon the mountains, it is
beach. The retiring tide has left driven upwards; it rises into colder
the sand saturated with water, which regions, and to a height at which
drains into the hole and soon fills it. the air is greatly rarefied. Now,
This is precisely the case with porous when air is rarified, it acquires a
rocks soaked with rain-water. If s greater power of containing heat, and
well be sunk down to the base of such consequently it absorbs its own sen
a rock, where a less porous stratum sible heat, and thus its temperature
underlies it, water will soon rise in falls. From the combination of Fig. 7.-- RAIN-PRINTS AND WORM-TRACKS IN CARBONIFEROCS the excavation. Now suppose there these causes the monsoon delivers
exist some fissure in the rock, up its moisture, and as much as
we have at once a natural well; 600 inches of rain fall on the south flank of the Khasias yearly. and as soon as an outlet is found, which is at a lower level The denuding effect of this vast quantity of water is greatly than the surface of the water, a spring will be the result. enhanced by the fact that it almost all falls in the six months Springs will be plentiful at the outcrop of a layer of clay, or in which the monsoons blow. In many tropical countries the some other deposii impervious to moisture, above which lies a fall averages 200 inches. Just as there are combinations of local porous rock, such as chalk or sandstone, which will retain the circumstances which produce unusual rain-falls, so there are rain. The reason why there is not an issue of water from the regions where the opposite effect is the result. Rainless regions whole line of the outcrop of the impermeable strata is that the are found generally in the centres of vast continents. Ere the water follows the valleys formed by the inequalities of the surwinds reach these localities they have been dried, the moisture face of the strata, so that where a spring does occur we may they earried having been condensed by mountains which inter- conclude that that is the end of a valley of which the spring vened between the seas and the centre of the continent. There may be conceived to be the river. In this instance the valley is a strip of coast-line in Chili and Peru where no rain falls, for made the river, and not the river the valley. the prevailing winds deposit their moisture on the opposite Artesian wells have thrown some interesting light on the flank of the Andes, and when they reach the countries to the underg ound system of waterworks. These wells or borings ieeward they are dry. No rain has fallen here for years, as may are made by an auger generally about four inches in diameter. be proved by the fact that houses are built of “Chili saltpetre,” When rock is reached, it is triturated by an iron rod, and the or sodium nitrate, which is a salt soluble in water; hence the débris removed by the auger. The sides of the bore are proexistence of the structures is a testimony to the rainless cli- tected by sinking iron pipes. The boring is continued until a mate. Considering that every drop of rain does a geological porous stratum is reached. The Artesian wells in the neighwork—it either carries down a grain of sand to a lower level, or bourhood of London are sunk to reach the chalk, and are about soaks into the soil, loosening it for the action of the next 320 feet deep, and they yield some 15,000,000 gallons a day; shower—it may be conceived what a vast and universal work but the water does not rise so high in the well as it used, is being carried on by drops of rain. If it required proof that proving that the chalk reservoir is not inexhaustible. the surface of the earth had always been subject to the action There is a well at Grenelle, near Paris, 1,800 feet deep. of rain, we should find it in
Frequently, in the course of the frequent discovery of rain.
the boring, a subterranean cavity prints in some of the oldest sys
is tapped, from which the water tems. Many specimens of these
rises with great force. At interesting remains have been
Tours, when the depth of 364 found in rocks of the Carbonife- Fig. 8.-IDEAL SECTION OF LONDON BASIN. AA, CHALK; BB, CLAY; feet was reached, there was a rous period. During the age in c, GRAVEL; a, SURFACE WELL; K, ARTESIAN WELL. sudden rise of water, which which the coal-fields were depo
brought up with it a quantity of sited, the atmosphere—to encourage the rapid growth of the sand, shells, branches of thorns, seeds, etc., and there was readense vegetation which characterised that epoch-must have son to believe that these came from some of the valleys of Aubeen highly charged with moisture, and, as a consequence of this, vergne, 150 miles distant, proving a cavernous connection showers of rain must have been of constant occurrence.
