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true cause of their unholy zeal in setting the church's law in having been treated badly by Philip the Fair, took an ignoble motion against her, that cause being the crushing defeat Jeanne revenge by giving his services to the foes of his country
. Darc had inflicted upon the English political influence in the Edward looked about for allies before launching forth on a country. But how came the English in the country at all? great war with France, and he secured the friendship of the Was it by way of revenge for the conquest by William the Counts of Flanders, Brabant, Namur, Gueldres, and Hainault
, Norman, or did it spring out of some after-born political and the powerful assistance of the rich citizens of Ghent, repreentanglements ?
sented by the brewer, Jacob van Artevelde. Having gained The claim of the English kings to be kings also of France these allies, and coaxed Parliament to give a large supply began to be seriously mooted when Edward III. was Prince of in aid of the war, Edward proceeded to pick a quarrel. He Wales, and when he came to the throne, the question was taken complained that Philip had helped the Scots in the late war up with ardour when once he was aroused from the lethargy between Scotland and England, and that he still protected the which in the earlier days of his reign seemed to be the fore- Scotch king, a personal enemy of his. Finally, he renounced runner of an inglorious era. In 1337, ten years after he had his homage, and defied the French king, who, knowing that been on the throne, Edward lacked occupation, and manifesting the contest must come, buckled to with a will, determined to a desire to let his energies find vent in true Plantagenet fashion, suffer anything rather than admit Edward's claim to the French listened to the advice and remonstrance of some of those about crown. him, who urged him to assert his right to the crown of France. At first matters did not go happily; the English king, who
The way in which he claimed was almost too barefaced to be elected to attack from the side of Flanders, had great difficulty written down; and while it is certain that few of those who in keeping his allies together; and though he did advance with fought on his side so valiantly and well, knew the real merits 50,000 men into French territory, he did not fight, and return. of the case, it is likely that he himself was not very expert in ing into Flanders, disbanded many of his troops. Charges to tracing his genealogy. Those who had motives of their own for the extent of £300,000 had been incurred; the money given by the war, and who hoped to win fortune and rank for themselves Parliament, and that raised by pawning the crown jewels and out of it, told him he had a righteous cause, and he, gladly con- the personal effects of the king, was all gone, and not a foot vinced, believed them. It was the custom in France, borrowed of French land had been won. The Parliament, in the king's from the Salian Franks, who had become absorbed in the nation, absence, refused supply except on the condition of redressa to exclude women from the succession to the throne, and when a grievances, and it seemed as if the royal expedition after the woman came in the direct line of succession her place was taken French crown must end in an inglorious fiasco. Suddenly by the male heir nearest related to the late king. This custom Edward appeared in London, wrang a heavy grant out of the had been sanctioned by the approval of several hundred years, Parliament, and proceeded to fit out a fresh force agaics during which time no one who founded his title through a female Philip, notwithstanding that the Parliament told him it owe had mounted the throne. When Philip the Fair died in 1314, him no allegiance as King of France, and that if won, Franc he was succeeded by his son, Louis the Stubborn, who died must ever remain a separate part of the kingdom. without male issue, and Louis's brother, Philip the Long, suc- On June 24, 1340, Edward's fleet, well manned and sound ceeded him, being himself followed in 1322 by his younger came up, off Sluys, with the French fleet of four hundred sail brother, Charles the Fair.
