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"Encore !” s'écrie-t-il d'un ton d'impatience, "j'avais pour. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. tant dit que je ne voulais plus de ces scènes-là !")*

EXERCISE 97 (Vol. II., page 43). Et croisant ses bras sur sa poitrine, il voulut passer outre (a). + Sire!” cria la jeune fille, à laquelle la position de son père They were obliged to wait so long that, at last, they lost patience.

1. Did onr scholars become weary of waiting so long yesterday? 2. donnait une énergie au-dessus de son âge, "je vous en conjure, 3. Did you not receive your relation kindly, when he came to see you! écoutez-moi ! Au nom de votre mère, Sire, écoutez-moi! au 4. I received him as well as I could. 5. Did you not read your pom de votre père, accordez-moi la grâce du mien! C'est mon brother's letter, the day before yesterday? 6. I read it, and sent it père, Sire ; il aura (b) été entrainé, séduit; pardonnez-lui! Oh! to my uncle. 7. Did you not run to the assistance of your brother, Sire, vous tenez la vie de mon père, la mienne dans vos mains. as soon as you saw him in danger? 8. I hastened to succour him. Ayez pitié d'une malheureuse enfant qui vous demande la vie 9. Have you not made haste to come? 10. We have made haste. 11. de son père. Sire! Sire! grâce . . . pitié . . . pardon."

As soon as you had perceived my brother, did you not inform me * Laissez-moi, Mademoiselle," dit l'Empereur, la repoussant of his arrival? 12. I informed you of it. 13. At what hour did

your sister come to-day? 14. She came at noon. 15. Did your comsesez (c) rudement. Mais, sans se laisser intimider (il y allait (d) d'une existence to see me, but they left me without speaking to me of their journey.

panions come yesterday to beg you to accompany them? 16. They came trop chère), Malle. de Lajolais, se traînant sur les dalles (e) de 17. Did you not paint a picture last year? 18. I painted an hismarbre de la galerie, criait avec angoisse

torical picture. 19. Has the Italian painter finished his portrait ? *Oh! pitié, pitié, Sire!... grâce! ... pour mon père! Oh! 20. He finished it yesterday. 21. He has finished it this moruing. jetez au moins un regard sur moi, Sire!"6

22. As goon as I bad received this news, I sent for the notary. 23. Il y avait () quelque chose de si déchirant (g) dans cette Has that young man taken leave of his father? 24. He has taken voix d'enfant demandant la vie de son père, que l'Empereur leave of him. 25. He took leave of him yesterday. s'arrêta malgré lui, et regarda celle qui l'implorait avec tant (h)

EXERCISE 98 (Vol. II., page 43). d'instance.?

1. Le notaire vous accompagna-t-il hier? 2. Il m'accompagna Mme. de Lajolais était fort bien, mais, dans ce moment, sa jusque chez M. votre frère. 3. Votre compagnon prit-il congé de beauté tenait (i) de l'ange. Blanche comme un cygpe, la vous hier ? 4. Il a pris congé de moi ce matin. 5. Lütes-vous hier douleur donnait à ses traits un caractère énergique et passionné;s le livre qui je vous ai prêté ? 6. Je le lus avant-bier. 7. À quelle ses beaux cheveux blonds ruisselaient (j) sur ses épaules ; ses heure le peintre est-il venu ce matin? 8. Il est venu à neuf heures petites mains, crispées par la fièvre, avaient fini par (k) saisir et demie. 9. A-t-il fini le portrait de M. votre père ? 10. Il peignit ane des mains de l'Empereur, et lui communiquaient leur courûtes-vous pas au secours de votre père, quand vous le vites en

hier, toute la journée, mais le portrait n'est pas encore fini. 11. Ne chaleur brûlante. Agenouillée, le visage baigné de larmes, danger? 12. Je me hâtai de le secourir. 13. Que fites-vous quand levant ses grands yeux bleus vers celui duquel elle semblait

vous arrivâtes ? 14. Aussitôt que je fus arrivé, j'envoyai chercher attendre la vie ou la mort, elle ne pouvait plus ni parler, mon frère. 15. Menâtes-vous votre seur en Allemagne l'année derni pleurer, ni respirer.