between the two places. Fig. 7 shows a slab exhibiting rain-prints and worm-tracks, Fig. 8 represents an ideal section of the London basin : discovered in the carboniferous green slate in Nova Scotia. a is a “surface well;" H, an Artesian well. The water from a
Sir Charles Lyell has most satisfactorily explained the pre- looks sparkling, and is more refreshing than from H; and is delesence of these rain-prints. His observations were made on the terious just in proportion as these qualities recommend it, for shores of the Bay of Fundy, where the tide rises higher than they are due to organic matter and nitrates, which the rain any other place in the world-more than 70 feet. The exten- gathers as it comes into contact with decomposing animal matter sive mud-flats are left dry for the period between the high tides. on the surface; whereas the water from u enters the chalk If a shower fall while the mud is yet soft, an impression is strata, a A, far out in the country. made, which the hot sun bakes into an enduring cast, so that Artegian welis derive their name from Artois, in France, when the next high tide covers the flat the rain-prints are not where they were first sunk.
LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.—XII. they may cross each other, which gives us the form of a pointed
arch; and the same being done throughout the whole extent of GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.
the two opposite rowe, an horizontal rod, or ridge bar, being In our last lesson we spoke of the rise, decline, and fall of at the same time placed along the points of crossing, wa Gothic architecture. Its origin, like that of some other styles, I have the appearance of a Gothic arcade. Two rods from each has not been so correctly ascertained as
post in the same row are now to be to render its historical details of much
treated in like manner, so as to form interest. It is certain that it began to
similar arches in both rows, and these be employed in ecclesiastical edifices
are also to be connected by ridge bars about the time that the Goths were
crossing the longitudinal one. Having settled in Italy, and had been overcome,
now employed two rods of each corner in their turn, by the nations which super
post, and three of each intermediate seded the Romans. This system of
one, there still remain one in the former, architecture, as we have already said,
and two in the latter, which may be diskas practised during the Middle Ages,
posed of by causing them to pass diagoand continued in use till the sixteenth
nally from the corners of each rectangle, century, when it was supplanted by the
not crossing as in the former cases, but revival of the Roman style. It was then
applied side by side, so as to form a concalled Gothic from the architects and
tinued hoop or semicircle. In this man. workmen who were supposed to bave
ner all tho rods are occupied, and a frame been engaged in the planning and erect.
is produced capable of supporting thatch ing the edifices which bear this name;
or other covering. From the imitation and it was held in contempt by the fol
of a dwelling so constructed the threo lowers of Palladio, in Italy, and of Jones,
leatling characters of Gothic architecture in England. The Gothic architecture
may be traced, namely, the pointed arch, differs essentially from the Greek, both
the clustered column, and the branching in construction and appearance. In the
roof. On principles similar to these tho latter the arrangement of the materials CHURCH OF ST. ETIENNE DU MONT, PARIS. ingenious author endeavours to account depended on their strength in masses,
for the peculiarities of the Gothic winwhich required only to be put together, dows, doors, spires, etc. But it is much to be doubted whether in simple and elegant forms. In the any theory so simple and ingenious as the preceding will account former, on the contrary, small stones and for the origin of a style which emanated from the numerous and other materials, which would have been varied applications of the deemed useless by a Greek architect, arch, whether semi-circular or were employed in the construction of edi- pointed, whether composed of fices of equal strength, and sometimes segments of circles crossing even of greater magnificence than the each other, or of other curves ancient temples; for they depended as to corresponding to Hogart!'s their stability, not on the vertical pres- celebrated line of beauty, sure of columns, or the strength of lintels which was evidently traced from pillar to pillar, but on the correct by him in the ogee or cyma adjustment of the bearings and thrusts (Greek xuua, ku'-ma, a wave)
of different arches operating in various of the ancient Greek and Set directions. Moreover, the Gothic style Roman architecture, as well WINDOW OF 15TH CENTURY.
