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VOWELS FOLLOWING CONSONANTS.

20. The first three are represented by a dot, and the last three by | tance from the consonants to which they are placed. If allowed to a short stroke or dash, written at right angles to the consonant. touch, except in a few cases, which will be explained as soon as the They are here written to the letter t, to show their respective places ; popil will require the information, they would occasion mistakes. namely, at the beginning, middle, and end of a consonant. All the vowels should be pronounced as single sounds; that is, ah as in

EXERCISE 5.-CONSONANTS AND VOWELS. almas, and not as a-aitch; eh (a), as in ape ; ee as in eel; aw as awe, shorthand character write tah, after the second teh, after the third

To be written in the Phonographic Copy Book. After the first not as e-double-you ; oh, as owe; 00 as in ooze.

21. The pupil must observe that the perpendicular stroke is no tee, and after the other three taw, toh, too; and so with the other part of the Fowel. It is the shorthand letter t, which is used as a

lines. standard, or sign-post, to show the position of the vowel. We will nou place the vowels to a horizontal consonant, k. In this case they

1. 1

l. will appear thus :1 2 3 5

2. •_ AH, · EH, •EE, _ AU, IO, 100. as in alns, ape, eat,

oak, METHOD OF PLACING THE VOWELS.

4.

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VOWELS FOLLOWING CONSONANTS.
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VOWELS PRECEDING CONSONANTS,
The longhand to be placed after the several shorthand characters

in the first line will be aht, eht, eet, aut, oht, oot. т

E

6.

1 . . ។ -1 CH

A A
7. n

I
K

T

ON WRITING PHONETICALLY.

25. The English alphabet contains but twenty-three useful letters F

(rejecting c, q, r,=s, k, ks) to represent the thirty-nine distinct

sounds of the language; the Phonetic alphabet, on the contrary, TII

provides a letter for each sound. In consequence of the deficiencies

of the English alphabet, and the unphonetic character of our orthoS D ī

graphy, the spelling of a word can seldom be taken as a guide to its ). ).

pronunciation. To write any given word, therefore, phonographically,

its several sounds must first be ascertained: the student should then i ja / write the phonographic letters which represent them. The practice

of Phonography and the reading of Phonotypy (sce Phonetic Journal)

will improve the student's pronunciation, and train his car to discri. M

minate differences in orthoepy. The following examples will serve to illustrate the principle of Phonetic writing :

t, the first stroke-vowel au, and k, [ talk. L

t, the third dot-vowel e, and m,

team.

m, the second stroke-vowel o, and t, moat. R doxa

k, the first stroke-vowel au, and I, call.

r, the second dot-vowel a, and t, METHOD OF PLACING A VOWEL BETWEEN TWO

CONSONANTS. 1 . 1

. -1 т

1 26. Vowels that are written at the commencement of a consonant, as

ah, au, are called first-place vowels ; vowels that are written in the

middle of a consonant, as a, o, are called second-place vowels; and M

vowels that are written at the end of a consonant, as ee, oo, are 22. When a vowel is placed on the left-hand side of a perpendicular called third-place vowels. or sloping consonant, it is read before the consonant; and when placed When a vowel comes between two consonants, it is possible to on the right-hand side, it is read after the consonant. A vowel write it either after the first or before the second ; as placed above a horizontal letter, is read before the consonant, and 11. take. To secure uniformity in the writing of Phonographers, when written ander, is read after the consonant. This, it may be the following general rules are established :observed, is the way in which we read all European languages; namely, from left to right, and from top to bottom. As we have First-place vowels are written after the first consonant; as shown in the abore Table, the vowels are written at the side of the

not talk. consonant, in three places-at the beginning, middle, and end ; the beginning of the consonant, whether written upward or downward, SECOND-place vowels are written after the first consonant when being the place of the first vowel-sign ah. The letter 1, for instance, they are long; as mate; and before the second when they when written downward, has its vowels' places reckoned downward :

are short ; as met. The short vowels will be explained in our and when written upward, the vowels' places are reckoned from the next lesson. bottom upward.