nière ? 16. Je l'y ai menée cette année. 17. Menâtes-vous vos enfants N'êtes-vous pas Malle. de Lajolais p” 11 lui demanda l’Em à l'école hier? 18. Je les menai chez mon frère. 19. Peignez-vous perenr.

un tableau d'histoire ? 20. Je peignis l'année dernière un tableau Sans répondre, Maria pressa la main de l'Empereur avec 22. Elle m'a prié de l'accompagner. 23. Envoyátes-vous chercher le

d'histoire. 21. Mlle, votre seur vous a-t-elle prié de l'accompagner ? plus de force.12 Il reprit (1) avec sévérité,“ Savez-vous que c'est la seconde 24. Je l'envoyai chercher. 25. Quand le notaire a-t-il pris congé de

notaire, aussitôt que vous reçûtes des nouvelles de M. votre père ? fois que votre père se rend coupable d'un crime envers l'État, vous ? 26. 11 a pris congé de moi ce matin à neuf heures. 27. Mademoiselle ?" 13

L'apothicaire a-t-il fini sa lettre ? 28. Il ne l'a pas encore finie. 29. "Je le sais" (m), répondit Malle. de Lajolais, avec la plus Ne fûtes-vous pas bien étonné hier de voir cette dame ? 30. Je ne grande ingénuité; “ mais la première fois il était innocent, tus pas étonné de la voir. 31. Vous dépêchâtes-vous de lire votre livre,

hier au soir ? 32. Je me dépêchai de le lire, 33. L'avez-vous fini? "Mais, cette fois, il ne l'est (n) pas,” répliqua Bonaparte.15

34. Je ne l'ai pas encore fini. "Aussi c'est sa grâce que je vous demande, Sire," reprit

EXERCISE 99 (Vol. II., page 74). Maria, " grâce, ou je mourrai (o) devant vous."

1. Of whom were you speaking this morning, when I came to you? L'Empereur, ne pouvant plus maitriser 16 son émotion, se 2. My cousin was speaking of her brother, and I was speaking of baissa vers elle en lui disant

mine. 3. Did you not like beef better than mutton formerly? 4. I "Eh! bien, oni, Mademoiselle, oni, je vous l'accorde. Mais, used to like beef, but I never liked mutton. 5. Did you not sell relevez-vous." 17

many books when you lived in Paris ? 6. I sold many, because I Et, Ini jetant un sourire d'encouragement et de bonté, il

was a bookseller. 7. Has the bookseller sold many pencils this dégagea ses mains tenues (p) toujours avec force 16 et s'éloigna morning. ? . He has sold many pencils to-day., 9. Did you seni

much parchment, when you were a bookseller? 10. I used to sell vivement.

very little. 11. Did your brother wear a green coat when he lived in COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

London ? 12. He wore a brown cont and black slippers, 13. What 1. Qae fit l'Empereur en enten 9. Où étaient les mains de l'en. were you seeking? 14. I was looking for my book, 15. How long dant ces cris ? fant?

had you lost it? 16. I had lost it since yesterday. 17. Have you 1. Que dit-il d'un ton d'impatience? 10. Que faisait-elle aux pieds de found it again? 18. I had found it again, but I have lost it again. 3. Quelles paroles énergiques la Napoléon

19. Did that baker use to supply you with good bread ? 20. He used to jenne fille adressa-t-elle à Bona- 11. Que lui demanda-t-il alors ?

supply us with some excellent (bread). 21. Did you often punish your parte! 12. Quelle réponse lui fit Maria ?

scholars ? 22. I used to punish them when they deserved it. 23. que dit l'Empereur et que fit-il? 13. Que lui dit Napoléon, rela- Where were you this morning, when I was looking for you? 24. I 5. Pourquoi Male, de Lajolais ne tivement à son père ?

was in my room. 25. I was finishing my exercise. se laissa-t-elle pas intimider ! 14. Que répondit-elle ?

EXERCISE 100 (Vol. II., page 74). Qa'ajouta-t-elle en se traînant 15. Que répliqua Bonaparte ? sur les dalles de marbre ? 16. L'Empereur semblait-il ému ?