is easily distinguished from both the as in the Gothic. This curve WINDOW or 13TH CEN. Greek and the Roman styles by its slen is in the form of the letter S without its top and bottom apTURY.
der shafts and clustered pillars, its circu. 'pendages, thus ,
lar, pointed, or angular arches and groins, . In the churches of the Middle Ages, there were to be seen, its spires and pinnacles, and its decorations,
as indicated in the preceding theory, endless which excel the latter in variety, number,
groups of small columns, immense domes, and minuteness.
complicated buttresses, lofty roofs, with bell Among the theories which have been pro
turrets, and other appurtenances. The finest posed to account for the origin of this style,
examples in Europe of the Gothic, or ogival we may mention an ingenious one which has
style of architecture, are the great catheheen suggested by Sir James Hall, in his
drals of Notre-Dame at Paris, Bourges, " Essay on the Origin, Principles, and His
Amiens, Chartres, Rouen, and Rheims. This tory of Gothic Architecture." He conceives
style, as we have observed, at first pure and that the forms of this style may have been
simple, and formed of regular curves, bederived from the imitation of a rustic dwell.
came so distorted at the close of the short ing, constructed in the following manner :
period of its existence, as to lose its very Thrust two rows of posts into the ground
nature, and it then led to the invention of opposite to each other, at an interval equal
all the extravagant productions which arose to that between the posts in the rows them
from compound arches, which were only a selves, cach post rising to the height of
degradation of the original style, and which about three intervals. Apply to each post a
soon caused its abandonment. It would be eet of slender rods of willow, thrusting them
impossible to exhibit, in diagrams, the ininto the ground at its base, and tying them
numerable details in architecture and of in two places, one a little above the ground,
sculpture which the beautiful edifices of the and the other within about a third part of
Middle Ages present, all characterised by the the height, leaving them loose from this
use of the pointed arch. We give, however, point upwards, so that they may be freely
two specimens of the rich ornamentation wed in any direction. The rods may be three
which crowded the wirdows and capitals in bomber to each of the outside corner CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME, PAEIS.
of the columns in the Gothic churches of posts, and five to each of the others, all being
the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. In placed so as to cover the inside of the posts, and give it the the sixteenth century, the Greek and Roman arts and architecappearance of a bundle of rods. It will be easy now to form ture returned, but only by such a gradual transition, that for a the skeleton of a thatched roof. For this purpose let a rod length of time the pointed arch was employed in the construction from each of two opposite posts be bent at its loose top, so that of domes, and of some other important parts of the edifice, of
which the churches of St. Eustache, and of St. Étienne du Mont, Qu'est-ce que l'Italie ?
What is Italy? at Paris, are examples. In castles built at this period of the Qu'est-ce que le jardinage ?
What is gardening? Renaissance, such as those of Écouen and of Gaillon, the chapel
3. Que is used idiomatically in a number of sentences. In was Gothic, whilst the rest was classical. The ancient archi- the following it gives greater force to the expression :tecture has extended its power over the civilised world, from the Cesont de bons livres que les vôtres, Yours are indeed good books. Renaissance period to the middle part of the present century, Je dis que oui; je crois que non, I say yes; I believo not. when a reaction took place in favour of the Gothic style of architecture, especially for ecclesiastical buildings.
RÉSUME OF EXAMPLES. The severe study of the monuments of Greece and Italy in Qui sont ces messieurs qui parlent Who are those gentlemen who speak modern times, tends to preserve and extend the taste for the
à M. L.?
to Mr. L.? ancient orders of architecture, as being more durable in their ce sont mes cousins, qui viennent They are my cousins, who are just effects, more easy in their construction, and more economical De quel pays sont ces marchands ? Of orhat country are those merchants ?
arrived, in their expenditure, than the Gothic style. The recent desire Ce sont des Polonais ; ils viennent They are Poles; they are just arto restore the architectural monuments of the Gothic period,
d'arriver. has led to an extraordinary study of its ancient examples, and Ils ne sont pas Polonais ; ils sont They are not Poles'; they are Rrehas produced in some enthusiastic minds a wish to substitute Russes.
sians. this style of architecture for those which have regulated the ce ne sont pas des Polonais; ce They are not Poles; they are Ruesplendid edifices of Europe for three centuries. Without sont des Russes
sians. attempting to depreciate a style which is consitlered particularly Qu'est-ce que la Touraine ? What is Touraine ?