which Philip had prepared to intercept Edward's army in it Philip the Long had died without issue, and on the birth of descent on the coast. A bloody battle ensued. The Englis a daughter to Louis the Stubborn, the estates of France decreed were the better sailors, and manoeuvred so as to take ever her exclusion, and the exclusion of all females in future. i advantage of the enemy, who lost the greater part of the Charles the Fair's only child was a daughter, and with Charles , ships and upwards of 25,000 men. This crushing victor was extinct the direet male line of Philip the Fair. Philip's of which Edward was not prepared at the moment to tak fourth child was a daughter, Isabella, married to Edward II. of advantage, fixed an unbridgeable gulf between the gooi England, and it was taken for granted that the law of exclusion will of the two nations. National prejudice, national hatre which applied to Louis the Stubborn's daughter, married to had their birth in it, and from the battle of Sluys dates th Charles, King of Navarre, and which applied to the daughter' dreadful animus which existed down to quite recent tim of Charles the Fair, applied also to Isabella, their aunt. So between the English and French. From the same event, hov thoroughly did this opinion prevail, that when Philip of Valois, ever, dates the welding of the English nation into one hom nephew of Philip the Fair, claimed the throne on the death of geneous whole; the lords ceased to affect French ways and tl his last male cousin, his claim was allowed as reasonable and French language--which, historically speaking, was theirs-unquestionable by the whole nation, and no one so much as identified themselves with the country which was their ne thought of a claim being made on behalf of Isabella by her home. After the battle of Sluys the word " Englishman" ceas son. The exact position of affairs may be best seen from the to be a term of reproach. annexed diagram.
The battle of Sluys, the first brilliant victory of the Engli Charles of
navy, was barren of immediate result so far as Edward's clai Valois--younger brother to-Philip the Fair, .
to the French crown was concerned. As usual, when a Fren 1
war broke out, the King of Scotland broke the peace by way
diversion on his side, and Edward had to turn the whole of 1 Louis the Philip the Charles the
Isabella, married strength against his northern enemy, who was, necessarily, Stubborn, Long Fair.
to Edward II. be crushed
before a foreiga war could be carried on. In 134 died.
however, Edward, with the English nation at his back, set ter, mar
on the campaign which ended on the field of Creçy, and whi ried to the
was followed some years afterwards by the rout of Poieti King of
(1356), where the French king, John, was captured by the Bla Navarre.
Prince, and brought prisoner to London. The exhausting effo Philip of
made during the campaign were such as to prevent Edward fr Valois.
following up his splendid successes, and he was glad to arran Not only did Philip take undisturbed possession of the throne, by the Treaty of Bretigni, for a long truce. Various reas but, as a matter of course, he summoned King Edward to do, conspired to prevent the resumption of hostilities on a gre homage to him, as his liege lord, for the province of Guienne, scale during the rest of Edward's long reign. The English which belonged to Edward as feudal tenant of the French king mained masters of large portions of French territory, a Edward obeyed, rendered homage, and thus virtually acknow. I the claim of the English king to the crown was not abandon ledged Philip's right to be king. But he did so only because it but kept as a sword in the scabbard, for use at a com was not convenient to have a quarrel on his hands at the time. nient season. The son of the Black Prince, Richard of B He had a Scotch war to fight, troublesome subjects at home to deaux,
who succeeded to his grandfather's crown, did not a curb, and there was a plentiful lack of that sinew of war- ceed to his energy or his ability, and the English claim money--without which it is useless to back even the strongest virtually dormant during the whole of his reign, while claim. When these troubles were over he listened to the sug- French were employing the time in recovering from the effe gestions of Robert of Artois, a renegade French nobleman, who, I of Edward's blows, and from the disastrous results of the
rgency which continued all the years King John was in cap. governor of Orleans--the men fought with a courage which intivity. Henry IV. had not leisure from home troubles to pursue creased in proportion as her fame as a prophetess grew, and the war
, though he seems to have been desirous of doing so, struck fear into the ranks of the English. Orleans was relieved not only as King of England, but by way of paying out the by "the Maid” in person, and the garrison, now strong enough French king for his something more than neglect of him at to attack its besiegers, sallied forth and drove the English from the time he was in exile as Henry of Bolingbroke. When several of their positions. Subsequently another sally was Henry V. succeeded, he had a large stock of energy to expend, made, a bloody battle was fought, the English lost 2,000 men, 3 quiet kingdom, and a fairly stocked treasury; he had plenty and Lord Talbot, afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury, was made of brave spirits about him, and within him was an ambition prisoner. The Duke of Suffolk raised the siege, retiring to which would have taken him to Constantinople or to the capital Paris, and Charles was crowned King of France with great of the Great Mogul. He determined to assert his claim to the solemnity at Rheims. crown of France.