1. Qui était chez vous ce matin? 2. Mon ami G. y était, et il vous 7. Que fit alors l'Empereur ? 17. Que dit-il ?

cherchait. 3. Avez-vous parlé à mon père hier? 4. Je lui parlais, & Quel caractère la douleur don- 18. Que fit-il avant de s'éloigner ?

quand on m'apporta votre lettre. 5. M. votre père portait-il an mait-elle aux traits de Maria ?

chapeau blanc, quand il demeurait à Londres ? 6. Il portait un cha

peau noir, et mon frère portait un habit noir. 7. Chantiez-vous quand NOTES.

mon père est arrivé ? 8. Non, monsieur, je finissais mon thême. 9. () Passer outre, to go on, to proceed. (h) Avec tant d'instance, so ear

Aviez-vous perdu votre crayon, ce matin? 10. Je l'avais perdu, et je () Aura, has without doubt, pro

le cherchais quand vous m'avez parlé. 11. Vous aimiez la lecture,

nestly. bably.

Mlle, votre sour l'aimait-elle aussi ? 12. Elle l'aimait aussi, 13. Quelle (i) Tenait, resembled that. (c) Asset rudement, with some ab. () From ruisseler.

chanson chantiez-vous ce matin ? 14. Je chantais une chanson ruptness. (k) Fini par, mechanically, uncon.

italienne. 15. Avez-vous eu peur de me parler? 16. Je n'ai jamais (d) Il y allait, etc., so precious a sciously; literally, at last.

eu peur de vous parler. 17. Avez-vous apporté mon livre ? 18. Je life was in danger, at stake. (1) From reprendre.

ne l'ai pas apporté. ) Dalles, floor; literally, Nat (m) From savoir,

EXERCISE 101 (Vol. II., page 75). stoner. (n) L', so.

1. Why did you not write more quickly this morning? 2. Because Yn y avait, there was. (0) From mourir,

I was afraid of making mistakes. 3. Were you not afraid of offending 6) Déchirant, heart-rending, (P) Tenues, hold; from tenir, that lady? 4. I feared to offend her, but I could not do otherwipe.

Sire."14

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5. What were you painting this morning? 6. I was painting an his- | When joined to curved letters, it is written inside the curve; thus, torical picture. 7. What was your dyer dyeing ? 8. He was dyeing

6 fs, e sf, dss, ms, cns, cloth, silk, and linen. 9. What colour was he dyeing them ? was dyeing the cloth black, and the silk and linen green, 11. Were Between two consonants, it takes the shortest direction ; thus, you conducting the young Pole to school when I met you ? 12. I

7 kst, L tsk, Y pst, X chsp. was conducting my eldest son to church. 13. What were you reading ? 14. I was reading books which I had just bought. 15. Did you not When the circle s is joined to I only, the consonant is written upmuch was the watch which you broke worth ? 16. It was worth at ward ; thus, rls

, 6 sl: and when joined to sh only, it is least two hundred francs. 19. Was it not better to remain here than written downward ; thus, o shs, 9 ssh. to go hunting? 20. It was much better to go to school. 21. What was your friend saying to you? 22. He was telling me that his brother

EXERCISE 3. is back from Spain. 23. Did you not go hunting every day when you Write the longhand letters after the shorthand, with respect to were living in the country? 24. I often went fishing. 25. My brother every combination, as shown in the first line of Exercise 2. went to school every day when he was here. EXERCISE 102 (Vol. II., page 75).

1. 6 p e

ใ 7 1. Aviez-vous peur, ce matin, quand vous êtes venu chez nous? 2.

2. J'avais peur. 3. De quoi aviez-vous peur? 4. J'avais peur du cheval. 5. Votre ami n'avait-il pas peur de tomber ? 6. Il n'avait pas peur de tomber, mais il craignait de se tromper. 7. Conduisiez-vous votre

3.