It is the garden of France. adapted to religious edifices, it is difficult to imagine that it will c'est le jardin de la France. prevail, for any lengthened period, over those orders of architec- Votre fenêtre no donne-t-elle pas does not your window look on the ture which, by their strength and solidity as well as massive Non, c'est sur la cour qu'elle donne. No, it looks on the yard. elegance, far surpass their resuscitated rival.
Je crois que oui; je crois que ron. I believe 80; I believe not, In one of the annexed engravings, the reader will find a representation of one of the finest examples of the true Gothic
VOCABULARY. style of architecture already mentioned, viz., the Church of Notre- Bris-er, 1, to break. Ecossais,-e, Scotch. Soieries,f.pl.,silk stufs. Dame, at Paris. This metropolitan church of the French capital Charron, m., wheels Etranger, -e, foreign. Sucre, m., sugar. is said to have been built on the ruins of a heathen temple, and
Fenêtre, f., window. Suisse, Suiss. to have been founded during the first ages of Christianity. Its Confitures, f. pl., pre- Lyon, Lyons. (chief. Surprend-re, 4, ir., to reconstruction was begun by Maurice Sully, in 1163, and the Donn-er, 1, to give, look. Roue, f., wheel.
Mouchoir, m., handker. catch, surprise.
Vol-er, 1, to steal. first stone was laid by Pope Alexander III. Jean de Chilles, master of works, undertook the south front in 1257; the north
EXERCISE 157. front was constructed in 1312, by means raised by the knight 1. Connaissez-vous ces étrangers ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, ce sont templars. Charles VII., in 1447, gave considerable sums for the les frères de notre voisin. 3. Ne sont-ils pas Écossais ? 4. Non, completion of this cathedral. The first stone of the great altar Monsieur, ils sont Suisses. 5. Ne sont-ce point des Écossais was laid in 1669, by Cardinal Noailles; and the choir, then begun qui vous ont fait présent de cette casquette ? 6. Non, Monsieur, from the designs of Mansarde, was only finished in 1714. The ce sont des Suisses. 7. N'est-ce pas votre domestique qui vous celebrated bell of Notre-Dame, the largest in France, is placed a volé du vin ? 8. Ce n'est pas lui, c'est son frère. 9. N'est-ce in the south tower; it was founded in 1685, and set up by pas lui qui a pris vos confitures ? 10. Ce n'est pas lui; ce sont Louis XIV. The cathedral was restored during the reign of ses enfants. 11. Ne sont-ce pas là les enfants que vous avez Napoleon III., the massive iron railing by which it is sur- surpris à voler votre sucre ? 12. Ce sont leurs frères. 13. Ne rounded being completed in 1868,
sont-ils pas cousins ? 14. Ils ne sont pas cousins ; ils sont In this lesson is also given a representation of one of the frères. 15. Qu'est-ce que ces soieries ? 16. Ce sont des finest examples of those churches which belong to the transi- marchandises qu'on vient de nous envoyer. 17. N'est-ce pas tion period mentioned above, namely, the Church of St. Etienne une belle ville que Lyon P 18. C'est une grande et belle ville. du Mont. This church was known by the same name in 1221. 19. N'est-ce pas là le mouchoir que vous avez perdu? 20. Je It was reconstructed about 1517; but the aisle and the south crois que oui. 21. N'est-ce pas sur le jardin que donnent vos chapel were built in 1588. The western parts were only finished fenêtres ? 22. Oui, Monsieur, c'est sur le jardin qu'elles donunder Charles IX. The communion chapel was built in 1606, nent. 23. N'est-ce pas notre charron qui a fait cette roue and Margaret of Valois, first wife of Henri IV., laid the first 24. Ce n'est pas lui qui l'a faite. 25. Ce sont nos amis qui l'ont stone of the front. These circumstances explain the mixture brisée, et c'est le menuisier qui l'a faite. of the Gothic style with that of the Renaissance which is found in this church. It is the only church in Papis furnished
EXERCISE 158. with a gallery; and is decorated with very remarkable windows, 1. Is that lady your friend's sister ? 2. No, Sir, she is a the work of Pinagrier, a celebrated artist of the sixteenth stranger. 3. Who are the two gentlemen who are speaking to century
your sister ? 4. They are Swiss gentlemen. 5. Are those the gentlemen whom you have invited ? 6. It is they (eu). 7.