Third-place vowels are written before the second consonant; as 23. Vowels placed at the beginning of a consonant, as ah and &, are called first-place vowels ; vowels written in the middle,

not be team. second-place towelsand those at the end, third-place vowels. The rule for a second-place short vowel does not apply when the

24. The vowel points and strokes must be written at a little dis- 1 second consonant is the circle s.

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Rup

A rate.

VOWELS PRECEDING CONSONANTS.

or

I say

flor

a wave

(fæděris) } a treaty

forti

(fulminis) } lightning

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXX.

Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words. LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico

dict

dictate, predict, diction, Dies a day

di WORDS are undergoing constant change of signification. The

dial, diary, meridian. Medius middle medi

mediate, mediocrity. changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable, Dignus worthy digni dignity, dignity. except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of mind which contracts and expands, and expands and con. Doceo I teach

doc, doct docile, doctor, doctrine. tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo I grieve dot

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction ard expansion of the import of words. The term Dominus a master domin domineer, dominion.

dom “import" furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is, Domus a house

domestic, domicile.

Donum according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

a gift
don

donation, donor.
Duco

I lead carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

duc, duct

duct, induce, educate. Duo tro du

dual, duel variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity.

Durus hard

dur

durable, durance. The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug. Ebrius drunken ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im. Ego I

ego

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo I buy (a)em, empt red(e)em, exemption. the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add a

Flecto I bend flect

reflect, inflect. few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

Flexus bent

flex

Dexible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate

Flictus (fligo) dashed flict

conflict, afflict.

Flos (floris) so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

a flower

floral, florist. Fluctus

fluctu fluctuate. signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and Fluo I flow fu

fluent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus a flowing flux

reflux, efflux. contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Fodus chapels of the Nonconformists.

feder federal, confederate. “It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole

Foro
I bore, pierce for

perforate. church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy conventicles, which, Fors (fortis) chance fort

fortuitous, fortunate. covered with pretence of religion, may serve unto dangerous practices."

Fortis strong

fortify, fortitude. -Hooker.

Fossa a ditch

foss

fosse.

Fossus
The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

dug
foss

fossil.

Frango I break skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current Fractus

frag, fring fragment, infringe.

broken fract fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made; for example

Frigeo I am cold frig

frigid, refrigeration. "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit fructi fructify.
Let my right hand forget her cunning.”—Ps. cxxxvii. 5.

Fruor
I enjoy

fruition. Cunning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

Fugio
I fly
fug

refuge, subterfuge.
Fugitum
to fly

fugit fugitive. superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase,“

Fulmen knowing one," knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness.

fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo I pour

fund

refund. too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured fus

fusible, infuse, refuse. oft as applied to a trade :

Gelu

frost gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gela “A poem is the work of the poet ; poesy is his skill or craft of Gens (gentis) a nation gent

gentile, genteel. [inous making."--Ben Jonson.

Genu
a knee

genuflexion.

Gero Our craft is the Saxon kroft, or the German kraft, which denotes

I carry ger, gest belligerent, gesture, digestici Exter outward

external, exterior, internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber a workman fabr

fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

facil, facul,

Facilis The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

facilitate, faculty. ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition.

Facio I make

fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

fic, fy soporific, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) heariness, sleep sopor soporiferous. English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

Fallo I deceive fall

fallacious, infallible. Fanum

fan

a temple One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar

profane, profanation. Fari to speak fa

fable, ineffable. bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in

Fatus spoken fat

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy folic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina a woman femin feminine, ef feminacy. years I followed in my own school. Lucy Aikin, her biographer, Fero I bear fer

ferry, infer, circumference tells us : "On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo

I boil ferv

fervid, effervescence. separate classes to her apartment; she read a fable, a short Fidelis faithful fidel fidelity, infidel. story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them

Fido
I trust fid

confide, diffidence.

Filia back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in

a daughter Filius

fili

filial, affiliate. their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by Filum a thread

filament. her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo I feign fig

figment. were chastised, the idle epíthets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus feigned fict

fiction, fictitions. reason was always assigned for every correction ; so that the Finis an end fin

final, finite, definite, defii arts of editing and of criticising were in some degree learnt Fiscus the treasury fisc

fiscal, confiscate. together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in Fissus cleft

fiss

fissure. Latin and Greck, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the Flatus a puff of wind flat

flatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such dis

“Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin ; eipline." LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to sig

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said Istin Worda. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural."-Cla Curro I run cur, curr incur, curricle, current. Latin Grammar." a running curs, crur excursion, succour.