9 h Y le fils à l'école ? 8. Je le conduisais à l'école. 9. De quelle couleur

4. le teinturier teignait-il la soie ? 10. Il en teignait en rouge et en vert. 11. Teignait-il sa toile en noir ou en vert? 12. Ii ne la teignait ni en noir ni en vert, il la teignait en rose. 13. Le monsieur que lisait-il ? 14. Il lisait une lettre qu'il vepait de recevoir. 15. Aviez-vous froid

So is written by a large circle; thus pss. quand vous êtes venu ici ? 16. J'avais froid, faim et soif. 17. N'aviez

UPWARD R. vous pas honte de votre conduite ? 18. J'en avais bonte. 19. Où alliez-vous quand je vous rencontrai? 20. J'allais chez vous. 21. Con. 18. As the straight line in direction 4, par. 10 (page 77), may be duisiez-vous la voiture de M. votre frère ? 22. Je conduisais la written either up or down, it is made to represent two letters, namely

, mienne. 23. Ecriviez-vous à mon père ou à moi? 24. J'écrivais à ch when written downward, and r when written upward ; this addil'ami de votre cousin.

tional sign being given to r for convenience and speed in writing. To

diminish the risk of ch and r being mistaken for each other, when LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-III. standing alone, / ch is made to slope 60 degrees from the horizontal, ON JOINING THE CONSONANTS.

and 30. This line naturally takes these slopes when struck 11. The consonants should be made about one-sixth of an inch in by the hand downward and upward respectively. The upward ris length, as in these pages. This size is best adapted for the learner,

written as in the following examples :and insures accuracy and neatness in the writing. When he can write V tr, Art, V pr, Arp, ~ mr, with ease, the size may advantageously be reduced to one-eighth of an When , has to be written alone, or joined to the circle-s ovly, either inch. Particular attention should be paid to the forms of the curved thick letters ; if they are made heavy throughout, they present a the alphabetic form may be used; thus, clumsy appearance ; they should be thickened in the middle only, and

T,

srs, taper off at each end.

12. Perpendicular and sloping letters are written from top to or the upward r; thus, boltom, and horizontal letters from left to right; thus,

r, yrs, sr, o srs. \ p. (th, she r, -- k,

When the student is more advanced he will be shown how to make 13. The letter r 1, when standing alone, is written upward, and use of these two forms of the letter r for the purpose of distinguishsh downward : r 1, and sh, joined to other consonants

, may respect to words in which r occurs at the beginning or ead, he will

ing different classes of words with different outlines, so that with be written either upward or downward, as may be convenient; thus, be almost independent of vocalisation, that is, he may write and read nut , him, z sha,

shn. such words without inserting vowels. Wheu joined to other letters, 14. All the consonants in a word should be written withont lifting ch and r are distinguished by the direction of the stroke ; thus

, the pen, the second letter beginning where the first ends, and so on; as, Ikt, L tk, 1 nt, fa, v fl, u irt.

z chr, 1 rch, ✓ kr, 7 kch, v to , tch,

mch. There should always be an angle between fand n, 1 upward and m, and all similar combinatious. In tracing the consonants slowly,

EXERCISE 4. learners may make an angle between p and n, 6 and n, th and n, and To be written in the Phonographic Copy Book, placing the resimilar combinations; but the advanced writer should strike these spective looghand letters after the shorthand form, as before. letters without an angle. 15. When a straight consonant is repeated, there should be no 1.

1 break between the two strokes; thus,

kk. When a curved consonant is repeated, the curve should be doubled, or repeated ; 2.

ad thus,

nn, 16. Single consonants, and combinations of consonants similar to 3.

ЛА W 1 시 rwn those in paragraphs 24, 25, 26, rest upon the line ; thus, cal, not: 17 cat. When two descending letters are joined, the first should 4. w now

evre nood be made down to the line, and the second below; thus,

The distinction between ch and r, when joined, will be seen thus :

m,r; 7 m,ch; _k,r; 7 kych. tp, tch, cht, pt, ft.

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LONG VOWELS.
CIRCLE S AND Z.

19. There are six simple long vowels in the English language, viz., 17. S and z, on account of their frequent occurrence, are furnished with an additional character, particularly convenient for joining ; thus

AH, EH, EE; AW, OH, 00; O, which represents either s or z. When the s circle is joined to

" .. 7 - J straight letters, it is written on the upper side of k, and on the corresponding side of the other letters, or by a motion contrary to that

as in alms, ale, eel;

all, ope, food. of the hands of a clock; thus,

Phonotypes : A 6, &ε, ti;

0 0,0 , ps, 6 ts, 6 chs, ks; sp, P st, psch, sk.

Aa, &ε, li; 0o, oo, Wru.