Do you not know that man? 8. I know him very well; he is LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XLII.
the man who has stolen my wine. 9. What is Italy? 10. It SECTION LXXXI.-IDIOMS RELATING TO THE PRONOUNS is the garden of Europe. 11. Is not that the letter which you CE AND QUE.
intended to carry to the post-office? 12. No, Sir, it is another. 1. The pronoun ce (and not the pronouns il, elle, etc.) must 13. Is the city of Havre fine ? 14. Yes, Sir, Havre is truly a be used for he, she, they, coming before the verb to be, when large and beautiful city. 15. Is not that the man whom you that verb is followed by a noun, or an adjective used substan. have caught stealing your fruit? 16. It is not, it is another. tively, preceded by the, d, or an, by some or any understood, or
17. Is not this the cup that you have bought? 18. Yes, Sir, I
believe so. 19. Do not the windows of your room look on the by a possessive or demonstrative adjective. When the word used
street ? 20. No, Madam, they look on the garden. 21. Do n apposition with ce is plural, and in the third person, the verb is put in the plural, although ce remains unchanged not the windows of your dining-room look on the yard (cour) ? [$ 108 (2) (3)]:
22. No, Sir, they look on the lake (lac). 23. Is it that little
child who has taken your preserves ? 24. It is his brother and C'est un Polonais, He is a Pole.
sister. 25. What are those engravings? 26. They are engravCe sont des Anglais,
They are Englishmen. C'est cette dame qui m'a parlé de It is that lady who spoke to me of Scotch? 28. They are not Scotch; they are Italian. 29. Are
ings which I bought in Germany. 27. Are those gentlemen vous,
those ladies Scotch? 30. No; they are the Italian ladies who 2. Ce is used as the nominative of the verb être, in sentences came yesterday. 31. What is Marseilles ? 32. It is one of the like the following, and the conjunction que is used idiomatically finest cities in (de) France. 33. Is it not your tailor who made after it. The verb in this case is not put in the plural : that coat? 34. It is not he; it is an English tailor who made Qu'est-ce que ces enfants ? What are those children ?
it. 35. It is your friend who broke my watch.
SECTION LXXXII.-GOVERNMENT OF VERBS, ETC. vos marchandises à perte. 24. Vous et moi nous vendons tou1. In French, as in other languages, when a verb has two jours à profit. 25. Votre père, votre frère et moi, nous avons subjects in the singular, it is generally put in the plural acheté des marchandises. [$ 114 (2)]:
EXERCISE 160. L'oncle et la tante sont arrivés, The uncle and aunt are arrived. 1. Do we incommode you, my brother and I? 2. No, Sir; Votre frère et votre seur sont-ils Are your brother and sister gone ? you do not incommode us; we are very glad to see you. 3. Are partis ?
