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I say

two

ego

flict

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(fæděris

) } a treaty

foss

fru

(fulminis

) } lightning

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XXX.

Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.
LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico

dict

dictate, predict, diction. Dies a day

di WORDS are undergoing constant change of signification. The

dial, diary, meridian. Medius middle medi

mediate, mediocrity, changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable, Dignus worthy digni dignity, dignify. except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily

diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of mind which contracts and expands, and expands and con- Doceo I toach

doc, doct docile, doctor, doctrine. tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo

I grieve
dol

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction and expansion of the import of words. The term Dominus a master domin domineer, dominion. “import” furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is, Domus a house dom

domestic, domicile. Donum

don according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

a gift

donation, donor

Duco I load carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

due, duct duct, induce, educate. Duo

du variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity. Durus

dual, duel.
hard
dur

durable, durance. The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug. Ebrius drunken ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im- Ego I

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo

I buy

(e) em, empt red(e)em, exemption. the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add a Flecto I bend

flect

reflect, inflect, few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

Flexus bent

flex

flexible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate flos (floris)

Flictus (fligo) dashed

conflict, afflict. so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

a flower flor

floral, florist. Fluctus

fluctu fluctuate, signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and Fluo

I flow flu

fluent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus a flowing flux

reflux, efflux. contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Fædus chapels of the Nonconformists.

feder federal, confederate. “It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole

Foro
I bore, pierce for

perforate. church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy convonticles, which, Fors (fortis) chance

fort

fortuitous, fortunate. covered with pretence of religion, may serve unto dangerous practices." Fortis strong forti

fortity, fortitude. - Hooker.

Fossa a ditch

fosse. Fossus dug

foss The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

fossil.

Frango I break frag, fring fragment, infringe. skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current Fractus broken fract fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made; for example,

Frigeo I am cold frig

frigid, refrigeration. “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit

fructi fructify.
Let my right hand forget her cunning.”—Ps. cxxxvii. 5.

Fruor
I enjoy

fruition. Cunning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

Fugio
I fly
fug

refuge, subterfuge. Fugitum

to fly superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase, "a Fulmen

fugit fugitive. knowing one," knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness.

fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo I pour fund

refund. too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured

fus

fusible, infuse, refuse. croft as applied to a trade :

Gelu
frost

gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gelat "A poem is the work of the poet ; poesy is his skill or craft of Gens (gentis) a nation gent

gentile, genteel [inous making."--Ben Jonson,

Genu a knee

genuflexion.
Gero
I carry

ger, gest belligerent, gesture, digestion Our craft is the Saxon kroft, or the German kraft, which denotes

Exter
outward
exter

external, exterior, internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber a workman fabr fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

Facilis

| facil, facul, facilitate, faculty.

easy The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition. Facio I make

fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

fic, fy soporific, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) heaviness, sloop sopor soporiferous. English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

Fallo
I deceive fall

fallacious, infallible. Fanum

fan One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar

a templo

profane, profanation. Fari to speak fa

fable, ineffable. bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in Fatus spoken fat

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy felic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina

femin feminine, ef feminacy. years I followed in my own school. Lucy Aikin, her biographer, Fero I bear

ferry, infer, circumference tells us: “On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo I boil

ferv

fervid, effervescence. separate classes to her apartment; she read a fable, a short Fidēlis faithful

fidelity, infidel. story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them Fido I trust

fid

confide, diffidence. back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in

Filia

a darghter
} fili

filial, affiliate.

Filius their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by Filuin

a thread fil

filament. her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo I feign fig

figment. were chastised, the idle epithets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus foigned fict

fiction, fictitious. reason was always assigned for every correction; so that the Finis an end fin

final, finite, definite, defi arts of editing and of criticising were in some degree learnt Fiscus the treasury fisc

fiscal, confiscate. together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in Fissus cleft fiss

fissure. Latin and Greek, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the Flatus a puff of wind flat

flatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such dis

"Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin ; 1 cipline." LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to sigi

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said Latin words. Meanings. Stems.

English words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural."-Clai Curro I run cur, curr incur, curricle, current. "Latin Grammar." Curens a running cura, coid excursion, succour.

"A duel, called by the Greeks monomachia (single-fight), and by Datis given

dit, dat addition, date, datum, data. Latins duellum, receiving its denomination from the persons enga Decor

in it, is properly a fight or combat between two persons."-South. (decris) decor decorous, decoration.

" I suppose I need not take any pains to prove the unlawfulness, Doru lentis) a foot dent

dentist, indentation.

the sottishness of such duellings, when men sold their lives for a crc Done (lei) a god dar deity, deify.

or an angel; and by a preposterous way of labouring not to get ti Dextor right-handat dexter dexterity, dexterous. living, but to procure their death,"—South,

gonu

[graphic]

a woman

fer

fidel

a son

*There is one kind of egotist which is very common in the world. I Bat the glow of morning beamed into the little chamber where their sean those empty, conceited fellows, who repeat as sayings of their seven children lay in their beds asleep. owa, or some of their particular friends, several jests which were made Then they gased at the children one by one, and the mother said, belore they were born, and which every one who has conversed in the “Thoy are seven in number; alas ! it will be hard for us to find them world has heard a hundred times over."-Spactator,

food." Thus sighed the mother, for there was a famine in the land. "If a pawnbroker receives plate or jewels as a pledge or security for Bat the father smiled, and said, "See, do they not lie there, all the the repayment of money lent thereon, on a day certain, he has them novon ? And thøy have all red cheeks, and the beams of the morning upon an express contract or condition to restore them, if the pledger stream over them, so that they appear lovelier than ever, like seven parforms his part by redeeming them in due time."-Blackstone. blooming roses. Mother, that shows us that He who creates the

"A just, though terrible, judgment of God upon these play-hunters morning and sends us sleep, is true and unchangeable.” ud prophaners of his holy day."-Prynne.