Ww.

VOWELS FOLLOWING CONSONANTS.

20. The first three are represented by a dot, and the last three by | tance from the consonants to which they are placed. If allowed to a short stroke or dash, written at right angles to the consonant. touch, except in a few cases, which will be explained as soon as the They are here written to the letter t, to show their respective places ; popil will require the information, they would occasion mistakes. namely, at the beginning, middle, and end of a consonant. All the vowels should be pronounced as single sounds; that is, ah as in

EXERCISE 5.-CONSONANTS AND VOWELS. almas, and not as a-aitch; eh (a), as in ape ; ee as in eel; aw as awe, shorthand character write tah, after the second teh, after the third

To be written in the Phonographic Copy Book. After the first not as e-double-you ; oh, as owe; 00 as in ooze.

21. The pupil must observe that the perpendicular stroke is no tee, and after the other three taw, toh, too; and so with the other part of the Fowel. It is the shorthand letter t, which is used as a

lines. standard, or sign-post, to show the position of the vowel. We will nou place the vowels to a horizontal consonant, k. In this case they

1. 1

l. will appear thus :1 2 3 5

2. •_ AH, · EH, •EE, _ AU, IO, 100. as in alns, ape, eat,

oak, METHOD OF PLACING THE VOWELS.

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VOWELS FOLLOWING CONSONANTS.
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VOWELS PRECEDING CONSONANTS,
The longhand to be placed after the several shorthand characters

in the first line will be aht, eht, eet, aut, oht, oot. т

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ON WRITING PHONETICALLY.

25. The English alphabet contains but twenty-three useful letters F

(rejecting c, q, r,=s, k, ks) to represent the thirty-nine distinct

sounds of the language; the Phonetic alphabet, on the contrary, TII

provides a letter for each sound. In consequence of the deficiencies

of the English alphabet, and the unphonetic character of our orthoS D ī

graphy, the spelling of a word can seldom be taken as a guide to its ). ).

pronunciation. To write any given word, therefore, phonographically,

its several sounds must first be ascertained: the student should then i ja / write the phonographic letters which represent them. The practice

of Phonography and the reading of Phonotypy (sce Phonetic Journal)

will improve the student's pronunciation, and train his car to discri. M

minate differences in orthoepy. The following examples will serve to illustrate the principle of Phonetic writing :

t, the first stroke-vowel au, and k, [ talk. L

t, the third dot-vowel e, and m,

team.

m, the second stroke-vowel o, and t, moat. R doxa

k, the first stroke-vowel au, and I, call.

r, the second dot-vowel a, and t, METHOD OF PLACING A VOWEL BETWEEN TWO

CONSONANTS. 1 . 1

. -1 т

1 26. Vowels that are written at the commencement of a consonant, as

ah, au, are called first-place vowels ; vowels that are written in the

middle of a consonant, as a, o, are called second-place vowels; and M

vowels that are written at the end of a consonant, as ee, oo, are 22. When a vowel is placed on the left-hand side of a perpendicular called third-place vowels. or sloping consonant, it is read before the consonant; and when placed When a vowel comes between two consonants, it is possible to on the right-hand side, it is read after the consonant. A vowel write it either after the first or before the second ; as placed above a horizontal letter, is read before the consonant, and 11. take. To secure uniformity in the writing of Phonographers, when written ander, is read after the consonant. This, it may be the following general rules are established :observed, is the way in which we read all European languages; namely, from left to right, and from top to bottom. As we have First-place vowels are written after the first consonant; as shown in the abore Table, the vowels are written at the side of the

not talk. consonant, in three places-at the beginning, middle, and end ; the beginning of the consonant, whether written upward or downward, SECOND-place vowels are written after the first consonant when being the place of the first vowel-sign ah. The letter 1, for instance, they are long; as mate; and before the second when they when written downward, has its vowels' places reckoned downward :

are short ; as met. The short vowels will be explained in our and when written upward, the vowels' places are reckoned from the next lesson. bottom upward.

Third-place vowels are written before the second consonant; as 23. Vowels placed at the beginning of a consonant, as ah and &, are called first-place vowels ; vowels written in the middle,

not be team. second-place towelsand those at the end, third-place vowels. The rule for a second-place short vowel does not apply when the

24. The vowel points and strokes must be written at a little dis- 1 second consonant is the circle s.

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LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXX.

Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words. LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico

dict

dictate, predict, diction, Dies a day di

dial, diary, meridian. WORDS are undergoing constant change of signification. The

Medius middle medi

mediate, mediocrity. changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable, Dignus worthy digni dignity, dignity, except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of mind which contracts and expands, and expands and con- Doceo I teach

doc, doct docile, doctor, doctrine, tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo I grieve dol

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction and expansion of the import of words. The term Dominus a master domin domineer, dominion. “import” furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is, Domus a house

dom

domestic, domicile.

Donum according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

a gift don

donation, donor. Duco

I lead carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

duo, druct duct, induce, educate. Duo tuco

du variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity. Durus

dual, duel.
hard
dur

durable, durance. The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug. Ebrius drunken ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im- Ego I

ego

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo I buy (e) em, empt red(e)em, exemption. the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add á Flecto I bend flect

reflect, inflect, few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

Flexus bent

flex

Alexible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate

Flictus (fligo) dashed flict

conflict, afflict.

Flos (floris) so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

a flower flor

floral, florist. Fluctus

fluctu fluctuate. signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and Fluo I flow

flui

fluent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus

a flowing flux

reflux, efflur. contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Fædus chapels of the Nonconformists.

feder federal, confederate. " It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole Foro I bore, pierce for

perforate. church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy conventices, which, Fors (fortis) chance fort

fortuitous, fortunate. covered with pretence of religion,

may serve unto dangerous practices.” Fortis strong forti fortify, fortitude. -Hooker.

Fossa
a ditch foss

fosse.

Fossus
The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

dug
foss

fossil. skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current Fractus

I break
Frango

frag, fring fragment, infringe.

broken fract fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made; for example

Frigeo I am cold frig

frigid, refrigeration. "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit fructi fructify.
Let my right hand forget her cunning."-Ps. cxxxvii. 5.

Fruor I enjoy fru

fruition. Cunning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

Fugio
I fly
fug

refuge, subterfuge. superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase, “a Fulmen

Fugitum

fugit fugitive. knowing one," knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness.

(fulminis)

lightning fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo I pour

fund

refund. too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured

fus

fusible, infuse, refuse. craft as applied to a trade :

Gelu frost gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gelat“A poem is the work of the poet ; poesy is his skill or craft of Gens (gentis) a nation gent

gentile, genteel [inous. making."--Ben Jonson.

Genu

genuflexion.

Gero
Our craft is the Saxon kroeft, or the German kraft, which denotes

I carry
ger, gest

belligerent, gesture, digestion. Exter outward exter

external, exterior. internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber

a workman fabr

fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

facil, facul, Facilis

facilitate, faculty. The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

eley
ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition.

Facio I make

fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

fic, fy soporific, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) heaviness, sleep sopor soporiferous. English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

Fallo I deceive fall

fallacious, infallible. One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar

Fanum a templo fan

profane, profanation, Fari to speak

fa bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in

fable, ineffable. Fatus spokon

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy felic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina

femin feminine, ef feminacy. years I followed in my own school. Lucy Aikin, her biographer, Fero I bear fer

ferry, infer, circumference. tells us: “On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo I boil feru

fervid, effervescence. separate classes to her apartment; she read å fable, a short Fidelis faithful fidel

fidelity, infidel. story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them

I trust
Fido

fid

confide, diffidence, back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in

Filia
Filius

filial, affiliate. their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by Filum a thread fil

filament. her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo I feign fig

figment. were chastised, the idle epithets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus feigned fict

fiction, fictitious. reason was always assigned for every correction ; so that the Finis an end

final, finite, definite, defini. 'arts of editing and of criticising were in some degree learnt Fiscus the treasury fisc

fiscal, confiscate.

[tive, together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in Fissus cleft

fiss

fissure. Latin and Greek, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the

Flatus a puff of wind flat flatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such dis

"Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin; but cipline." LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to signify

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said to Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural."-Clarke, Curro I run

city, curr incur, curricle, current. "Latin Grammar." Cursus a ruaning

excursion, succour.