With these signs of returning prosperity many wavering To a king in his frame of mind an occasion of declaring war nobles and towns declared for Charles, and the Duke of Bedford could not long be wanting, and there were several causes
which had enough to do to hold Paris and the strictly English parts of alowed of his choosing his own time and opportunity. He set France. Jeanne, believing her mission to be over, was anxious about his work deliberately, sent a special embassy to France to return to her former home in Lorraine, but was over-persuaded to demand his right, and when that embassy returned from its by Dunois to remain with the army till the English should bootless errand, he prepared with diligence and the utmost cir- be driven out of France. She remained, and in a sortie made cumstance to enforce his claim with the sword. In the month by the garrison of Compiègne, was captured and given over of August, 1415, he sailed from Southampton with one of the to the English authorities. The English, partly from supersti. finest armies ever mustered in England, landed at Harfleur, tion, partly to excuse the disgrace of their defeats, said that which he besieged and captured, and then prepared to advance “the Maid” had a devil, and that she had done her work et Paris. An enemy worse than all the French armies put through magic. They hoped also by punishing their prisoner together came into his camp. Dysentery smote down hundreds not only to take revenge, but to show the French that their of his men, including some of the bravest and wisest, and so prophetess was a woman after all. weakened the remainder that they could scarcely walk. Henry The Duke of Bedford handed her over to the Church, with u obliged to abandon the idea of going to Paris, and gave what effect we have seen already; and from the moment of her aders for a march to Calais, whence he proposed to embark his death the English power seemed to be stricken with mortal sick. enfeebled army for England. At Agincourt, the French army, ness. Place after place was wrested from them, Paris drove which had been hanging about him, barred his advance. It them out, the Duke of Burgundy forsook their alliance, and consisted of fall three times the number of the English, and was when in 1435 the Duke of Bedford died, their influence in wommanded by the Dauphin, the French king's eldest son, and France was at a very low ebb. A war of reprisals was carried be the flower of the French nobility. The French were confident on till 1443, and then a truce was agreed upon which either side of victory, the English were in a desperate case, and the battle broke or kept as it suited their convenience. tas joined with an amount of fury seldom witnessed even in Then came the English Wars of the Roses, during which hose days. The French were utterly routed (October 25, 1415), disastrous period the claims to France were not thought of, and rast nambers of them were slain, and the shattered remains it never happened to any prince after Henry VI. to have the English army parsued its march unmolested to Calais. power or opportunity to pursue the right which was never
In the next campaign, which was not undertaken till two formally renounced. Kings of England continued, nevertheyans afterwards, Henry met with but little resistance in the less, to write themselves down kings of France, even after open country of Normandy, though Rouen was stoutly defended. the loss, in Mary's reign, of their last remaining possession, He redaced Rouen and other towns, and marched to Paris, Calais. Indeed, it was not, as stated at the beginning of this which he mastered, and dictated terms in the capital of his paper, until George III. ascended the throne that the title apany. The French king, Charles VI., was imbecile, and the peared to those interested so ridiculous that it was ordered to Treaty of Troyes, to which the Dauphin refused to be a be expunged from the style and description of his Majesty of party, provided that Charles should be called King of France Great Britain, during his lifetime, but that Henry should really administer the government, and that after Charles's death he and his sucSESSORS should be acknowledged as kings of France. Henry
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXIX. strengthened the band by marrying Catherine, daughter of the
ASIA. French king, and during the rest of his life he did actually rule Position on the Earth's Surface.--Asia, the cradle of the Ta France and receive the homage of her vassals.