“A duel, called by the Greeks monomachia (single-fight), and by given

dit, dat addition, date, datum, data. Latins duellum, receiving its denomination from the persons enga Decor

in it, is properly a fight or combat between two persons."-South. grace decor decorous, decoration.

" I suppose I need not take any pains to prove the unlawfulness, Looth dent

dentist, indentatiou. the sottishness of such duellings, when men sold their lives for a cre Tod doi deity, doify.

or an angel ; and by a preposterous way of labouring not to get til bit-handed dexter dexterity, dexterous. living, but to procure their death,”-South.

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There is one kind of egotist which is very common in the world. I Bat the glow of morning beamed into the little chamber where their mean those empty, conceited fellows, who repeat as sayings of their seven children lay in their beds asleep. own, or some of their particular friends, several jests which were made Then they gazed at the children one by one, and the mother said, before they were born, and which every one who has conversed in the “They are soven in number; alas ! it will be hard for us to find them fald has heard a hundred times over."-Spectator.

food." Thus sighed the mother, for there was a famine in the land. "If a pawnbroker receives plate or jewels as a pledge or security for Bat the father smiled, and said, “See, do they not lie there, all the the repayment of money lent thereon, on a day certain, he has them seven ? And they have all red cheeks, and the beams of the morning upon an express contract or condition to restore them, if the pledger stream over them, so that they appear lovelier than ever, like seven performs his part by rodcoming them in due time."--Blackstone. blooming roses. Mother, that shows us that He who creates the

"A just, though terrible, judgment of God upon these play-hunters morning and sends us sleep, is true and unchangeable." and prophaners of his holy day."-Prynne.

As they stopped from the chamber, they saw at the door fourteen * Somewhat allied to this (blasphemy), though in an inferior degree, shoes in a row, growing smaller and smaller, two by two, a pair for is the offence of profane and common swearing."-Blackstono.

each child. The mother gazed at them, and when she saw that they "When one tossed his weaver's beam, and the other carried the Wero so many, she wept. estas of Gaza, they performed their prodigious feats by tender filaments, Bat the father said, “Mother, why dost thou weep? Have not all ighter than a cobweb, undiscernible with a microscope."-Search, the seven received sound and active feet? Why, then, should we be * Light of Nature,"

ansions about that which covers them? If the children have con. Definite and definitive are synonymous, that is, words which idence in us, should we not have confidence in Him who can do more come near in meaning to each other; I say near in meaning, for than we can comprehend ? there are few pairs of words that have exactly the same force. work with a cheerful countenance."

“See, his son rises ! Come, then, like it let us begin our day's Definite and definitive, as coming from finis, an end, agree in Thus they spoke and toiled at their labours, and God blessed the that they both put an end to a matter : a definite answer pats work of their hands, and they had enough and to spare, they and their an end to your question by speaking so clearly, and so exactly, seven children ; for faith gives strength and courage, and love elevates s to leave no room for its repetition; but a definitive answer the soul. pate an end to the matter in issue as well as to the question. By a definite answer I leave you in no doubt as to my meaning ;

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIX. and by a definitive answer I put a negative on your proposal. Honest men, and clear-minded men give definite answers, men

SECTION LXVI.-HAMAMELIDACEÆ, OR WITCH-HAZELS. who have come to a final conclusion pronounce a definitive Characteristics : Calyx tubular, adherent to the ovary ; limb judgment.

four to five partite; petals absent or inserted upon the calyx, "They never have suffered, and never will saffer, the fixed estate of and alternating with its divisions ; stamens indefinite in the the church to be converted into a pension, to depend on the treasury, apotalous genera, in the petaliferous genera double the number si to be delayed, withheld, or perhaps to be extinguished, by fiscal of the petals, some sterile, and opposite to the petals, others calties." —Burka, " French Revolution."

fertile and alternate; anthers square or semi-circular; ovary " And all their landes, goodes, and possessions were confiscate and half inferior, two-celled, uni- or multi-ovulate; ovules pendent, essed to ye kynge's vse (use)." --Hall, "Richard III."