you not afraid to disturb your friend ? 4. We are afraid to 2. When a verb has two or more subjects of different persons, disturb him; he has much to do. 5. Is my foot in your way, it is put in the plural, and assumes the termination of the first Sir? 6. No, Sir; your foot is not in my way. 7. Will you and person rather than that of the second or third, and the termi- your brother go to Germany this year? 8. We intend to go nation of the second in preference to that of the third :
there, he and I. 9. He, you, and I, should write our lessons. Vous et moi irons demain à la You and I will go hunting to-mor. 10. Shonld you not, you and your friends, adapt yourselves to chasse,
circumstances ? 11. We should do so, if it were possible. 12. Vous et lui irez demain à l'école, You and he will go to school to- Do I not disturb you, Sir? 13. You do not disturb me by any
means. 14. Does not my little boy disturb you? 15. He does Sa mère et moi nous avons écrit His mother and I have written that not disturb me. 16. He disturbs nobody. 17. Does not your cette lettre,
partner sell his goods at a loss? 18. He never sells at a loss. 3. The above examples will show that, when a verb haz 19. He and I always sell at a profit. 20. Do you persist in several subjects, all of them pronouns, or partly pronouns and your resolution ? 21. Your friend and I persist in our reso.
23. artly nouns, the words moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of lution. 22. I never feel under constraint at your house. je, ta, il, ils. A pronoun recapitulating the others may, as
Be under no constraint (make yourself at home). 24. Are you in the last example, be placed immediately before the verb not wrong to incommode them? 25. I do not intend to incom[$ 33 (10) (11)]
mode them. 26. We do not like to incommode ourselves. 4. For further rules on this subject, see SS 114 and 115, and 27. My little boy and I will, perhaps, be in your way. 28. also the next section.
No, Sir; we are very glad of your company. 29. Do I disturb 5. Gêner corresponds in signification to the English to trouble, you? 30. No, Sir; you do not disturb us. 31. Do I disturb to incommode, to disturb, to be in the way, and to hurt (in speak- your father ? 32. No, Sir; you disturb no one. 33. Excuse ing of shoes and garments). So gêner means to constrain, or
me, Sir, if I disturb you. 34. Have you not been very lavish ? trouble one's self.
35. No, Sir; I assure you that your son and I have been very
economical. Est-ce que je vous gêne?
Am I in your stay?
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. Où irez-vous, votre frère et vous ? Where will you go, your brother and
EXERCISE 93 (Vol. II., page 10). you? Lui et moi irons en Angleterre. He and I acill go to England.
1. What has been taken from you? 2. My books, my pencils, and Vous, elle et lui, vous achèterez du You, she, and he will buy cheat.
my penknife have been taken from me. 3. Do you know who has
taken them from you? 4. I do not know the person who has taken Eaz et moi, nous nous sommes fait They and I have hurt our heads.
them from me, but I know that he lives here. 5. Have you asked mal i la tête.
for your books? 6. I have asked my cousin for them. 7. Has he Vous et lui, vous devriez vous prê. You and he should adapt yourselves returned them to you? 8. He has paid me for them. 9. Has much ter aux circonstances. to circumstances.
fruit been stolen from you this year? 10. Vegetables have been stolen Loi et moi, vous gênerons sans He and I will without doubt incom. from me, but no fruit has been stolen from me. 11. Have you paid doute. modo you.
the peasant for your hat? 12. I have not paid him for it, I have La cousine et moi, nous craignons My cousin and I fear to be in your paid the hatter for it. 13. Whom have you asked for information ? de vous gêner.
14. I have asked the traveller. 15. Do you know who has just knocked Je ne me gêne jamais chez mes I am never under constraint with
at the door? 16. It is Mr. L., who is asking for you. 17. For whom amis, my friends.
did you ask? 18. I asked for your brother. , 19. Hns your brother Ye vous génez pas; mettez vous à Be under no constraint; make your
paid all his debts ? 20. He has not paid them yet, because he has votre aise. self comfortable.
not received his income. 21. Have you paid him for what you Nous n'aimons pas à gêner les We do not like to incommode others.
bought of him? 22. I have paid him for it. 23. Have you not paid autres.
them your rent? 24. I have paid it to them. 25. They have paid Nous n'aimons pas à nous gêner. We do not like to incommode our
us for our house.