human race, and the original seat of the Garden of Eden, lies In the height of his power Henry was struck down with fistula, within the northern and eastern hemispheres, and to the east which the doctors could not cure. He died, still a young man, and and south-east of Europe. The greater part of this continent eft his son, an infant of nine months old, to the guardianship of lies
within the north temperate zone ; the exceptions being part the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Warwick. This was in of Siberia, which lies within the north frigid zone, and parts of 1492. For five years Bedford, who managed with singular tact | Arabia, Hindostan, Further India, and China, which lie within sri prudence, succeeded in keeping things pretty straight, in the torrid zone. pute of numerous causes of trouble and disturbance, including, Boundaries.--Asia is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean; course, the efforts of the Dauphin, who in the meantime bad on the south by the Indian Ocean and the Chinese
Sea ; on the brenome Charles VII., to regain his father's throne. Charles had east by the Pacific Ocean; and on the west by the Ural Mouna large following, especially in the south-east of France, and ha tains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Mount Caucasus, Black Sea,
s able to possess himself of a few towns of strength and Sea of Marmora, the Mediterranean Sea, the Isthmus of Suez, sportance. Orleans was of the number, but it was closely which connects it with Africa, and the Red Sea or Arabian Gulf bezieged by the English under the best of their generals, and Esctent, Length, Breadth, etc.--This continent extends from Carles despaired of relieving it, and thought of going to lat. 78° 25' N., to lat. 1° 20'S.; and from long. 26° 4' E., to Languedoc, there to make a final stand.
long. 1700 W. This shows that a very small portion of this Then arose Jeanne Darc, a peasant girl, who saw, or believed continent lies in the western half of the northern hemisphere. saw, visions of the saints, especially of St. Catherine, who Its length, from the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, at the entrance to was to her and told her she must deliver France from the tire Red Sea, to Behring Strait, between Asia and North America, persence of the English.
Her "voices," as she called them, is about 7,000 miles, measured across the continent in a straight lande her don man's attire, and directed her to fetch a certain line, as the crow flies. Its breadth, from Cape Severo, also Ford from a neighbouring church dedicated to St. Catherine. called Cape Tchelinskin, and North East Cape, in Siberia, in a Se Faz parmitted by the authorities to follow her bent, and was straight line from north to south, almost identical with the arushed with armoar and a horse. At first the regular soldiers 102nd meridian of east longitude, to Cape Romania, at the szehed at her
, but soon they got to regard her as a prophetess, 1 extremity of the Malay Peninsula, is about 5,250 miles. This basen-sent for the deliverance of France. Under her guidance continent is connected with
that of Africa, at the
Isthmus of in strictly military operations she was assisted by Danois, Suez,
which is about 80 miles
wide. The surface of Asia, in
cluding its islands, is reckoned by some to contain about The East Indies, otherwise called the islands of the Oriental, 16,626,509 square miles, and its population to be about Eastorn, or Asiatic Archipelago, have been long famous for their 712,000,000; if these approximations be somewhat near the produce; and situated under the line of the equator, or within truth, there will be, on an average, about 42 inhabitants to every the torrid zone, they yield such as cannot be found in more square mile of this division of the world; but much of it con- temperate climes. The Sanda Isles, with Sumatra and Java, tains vast deserts, destitute both of useful vegetation and with others, lie to the south of the peninsula of Further India human population. Thus, in Siberia, which is reckoned by (which, with Hindostan, is often included under the general some to contain about 5,500,000 square miles, the population, name of the East Indies); the length of Sumatra is about 1,100 scoording to a recent estimate, was scarcely more than 4,000,000 miles, and its breadth about 160 miles-it contains a surface of inhabitants; which allows only four inhabitants to every 5) about 130,000 square miles; the length of Java is about 600 square miles. On the other hand, China Proper contains about miles, and its breadth 100 miles—it contains a surface of about 1,700,000 square miles, while the population is about 370,000,000 52,000 square miles. The island of Borneo, which lies to the inhabitants; and this estimate allows about 217 inhabitants to east of Sumatra, and to the north of Java, is about 850 miles the square mile! The linear extent of the coast line of the long, and about 700 miles broad, and contains about 300,000 continent of Asia is reckoned by some at 35,000 miles, while square miles. This island is the largest island in the world. by others it is estimated at only 30,000 miles.