“A duel, called by the Greeks monomachia (single-fight), and by the Datus given

dit, dat

addition, date, datum, data. Latins duellum, receiving its denomination from the persons engaged Derist

in it, is properly a fight or combat between two persons."-South.

a knee

genus

fat

a woman

a daughter } fui

fin

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decor
decorous, decoration.

" I suppose I need not take any pains to prove the unlawfulness, nay Derg lantis) a tooth dent

dentist, indentation. the sottishness of such duellings, when men sold their lives for a crown Dens (lei) a god

det
deity, deify.

or an angel; and by a preposterous way of labouring not to get their Dexter right-handed dexter dexterity, dexterous.

living, but to procure their death."-South,

grace

(deciris

There is one kind of egotist which is very common in the world. I Bat the glow of morning beamed into the little chamber where their mean those empty, conceited fellows, who repeat as sayings of their seven abildren lay in their beds asleep. own, or some of their particular friends, several jests which were made Then they gazed at the children one by one, and the mother said, before they were born, and which every one who has conversed in the "They are sovon in number ; alas ! it will be hard for us to find them world has heard a hundred times over."-Spactator.

food." Thus sighed the mother, for there was a famine in the land. "If a pawnbroker receives plate or jewels as a pledge or security for But the father smiled, and said, "See, do they not lie there, all the the repayment of money lent thereon, on a day certain, he has them soven ? And they have all red cheeks, and the beans of the morning apon an express contract or condition to restore them, if the pledger stream over them, so that they appear lovelier than ever, like seven performs his part by redeeming them in due time."-Blackstone. blooming roses. Mother, that shows us that He who creates the

"A just, though terrible, judgment of God upon these play-hunters morning and sends us sleep, is true and unchangeable.” and prophaners of his holy day."-Prynne.

As they stepped from the chamber, they saw at the door fourteen "Somewhat allied to this blasphemy), though in an inferior degree, shoes in a row, growing smaller and smaller, two by two, a pair for is the offence of profane and common swearing."--Blackstone.

each child. The mother gazed at them, and when she saw that they a When one tossed his weaver's beam, and the other carried the were so many, she wept. gates of Gaza, they performed their prodigious feats by tender filaments, Bat the father said, “Mother, why dost thou weep? Have not all slighter than a cobweb, undiscernible with a microscope."-Search, the seven received sound and active feet? Why, then, should we be * Light of Nature."

anxions about that which covers them? If the children have con. Definite and definitive are synonymous, that is, words which Aidence in us, should we not have confidence in Him who can do more come near in meaning to each other ; I say near in meaning, for than we can comprehend ? there are few pairs of words that have exactly the same force. work with a cheerful countenance.”

“Soe, his sun rises ! Come, then, like it let us begin our day's Definite and definitive, as coming from finis, an end, agree in

Thus they spoke and toiled at their labours, and God blessed the that they both put an end to a matter : a definite answer puts work of their hands, and they had enough and to spare, they and their an end to your question by speaking so clearly, and so exactly, seven children; for faith gives strength and courage, and love elevates as to leave no room for its repetition; but a definitive answer the soul. pata an end to the matter in issue as well as to the question. By a definite answer I leave you in no doubt as to my meaning ;

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIX. and by a definitive answer I put & negative on your propobal. Honest men, and clear-minded men give definite answers; men

SECTION LXVI.-HAMAMELIDACEÆ, OR WITCH-HAZELS. who have come to & final conclusion pronounce a definitive Characteristics : Calyx tubular, adherent to the ovary; limb judgment.

four to five partite; petals absent or inserted upon the calyx, They never have suffered, and never will suffer, the fixed estate of and alternating with its divisions ; stamens indefinite in the the church to be converted into a pension, to depend on the treasury, apetalous genera, in the petaliferous genera double the number and to be delayed, withheld, or perhaps to be extinguished, by fiscal of the petals, some sterile, and opposite to the petals, others difficulties."-Burke, “ French Revolution."

fertile and alternate; anthers square or semi-circular; ovary * And all their landes, goodes, and possessions were confiscate and half inferior, two-celled, ini- or multi-ovulate; ovules pendent, seased to ye kynge's vse (use)."-Hall, Richard III."