* There are other subterraneous juts and channels, fissures and reflexed; two styles, two stigmata, both distinct ; capsule postages through which many times the waters make their way." - septicidal, having one-seeded cells. Dertan, " Physico-Theology."

The members of this natural order are trees or shrubs, ordiwhence the French? From refutare, says Richardson; and disposed in panicles, capitula, or spikes. To refuse comes immediately from the French refuser. But Darily covered with hair arranged in the form of stars. Leaves

alternate, petiolate, simple, bi-stipulate. Flowers almost sessile, sertainly refutare, both in good and in middle-aged Latin, primarily signifies to put down, put back, refuse, and only deri- over North America, Japan, China, India, Madagascar, and the

The fow species composing this natural order are dispersed ratively to prove logically wrong. But this view makes to refuse Cape. The Virginian hamamelis (Hamamelis Virginica) is a and to refute the same in origin. Besides, the t and s are not shrub having yellow fasciculated flowers, the ovary of which does exchangeable

. It seems less incorrect to derive refuse from. re not ripen until the second year. It is cultivated in gardens for sod fundo (fasus, fusion), which thus means a pouring or handing the sake of its oily farinaceous seeds; the decoction of its bark eeck Refuse, the noun, signifying rubbish, comes from the same and leaves is charged with tannic bitter principles and a peculiar Toot, only it takes its special import from a custom which pre- volatile oil. The alder-leaved fothergillia (Fothergillia alnifolia) railed in some cathedral and collegiate churches, according to is a shrub, a native of Carolina, but cultivated in Europe. Its which those who held the benefices were required to put together inflorescence is a spike composed of white and odoriferous Fiery year into a common treasury, for the common use, some flowers. Its fruits discharge their seeds with a considerable portion of their income. That portion was seldom the best, and noise. The Rhodoleia Championi (Fig. 218) is a small tree dis. kenee the refusio, as the Latin name for the common contri- covered in China by Captain Champion, in the forests which bation was, refuse in English, came to have a bad character, surround Canton. It is cultivated with facility in the open air and to be nearly equivalent to our rubbish. Rubbish, or in an of Earopean countries. The leaves of this tree are persistent, sider form of the word, rubbage, is that which was rubbed off its flowers grouped in five, surrounded with roseate bracts, which (Latin, detritus), as refuse is that which is poured or thrown might be almost taken for a petaloid floral envelope. EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

SECTION LXVIL-PHILADELPHACEÆ, OR SYRINGAS. Historical Theme: The Mission of Moses to Pharaoh." Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary, valvate in æstiWORDS WITH THEIR PROPER PREPOSITIONS.

vation ; petals in number equal to the divisions of the calyx, Words. Foreign Representatives.

with contorted æstivation; stamens, a multiple number of that Compelled to, pello, I drive.

of the petals; ovary, three or many celled; placenta central, Compliance with, plica, a fold.

multi-ovolate ; ovules ascendant or pendent, imbricate, reflexed; Composed of, compono, I place together.

capsule many-Beeded ; seeds enveloped in a loose testa; embryo cedo, I yield.

dicotyledonous, straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the concipio, I take together.

length of which it equals. The members of this natural order Covered at, for, concerner, to regard.

are eroot trees, having simple opposite leaves without stipules. curro, I run.

Their flowers are complete, regular, white, odoriferous, disposed damnum, injury. Condescend to,

either in oyme or panicle.
descendo, I go down
duco, I lead,

The Philadelphus coronarius, or garland syringa (Fig. 220), is. fero, I bear.

indigenous to Central Europe, and a frequent garden ornament.

Its flowers are very odorous, and were formerly held in esteem as a Stady and endeavour to reproduce the following gem from medicine. They contain a volatile oil sometimes employed as an the German of Krammacher :

agent for the adulteration of oil of jasmine. The Dentzia scabra, THE SEVEN CHILDREN.

or rough-leaved deutzia, is a native of Japan, now cultivated in de family arose with his wife from the couch, and thanked God for tree as a plaster ; its leuves are employed to impart a polish to

Lais in the morning, as the day began to dawn, the devout father botanio gardens. The Japanese employ the inner bark of this Le day, and for their refreshing slumber.

wood.

back.