The island of Celobes is about 500 miles long, and about 150 The seas and gulfs of Asia, on the west and the south, form miles broad, and contains about 72,000 square miles. an important feature of its natural divisions. The Red Sea and The equator crosses each of these three islands nearly at the the Persian Galf may be called inland seas. The Red Sea, so middle of each. Next follow the Molucca Islands, called, from famous in sacred history, otherwise called the Arabian Gulf, their products, the Spice Islands, including Amboyna, 32 miles with its two arms, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akabah, over long, by 12 miles broad, and containing about 282 square miles ; the former of which the Israelites crossed on dry ground, is then the Philippine Islands, north of these, including Luzon and about 1,500 miles long, its breadth varying from 100 to 200 Mindanao; the former about 400 miles long, and about 100 miles, except in the gulfs at its northern extremity, and its miles broad, with a surface of about 56,000 square miles; and surface being about 200,000 square miles. The two arms above the latter about 300 miles long, and about 108 miles broad. mentioned are so called from the names of the towns at their North of the Philippines is the island of Formosa, belonging to northern extremities; these arms inclose between them the desert China; and the Loo-choo Islands, north-east of Formosa, subject region called the peninsula of Sinai, in which the forty years' to China. North and north-east of these islands are the Japan wanderings of the tribes of Israel were performed-fit emblem Islands, of which the largest is Niphon, about 800 miles long, of the wanderings of human life in this lower world. The and 100 broad; the next, Jesso, or Yesso, about 280 miles long, entrance to the Red Sea is by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and 200 miles broad; next, Kiusiu, about 150 miles long, and about seventeen miles wide. This sea opens out at this strait, 120 miles broad; and the next Sikoke, about 90 miles long, and through the Gulf of Aden, into the Arabian Sea, which washes 50 broad. These islands include a surface of about 265,000 the western shores of India, the southern shores of Arabia, and square miles, and form an important appendage to the continent terminates in the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at the Strait of of Asia. The other islands on the west of Asia, and in the Ormuz, through the Gulf or Sea of Oman. The Persian Gulf North Pacific Ocean, are of small size and importance. In the contains about 95,000 square miles. The Bay of Bengal, whose northern ocean there are a few islands, of which very little is waters wash the eastern shores of Hindostan or India, and the known. South of India are the Andaman and Nicobar Isles, in western shores of the peninsula of Further India, is an arm of the Bay of Bengal, and the important island of Ceylon, souththe Indian Ocean. The part of this bay which washes the shores east of the peninsula of Hindostan, with an area of about 23,500 of the British provincs of Pegu, in Further India, is called the square miles, and a population of about 1,500,000—a fine Galf of Martaban. To the east of the Indian Ocean lies the appanage of the British crown; it is separated from the peninOriental Archipelago, studded with the East India Islands. To sula of India by the Gulf of Manaar, and the strait called Palk the north of this lies the Chinese Sea, with the gulfs of Siam Strait. On the other side of Capo Comorin, the most southern and Tonquin.
point of India, lie the Laccadive and Maldive Islands, southThe channel between the Malay Peninsula and the Island of west of the Malabar coast. Sumatra is called the Strait of Malacca. Between the islands of Sumatra and Java is the Strait of Sunda, these islands SUMMARY OF BOUNDARIES. Sea of Japan, W. of Japan. being called the Sunda Isles. From the Chinese Sen to the NORTH.-The Arctic Ocean.