EXERCISE 94 (Vol. II., page 11).
1. Avez-vous payé votre propriétaire ? 2. Je lui ai payé mon loyer. À perte, et a loss. Nullement, by no Prodigue, prodigal, 3. Lui avez-vous payé les fenêtres que vous avez cassées ? 4. Je les À profit, tith a profit.
lui ai payées. 5. Le chapelier a-t-il payé tous ses chapeaux ? 6. I ne Bras, m., arm. Pardon, ercuse me. Société, f., con pany,
les a pas payés, il les a achetés à crédit. 7. Payez-vous tous les jours Déringer, 1, to disturb. Persist-er, 1, to persist. society.
ce que vous devez ? 8. Jo paie mon boucher toutes les semaines. 9. Econome, economical. Place, f., room.
Tous deux, both. Lui avez-vous payé sa viando? 10. Je la lui ai payée. 11. Qui arez.
vous demandé, ce matin ? 12. J'ai demandé M. votre frère. 13. EXÉRCISE 159.
Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas demandé mon père ? 14. Je sais que M. 1. Si nous restions plus longtemps ici, nous craindrions de votre père est en Angleterre. 15. A-t-on payé ses chapeaux au chapevous gêner. 2. Vous ne nous gênez nullement; votre société lier ? 16. On les lui a payés. 17. Vous a-t-on pris votre argent ? nous est très-agréable. 3. N'avez-vous pas été trop prodigues, 18. On m'a volé mou chapeau. 19. Avez-vous demandé votre argent VOM3 et votre frère ? 4. Lui et moi au contraire, nous à votre frère ? 70. Je le lui ai demandé, mais il ne peut me le rendre. avons été très-économes. 5. N'avez-vous pas tort de gêner il n'a pas d'argent de reste. 23. Avez-vous demandé de l'argent à M.
21. N'a-t-il pas d'argent ? 22. Il vient de payer toutes ses dettes, et te monsieur ? 6. Nous ne le gênons pas nous n'avons nalle-votre père ? 24. Je ne lui en ai pas demandé, je sais qu'il n'en a pas. ment envie de le gêner. 7. Est-ce que mon bras vous gêne, 25. Chez quel libraire avez-vous acheté vos livres ? 26. Je les ai Monsieur ? 8. Non, Monsieur ; j'ai assez de place, vous ne me achetés chez votre libraire. 27. Arez-vous tort de payer vos dettes ? génez pas, 9. Ne devriez-vous pas vous prêter aux circon- 28. J'ai raison de les payer. 29. Qui me demande ? 30. Le médecin stances? 10. Nous faisons, elle et moi, notre possible pour nous vous demande. 31. Qui frappe ? 32. Votre cordonnier frappe. prêter. 11. Ce jeune homme persiste-t-il dans sa résolution? 12. Nous y persistona, lui et moi. 13. Persistez-vous
EXERCISE 95 (Vol. II., page 42). tous deux à rester ici ? 14. Nous y persistons tous deux. 1. Did the banker receive much money last week? 2. He received 15. Cet homme est-il gêné dans ses affaires ? 16. Il était much. 3. As soon as you perceived your brother, did you not speak géné dans ses affaires il y a un an.
17. Ne vous gênez pas,
to him? 4. As soon as I perceived him, I spoke to him. 5. Here Monsieur. 18. Je ne me gêne jamais, Monsieur. 19. Est-ce you worn your new clothes already? 6. I have not yet wor them. que mon frère vous dérange? 20. Non, Monsieur, il ne me t'hauked him, and begged him to thank you. 9. Have you fourl your
7. When he gave you money yesterday, did you thank him? 8.1 I dérange pas. 21. Je ne voudrais pas vous déranger. 22. Par- books! 10. I have not found them yet. 11. Wen you came to see don, si je vous dérange. 23. Vous et votre associé avez vendu / us, did you not finish your affairs with my father? 12. I finished