Conceie to,
Conceive of,

Concur with, in,
Condetun to,

Onlace to, Confer on,

Duo

two

I buy

flect

flict

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(fæděris

) } a treaty

foss

to fly

(fulminis

) } lightning

fund

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XXX.

Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.
LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico
I say
dict

dictate, predict, diction, Dies

a day di Words are undergoing constant change of signification. The Medius

dial, diary, meridian. middle medi

mediate, mediocrity. changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable, Dignus worthy digni dignity, dignity. except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily

diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of mind which contracts and expands, and expands and con. Doceo I teach doc, doct docile, doctor, doctrine. tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo I grieve dol

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction ard expansion of the import of words. The term Dominus a master domin domineer, dominion. “import” furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is, Domus a house dom

domestic, domicile.

Donum according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

a gift
don

donation, donor. carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

Duco I lead duo, duct duct, induce, educate.

du variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity. Duras

dual, duel.
hard
dur

durable, durance. The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug. Ebrius drunken

ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im. Ego

I
ego

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo

(e)em, empt red(e)em, exemption. the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add a Flecto I bend

reflect, inflect, few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

Flexus bont

flex

lexible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate

Flictus (fligo) dashed

conflict, afflict. Flos (floris)

a flower flor so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

floral, florist. Fluctus

fluctu fluctuate. signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and Fluo I flow fire

fluent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus a flowing flux

reflux, efflux. contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Foedus

feder chapels of the Nonconformists.

federal, confederate. “It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole

Foro I bore, pierce for

perforate, church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy conventicles, which, Fors (fortis) chance

fort

fortuitous, fortunate. covered with pretence of religion, may serve unto dangerous practices." Fortis

strong
forti

fortify, fortitude. -Hooker.

Fossa
a ditch

fosse.

Fossus dug The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

foss

fossil.

Frango I break skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current Fractus

frag, fring fragment, infringe.

broken fract fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made; for example

Frigeo I am cold frig

frigid, refrigeration. "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit fructi fructify.
Let my right hand forget her cunning.”—Ps. cxxxvii. 5.

Fruor
I enjoy
fru

fruition. Ounning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

Fugio I fly

fug

refuge, subterfuge.

Fugitum superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase, “a

fugit fugitive.

Fulmen knowing one,” knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness.

fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo

I pour

refund, too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured fus

fusible, infuse, refuse. craft as applied to a trade :

Gelu
frost

gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gelat “A poem is the work of the poet ; poesy is his skill or craft of Gens (gentis) a nation gent

gentile, genteel

[inou making."-Ben Jonson.

Genu a knee

genuflexion.

Gero Our craft is the Saxon kræft, or the German kraft, which denotes

I carry gør, gest belligerent, gesture, digestiai Exter outward exter

external, exterior. internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber

a workman fabr fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

s facil, facul,

Facilis The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

facilitate, faculty. easy ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition. Facio I make

fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

fic, fy soporific, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) heaviness, sleep sopor soporiferous. English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

Fallo I deceive fall

fallacious, infallible.

Fanum One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar

a temple fan

profane, profanation. Fari to speak fa

fable, ineffable. bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in Fatus spoken fat

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy felic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina a woman femin feminine, ef feminacy. years I followed in my own school. Lucy Aikin, her biographer, Fero I bear

fer

ferry, infer, circumferent tells us: “On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo I boil ferv fervid, effervescence. separate classes to her apartment; she read a fable, a short Fidelis faithful

fidelity, infidel. story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them

Fido
I trust
fid

confide, diffidence. back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in

Filia

filial, affiliate

Filius their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by

Filum her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo

a thread

filament. I feign fig

figment. were chastised, the idle epithets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus feigned

fict

fiction, fictitious. reason was always assigned for every correction; so that the Finis an and fin

final, finite, definite, defi arts of editing and of criticising were in some degree learnt Fiscüs the treasury fisc fiscal, confiscate. together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in Fissus cloft

fissure. Latin and Greek, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the

Flatus a puff of vind flat flatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such discipline."

*Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin ; LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to sigi Latin words. Meanings.