Sea of Okhotsk, S. of Siberia, Tong Hai, or Eastern Sea, the passage is through the Strait of SOUTH. The Indian Oceau and Sea of Kamtschatka, E. of Siberia. Formosa ; north of the last-named sea lies the Yellow Sea, whose
Bebring Sea, N.E. of Asin.
Chinese Sea. waters wash the eastern shores of China Proper; the north-west East.-The Pacific Ocean.
Kara Sea, or Gulf of Kara, N.W. part of the Yellow Sea being called the Gulf of Pe-che-lee, and WEST.- Ural Mountains,
Ural the northern part the Gulf of Leao-tong. Between the penin
River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Gulf of Yeniseisk, N.w.of Siberia.
Gulf of Obi, N.W. of Siberia. sula of Corea and the islands of Japan lies the Sea of Japan,
Mountains, Black Sea, Sea of the north part of which is called the Gulf of Tartary. North
Marmora, Mediterranean Sea,
Isthmus of Suez, and the Red Bab-el-Mandeb, S. of Red Sea. of this gulf lies the Sea of Okhotsk, or Kurile Sea, which washes
Sea. the western shores of the peninsula of Kamtschatka. On the
Ormuz, E. of Persian Gulf. other side of this peninsula is the Sea of Kamtschatka, or SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL SEAS and
Palk Strait, N. of Ceylon.
GULFS. Behring Sea, bounded on the south by the Aleutian Isles. All
Strait of Malacca, w, of Malaya.
Sundla Strait, S.E. of Sumatra. these seas and gulfs, from the Strait of Malacca to Behring Black Sea, N. of Turkey. Minor, Behring Strait, E. of Siberia. Strait, between Asia and America, are branches or arms of the Sea of Marmora, N.W. of Asia North Pacific Ocean. Behring Strait, which is reckoned by Ægean Sea or Archipelago, W. of
ISLANDS. some writers to be only 52 miles broad at the narrowest part,
Rhodes, Scio, Mitylene, in the separates the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific. In the former, Red Sea, w. of Arabia.
Levant, W. of Syria.
Archipelago. there are some gulfs which run into the northern parts of Gulf of Aden, S. of Arabia.
Cyprus, in the Levant. Siberis, namely, the Kara Gulf or Sea, with its arms, the Gulfs Persian Gulf, E. of Arabia.
Laccadives, W. of Hindostan,
Maldives, S. of Laccadives. of Obi and Yeniseisk.
Gulf of Oman, S. of Beloochistan. Ceylon, S. of Hindostan. The islands which lie around Asia are of the highest import- Arabian Sea, s.w. of India, or Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal. ance both to that continent and to the continent of Europe, to Hindostan.
Nicobar Islands, S. of Andaman which they principally belong, as colonial possessions in the east Gulf of Madar, E. of Ceylon.
Islands. of European nations. But, although we mention these islands Indian Ocean, S. of India. Haipan, S. of China.
Formosa, E. of China. at the present time, in consequence of their proximity to the Bay of Bengal, S.E. of India. mainland of the Asiatic continent, it must be remembered that, Chinese Sea, S. of China.
Gulf of Martaban, S. of Pegu. Loo-choo, N.E. of Formosa.
Japan Isles, E. of Coren. with a few exceptions, the islands that we are about to name Gulf of Siam, S. of Further India. Kurile Islands, N. of Japan. are included in the division of the earth named Oceania. The Gulf of Tonquin, E. of Further Saghalien, Sea of Okhotsk. islands that strictly belong to Asia are named in the summary India.
New Siberia, or the Liakhor Is. of islands at the end of this lesson.
Yellow Sea, E. of China.
lands, Arctic Ocean,
FIRST FUTURE TENSE.