" There are other subterraneous juts and channels, fissures and reflexed; two styles, two stigmata, both distinct ; capsule passages through which many times the waters make their way." - septicidal, having one-Beeded cells. Derham, “Physico-Theology."

The members of this natural order are trees or shrubs, ordiwhence the French P From refutare, says Richardson; and disposed in panicles, capitula, or spikes. To refuse comes immediately from the French refuser. Bat Darily covered with hair arranged in the form of stars. Leaves

alternate, petiolate, simple, bi-stipulate. Flowers almost sessile, certainly refutare, both in good and in middle-aged Latin, primarily signifies to put down, put back, refuse, and only deri

The few species composing this natural order are dispersed ratively to prove logically wrong. But this view makes to refuse over North America, Japan, China, India

, Madagascar, and the

The Virginian hamamelis (Hamamelis Virginica) is a and to refute the same in origin. Besides, the t and s are not shrub having yellow fasciculated flowers, the ovary of which does erchangeable. It seems less incorrect to derive refuse from re not ripen until the second year. It is cultivated in gardens for and fundo (fusus, fusion), which thus means a pouring or handing the sake of its oily farinaceous seeds; the decoction of its bark back. Refuse, the noun, signifying rubbish, comes from the same and leaves is charged with tannle bitter principles and a peculiar root, only it takes its special import from a custom which pre- volatile oil. The alder-leaved fothergillia (Fothergillia alnifolia) railed in some cathedral and collegiate churches, according to is a shrub, a native of Carolina, but cultivated in Europe. Its which those who held the benefices were required to put together. inflorescence is a spike composed of white and odoriferous every year into a common treasury, for the common use, some Aowers. Its fruits discharge their seeds with a considerable portion of their income. That portion was seldom the best, and noise. The Rhodoleia Championi (Fig. 218) is a small tree dishence the refusio, as the Latin name for the common contri-covered in China by Captain Champion, in the forests which bution was, refuse in English, came to have a bad character, sarround Canton. It is cultivated with facility in the open air and to be nearly equivalent to our rubbish. Rubbish, or in an of European countries. The leaves of this tree are persistent, older form of the word, rubbage, is that which was rubbed off its flowers grouped in five, surrounded with roseate bracts, which (Latin, detritus), as refuse is that which is poured or thrown might be almost taken for a petaloid floral envelope. EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

SECTION LXVII.-PHILADELPHACEÆ, OR SYRINGAS. Historical Theme : The Mission of Moses to Pharaoh.Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary, valvate in æstiWORDS WITH THEIR PROPER PREPOSITIONS.

vation ; petals in number equal to the divisions of the calyx, Words. Foreign Representatives.

with contorted æstivation; stamens, a multiple number of that Compelled to, pello, I drive.

of the petals; ovary, three or many celled; placenta central, Compliance with, plica, a fold.

multi-ovolate; ovules ascendant or pendent, imbricate, reflexed; Composed of, compono, I place together,

capsule many-seeded ; seeds enveloped in a loose testa; embryo Concede to, cedo, I yield.

dicotyledonons, straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the Conceive of, concipio, I take together.

length of which it equals. The members of this natural order Concerned at, for, concerner, to regard.

are erect trees, having simple opposite leaves without stipules. Concur with, in, curro, I run,

Their flowers are complete, regular, white, odoriferous, disposed Condemn to, damnum, injury.

either in oyme or panicle. Condescend to,

descendo, I go down Conduce to, duco, I lead.

The Philadelphus coronarius, or garland syringa (Fig. 220), is Confer on, fero, I bear.

indigenous to Central Europe, and a frequent garden ornament.

Its flowers are very odorous, and were formerly held in esteem as a Study and endeavour to reproduce the following gem from medicine. They contain a volatile oil sometimes employed as an the German of Krummacher :

agent for the adulteration of oil of jasmine. The Deutzio scabra, THE SEVEN CHILDREN.

or rough-leaved deutzia, is a native of Japan, now cultivated in Early in the morning, as the day began to dawn, the devout father botanic gardens. The Japanese employ the inner bark of this of a family arose with his wife from the couch, and thanked God for tree as a plaster; its leaves are employed to impart a polish to the day, and for their refreshing slumber.

wood.

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