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said Stems. English words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural."-Cla Curro I rum

cur, curr incur, curricle, current. "Latin Grammar." Cursos a running curs, cour excursion, succour,

" A dnel, called by the Greeks monomachin (single-fight), and by Datus

giron dit, dat addition, date, dalam data. Latins duellum, receiving ita denomination from the persons enga (decoris) grace decor

In it, is properly a fight deawous, decoration.

tween two persons."-South. "I suppose I need

is to prove the unlawfulness, Da 3 lantis) a tooth dent

deatist, indentation,

ttishness of

men sold their lives for a cre Deus (lei)

dai
delty, telte

of labouring not to get ! Dexter

right-handed dexter dae

genu

fidel

a daughter } fui

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* There is one kind of egotist which is very common in the world. I But the glow of morning beamed into the little chamber where their sesa those empty, conceited fellows, who repeat as sayings of their seven children lay in their beds asleep. OW, or some of their particular friends, several jests which were made Then they gased at the children one by one, and the mother said, belore they were born, and which every one who has conversed in the “Thoy are soven in number ; alas ! it will be hard for us to find them world has heard a hundred times over."-Spectator.

food." Thus sighed the mother, for there was a famine in the land. * If a pawnbroker receives plate or jewels as a pledge or security for But the father amiled, and said, “See, do they not lie there, all the the repayment of money lent thereon, on a day certain, he has them gevon ? And they have all red cheeks, and the beams of the morning upon an express contract or condition to restore them, if the pledger stream over them, so that they appear lovelier than ever, like seven parforms his part by radcoming them in due time."--Blackstone. blooming roues. Mother, that shows us that He who creates the

* A just, though terrible, judgment of God upon these play-hunters morning and sends us sleep, is true and unchangeable." und propharers of his holy day."-Prynno.

As they stepped from the chamber, they saw at the door fourteen Somewhat allied to this (blasphemy), though in an inferior degree, shoos in a row, growing smaller and smaller, two by two, a pair for the offence of profane and common swearing."-Blackstone.

each child. The mother gazed at them, and when she saw that they "When one tossed his weaver's beam, and the other carried the were so many, she wept. gates of Gaza, they performed their prodigious feats by tender filaments, Bat the father said, “Mother, why dost thou weep? Have not all slighter than a cobweb, undiscernible with a microscope."-Search, the seven received sound and active feet? Why, then, should we be "Light of Nature."

ansions about that which covers them? If the children have conDefinite and definitive are synonymous, that is, words which idence in 19, should we not have confidence in Him who can do more come near in meaning to each other ; I say near in meaning, for than we can comprehend ? there are few pairs of words that have exactly the same force. work with a cheerful countenance.".

Come, then, like it let us begin our day's Definite and definitive, as coming from finis, an end, agree in

Thus they spoke and toiled at their labours, and God blessed the that they both put an end to a matter : a definite answer puts work of their hands, and they had enough and to spare, they and their an end to your question by speaking so clearly, and so exactly, seven children ; for faith gives strength and courage, and love elevates

to leave no room for its repetition; but a definitive answer the soul. pats an end to the matter in issue as well as to the question. By a definite answer I leave you in no doubt as to my meaning ;

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIX. and by a definitive answer I put a negative on your proposal. Honest men, and clear-minded men give definite answers; men

SECTION LXVI.—HAMAMELIDACEÆ, OR WITCH-HAZELS. who have come to a final conclusion pronounce a definitive Characteristics : Calyx tubular, adherent to the ovary; limb judgment.

four to five partite; petals absent or inserted upon the calyx, "They never have suffered, and never will suffer, the fixed estate of and alternating with its divisions ; stamens indefinite in the the church to be converted into a pension, to depend on the treasury, apetalous genera, in the petaliferous genera double the number and to be delayed, withheld, or perhaps to be extinguished, by fiscal of the petals, some sterile, and opposite to the petals, others Scalties." —Burke, "French Revolution."

fertile and alternate; anthers square or semi-circular; ovary “And all their landes, goodes, and possessions were confiscate and half inferior, two-celled, úni- or multi-ovulate; ovules pendent, ad to ye kynge's vse (use)."--Hall, "Richard III.” * There are other subterraneous juts and channels

, fissures and reflexed; two styles, two stigmata, both distinct ; capsule panges through which many times the waters make their way." - septicidal, having one-seeded cells. Durham, " Physico-Theology."