LESSONS IN LATIN.--XXIX.
meaning; as, legendum est, it is to be read; that is, reading must THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS.
be done by some one. The subject of the action is indicated by SOME verbs of the third conjugation seem to partake of quali- pronouns in the dative case ; thus :ties of the verbs of the fourth. In the present tense the stem with
Mihi amandum est, I must love.
Tibi amandum est, thou must love. the parts formed from it is strengthened by the voweli, and so
Ei amandum est, he must love. partly corresponds to the forms of the fourth conjugation. The
Nobis amandum est, we must love, i, however, disappears before a consonant. I give a specimen
Vobis amandum est, you must love. in capio, 3, I take.
Ilis amandum est, they must love.
The participle present has often a causal force, or assigns the
times be rendered into English as if it were a verb in the indiCapis. Capias. Cape, capito.
cative mood; and sometimes as if it were an infinitive. Use Capit. Capiat. Capito.
only can make these peculiarities quite clear and easy. Plu. Capimus. Capiamus,
The participle present and the participle perfect passive are Capätis. Capiatis. Capite, capi.
used with a noun in the ablative case, forming what is called Capiunt. Capiant. Capiunto.
" the ablative absolute" (ab and solutus, disconnected, indepenIMPERFECT TENSE,
dent ; that is, in construction). Sing. Capiebam. Caperem,
Observe that the Romans employed the second person sinetc. etc.
gular when they spoke of or to a single person. Consequently,
you must translate you as if it were thou, in the English-Latin Sing. Capiam,
exercises, except when more persons than one are obviously in. Capies, etc. PASSIVE VOICE.
VOCABULARY. Sing. Capior. Capiar.
Angustix, -arum, 1, a Exprobro, 1, I reproach Publici juris factuCapēris.
with. Capiaris. Capere, capi
narrow way, narrow
est, was established.
limits. Capitur. Capiatur. Capitor.
Non supplicanti, with. Recupero, 1, I regain. Plu. Capimur. Capiamur. [piminor.
Appropinquo, 1, I ap out his entreating it. Reporto, 1, I carry of, Capimini.
tho Capiamini. Capimini, ca
Orbis terrarum, obtain. Capiuntur.
world. Capiantur. Capiuntor.
De, of, from, over.
Res-publica, rei-publi. Detrimentum, i, n., Pectus, -óris, 1., the cæ, the state (a comIMPERFECT TENSE,
breast (E. R. pecto- pound word, of Sing. Capiebar. Caperer.
Ex, out of, after.
which both parts etc. etc.
Ex labore sudanti, to Persona, -e, 1, a mask, are declined). FIRST FUTURE TENSE.
one sweating from a character,
Teter, -ra, -rum, foul, Sing. Capiar.
the effect of labour. Potio, -ōnis, f., drink
vile. Capieris, etc.
Lenio, 4, I soothe. ing or draught, Thus conjugate cupio, 3, I wish, desire ; facio, 3, I do, make ;
EXERCISE 104.--LATIN-ENGLISH. fodio, 3, I dig ; jacio, 3, I throw; pario, 3, I bring forth ; rapio, 3, I plunder ; sapio, 3, I taste, etc. ; dico, 3, I say; duco, 3, I lead; latione sger amici animus lenitus sit. 3. Non capiunt angustiæ pec
1. Amici mei unā domo capi non possunt. 2. Dic nobis quă consofacio, I do or make; fero, 3, I bear. The 2nd person singular of toris tui tantam personam. 4. Nec te orbis terrarum capiet. 5. Ca. the imperatives of the last four verbs are respectively dic, duc, piendus est mihi cibus. 6. Tibi docendum est. 7. Docens pueros, fac, fer.
valde amabëris. 8. Dic cur puer punitus sit. 9. Bellum cepit finem. Let it be again remarked that the participles in -us are de- 10. Vide ne quid detrimenti respublica capiat. i1. Dic mihi quid tibi clined like adjectives in us, thus :
a sorore scriptum sit. 12. Nullum vitium tetrius est quam avaritia, Amatus, -a, -um. Docturus, -a, -um.
præsertim in principibus rempublicam gerentibus. 13. Cogitantes cxeAmati, -e, -i. Docturi, -e, -i.
lestia, hæc nostra ut exigua contempimus. 14. Odiosum est genus Amato, -a, -0. Docturo, -e, -0.
hominum officia exprobrantium. 15. Ex labore sudanti frigidæ aquæ Amatum, -am, -um, etc. Docturum, -am, -um, etc.
potio est perniciosa 16. Vir bonus viro bono non supplicanti succur. In all instances they must agree with their nouns. So also gantur. 18. Ingens hominum multitudo in urbem congregatur, ludos
rit. 17. Ciconiæ in alienas terras migratura in unum locum congremust the infinitive passive of the past tense, as eruditum esse, publicos spectatura. 19. Omnes dolores, patienter tolerati, minus eruditam esse ; eruditos esse, to have been instructed, the parti- acerbi sunt. 20. Dux dimittit milites ob eximiam virtutem laudatos. ciple changing as the noun changes.
21. Multi juvenes in primā pueritiã a parentibus male educati, in perThe participle future in -rus is frequently used after a verb, niciem ruunt. 22. Regnante Xerxe (abl. abs.), Græci de Persis denoting motion to point out the object or design; as, veniunt splendidissimam victoriam reportaverunt. 23. Inter bonos viros et expugnaturi urbem, they come with a view to capture the city.
Deum amicitia est, conciliante natură (abl. abs.). 24. Appropin
quante hišme, multæ aves mitiores regiones petunt. 25. Recuperată Besides the conjugations now set forth, there is another recognised by grammarians. This is called the Periphrastic Con- pace, artes efflorescunt. 26. Regibus exterminatis, Romani liberam
27. Terra mutatā, mores hominum non jugation. It is called periphrastic (Greek, hepi, per'-i, about; mutantur. 28. Legibus divinis sancte observatis, vita nostra beata and opaois, phra'-sis, a speech), because it is a kind of circumlo erit. cution; the changes of idea not being expressed by additions
EXERCISE 105.-ENGLISH-LATIN. to the stem, as in the ordinary conjugations, but by two sepa 1. True friends can be received in a small house. 2. The narrow rate words. Thus such a conjugation or form is made by the limits of this house will not receive so great a character. 3. Tell me participles and the several tenses of the verb esse, to be; for what your father has said to yon. 4. Bear the water to thy mother
5. Avarice in parents who govern their houses is a grent evil. 6. Ava. Amans, amaturus, amatus, amandus.
rice blotted out, evil is blotted out. 7. Thinking of his nativa Sum, eram, ero, fui, fueram, fuero.
country, the soldier lost his life. 8. To one who is in fear (fearing), I supply the meanings of these forms :
a friend is a great solace. 9. The state being disturbed, who can be Amans sum, I am loving; the action proceeding and incomplete.
happy? 10. A large multitude of men have come to drink wine. Amaturus sum, I am about to love ; an intended and immediately Victoria (Victoria reigning, abl. abs.), the Popular EDUCATOR (Edu
11. The soldiers being praised, were dismissed. 12. In the reign of future action.
cator Popularis) was established. 13. The book being changed, you do Amatus sum, I have been loved ; completed action, passive voice.
not change your thoughts. Amandus sum, I ought to be loved; action denoting necessity in time to come.
DEPONENT VERBS. I have here limited myself to the present tense sum; changes I have already explained to you the meaning of the term deof import
are introduced by the other tenses of the verb, corre ponent in the phrase Deponent Verbs. Deponent verbs are sponding to the signification of those tenses.
passive in form, but active in signification. I have already The neuter of the participle
in -dus, commonly, but incor- informed you that there are deponent verbs in each of the rectly, termed the nominative of the gerund, has an impersonal four conjugations. Under the guidance of this information you