The members of this natural order are trees or shrubs, ordiwhence the French ? From refutare, says Richardson; and disposed in panicles, capitula, or spikes. To refuse comes immediately from the French refuser. But narily covered with hair arranged in the form of stars. Leaves

alternate, petiolate, simple, bi-stipulate. Flowers almost sessile, tertainly refatare, both in good and in middle-aged Latin,

The few species composing this natural order are dispersed zaimarly signifies to put down, put back, refuse, and only deri- over North America, Japan, China, India, Madagascar, and the ratively to prove logically wrong. But this view makes to refuse Cape. The Virginian hamamelis (Hamamelis Virginica) is a and to refute the same in origin. Besides, the t and 8 are not shrub having yellow fasciculated flowers, the ovary of which does exchangeable. It seems less incorrect to derive refuse from. re not ripen until the second year. It is cultivated in gardens for and fando (fusus, fusion), which thus means & pouring or handing the sake of its oily farinaceous seeds; the decoction of its bark back . Refuse

, the noun, signifying rubbish, comes from the same and leaves is charged with tannic bitter principles and a peculiar boot, only it takes its special import from a custom which pre- volatile oil. The alder-leaved fothergillia (Fothergillia alnifolia) railed in some cathedral and collegiate churches, according to is a shrub, a native of Carolina, but cultivated in Europe. Its which those who held the benefices were required to put together inflorescence is a spike composed of white and odoriferous Every year into a common treasury, for the common use, some flowers. Its fruits discharge their seeds with a considerable portion of their income. That portion was seldom the best, and noise. The Rhodoleia Championi (Fig. 218) is a small tree diskence the refusio, as the Latin name for the common contri-covered in China by Captain Champion, in the forests which bation was, refuse in English, came to have a bad character, sarround Canton. It is cultivated with facility in the open air and to be nearly equivalent to our rubbish. Rubbish, or in an of European countries. The leaves of this tree are persistent, elder form of the word, rubbage, is that which was rubbed off its flowers grouped in five, surrounded with roseate bracts, which (latio, detritus), as refuse is that which is poured or thrown might be almost taken for a petaloid floral envelope. EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION,

SECTION LXVII.-PHILADELPHACEÆ, OR SYRINGAS. Historical Theme: "The Mission of Moses to Pharaoh." Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary, valvate in æstiWORDS WITH THEIR PROPER PREPOSITIONS.

vation; petals in number equal to the divisions of the calys, Words. Foreign Representatives,

with contorted æstivation; stamens, a multiple number of that Compelled to, pello, I dride.

of the petals; ovary, three or many celled; placenta central, Compliance with, plica, a fold.

multi-ovulate; ovules ascendant or pendent, imbricate, reflexed; Consposed of, compono, I place together.

capsule many-seeded ; seeds enveloped in a loose testa; embryo cedo, I yield.

dicotyledonous, straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the concipio, I take together.

length of which it equals. The members of this natural order Concerned at, for, concerner, to regard.

are eroot trees, having simple opposite leaves without stipules. Cracur with, in, curro, I run.

Their flowers are completo, regular, white, odoriferous, disposed damnum, injury.

either in oyme or panicle. descendo, I go down

The Philadelphus coronarius, or garland syringa (Fig. 220), is duco, I lead. fero, I bear.

indigenous to Central Europe, and a frequent garden ornament. Psdy and endeavour to reproduce the following gem from medicine. They contain a volatile oil sometimes employed as an

Its flowers are very odorous, and were formerly held in esteem as a German of Krummacher :

agent for the adulteration of oil of jasmine. The Deutzia scabra, THE SEVEN CHILDREN.

or rough-leaved deatzia, is a native of Japan, now cultivated in morning, as the day began to dawn, the devout father botanic gardens. The Japanese employ the inner bark of this with his wife from the couch, and thanked God for tree as a plaster; its leaves are employed to impart a polish to refreshing slumber.

wood.

Concede to,
Couceive of,

Dagdanan to, Desdescend to, Crunca to, Crafer on,

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