As they stopped from the chamber, they saw at the door fourteen Somewhat allied to this blasphemy), though in an inferior degree, shoos in a row, growing smaller and snsaller, two by two, a pair for is die offence of profane and common swearing."-Blackstone.

each child. The mother gazed at them, and when she saw that they "When one tossed his weaver's beam, and the other carried the wero so many, she wept. gates of Gaza, they performed their prodigious feats by tender filaments, But the father said, “Mother, why dost thou weep? Have not all sighter than a cobweb, undiscernible with a microscope."-Soarch, the seven received sound and active feet? Why, then, should we be "Light of Naturo."

anxious about that which covers them ? If the children have conDefinite and definitive are synonymous, that is, words which Aidence in ne, should we not have confidence in Him who can do more come near in meaning to each other'; I say near in meaning, for than we can comprehend ? there are few pairs of words that have exactly the same force. work with a cheerful countenance."

"See, his sun rises! Come, then, like it let us begin our day's Definite and definitive, as coming from finis, an end, agree in Thus they spoke and toiled at their labours, and God blessed the that they both put an end to a matter : & definite answer puts work of their hands, and they had enough and to spare, they and their an end to your question by speaking so clearly, and so exactly, seven children; for faith gives strength and courage, and love elevates as to leave no room for its repetition; but a definitive answer the soul. pats an end to the matter in issue as well as to the question. By a definite answer I leave you in no doubt as to my meaning ;

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIX. sad by a definitive angwer I put a negative on your proposal. Honest men, and clear-minded men give definito answers ; mon

SECTION LXVI.-HAMAMELIDACEÆ, OR WITCH-HAZELS. who bare come to a final conclusion pronounce a definitive Characteristics : Calyx tubular, adherent to the ovary; limb judgment

four to five partite; petals absent or inserted upon the calyx, *They nerer have suffered, and never will suffer, the fixed estate of and alternating with its divisions ; stamens indefinite in the the church to be converted into a pension, to depend on the treasury, apotalous genera, in the petaliferous genera double the number und to be delayed, withheld, or perhaps to be extinguished, by fiscal of the petals, some sterile, and opposite to the petals, others Cenities." -Burke, “French Revolution,"

fertile and alternate; anthers square or semi-circular; ovary "And all their landes, goodes, and possessions were confiscats and half inferior, two-celled, uni- or multi-ovulate; ovules pendent, 2.sed to ye kynge's vse (use)."-Hall, “Richard III."

"There are other subterraneous juts and channels, fissures and reflexed; two styles, two stigmata, both distinct ; capsule panages through which many times the waters make their way."

- septicidal, having one-seeded cells. Durham, " Physico-Theology."

The members of this natural order are trees or shrubs, ordishence the French ? From refutare, says Richardson; and disposed in panicles, capitula, or spikes. To refuse comes immediately from the French refuser. But narily covered with hair arranged in the form of stars. Leaves

alternate, petiolate, simple, bi-stipulate. Flowers almost sessile, tertainly refutare, both in good and in middle-aged Latin,

The few species composing this natural order are dispersed primarily signifies to put down, put back, refuse, and only deri- over North America, Japan, China, India, Madagascar, and the Tatively to prove logically wrong. But this view makes to refuse Cape. The Virginian hamamelis (Hamamelis Virginica) is a sed to refute the same in origin. Besides, the t and 8 are not shrub having yellow fasciculated flowers, the ovary of which does sretangeable. It seems less incorrect to derive refuse from. re not ripen until the second year. It is cultivated in gardens for and fundo (fusns, fusion), which thus means a pouring or handing the sake of its oily farinaceous seeds; the decoction of its bark back Refuse, the nonn, signifying rubbish, comes from the same and leaves is charged with tannic bitter principles and a peculiar boot, only it takes its special import from a custom which pre- volatile oil. The alder-leaved fothergillia (Fothergillia alnifolia) railed in some cathedral and collegiate churches, according to is a shrub, a native of Carolina, but cultivated in Europe. Its shich those who held the benefices were required to put together inflorescence is a spike composed of white and odoriferous every year into a common treasury, for the common use, some flowers. Its fruits discharge their seeds with a considerable portion of their income. That portion was seldom the best, and noise. The Rhodoleia Championi (Fig. 218) is a small tree dis. kence the refusio, as the Latin name for the common contri- covered in China by Captain Champion, in the forests which bation was, refuse in English, came to have a bad character, surround Canton. It is cultivated with facility in the open air sed to be nearly equivalent to our rubbish. Rubbish, or in an of Earopean countries. The leaves of this tree are persistent, dder form of the word, rubbage, is that which was rubbed off its flowers grouped in five, surrounded with roseate bracts, which (Latin, detritus), as refuse is that which is poured or thrown might be almost taken for a petaloid floral envelope. EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

SECTION LXVII.-PHILADELPHACEÆ, OR SYRINGAS. Historical Theme: The Mission of Moses to Pharaoh." Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary, valvate in æsti. WORDS WITH THEIR PROPER PREPOSITIONS.

vation; petals in number equal to the divisions of the calyx, Words. Foreign Representatives.

with contorted æstivation; stamens, a multiple number of that Corspelled to, pello, I drive.

of the petals; ovary, three or many celled; placenta central, Compliance with, plica, a fold.

multi-ovalate; ovules ascendant or pendent, imbricate, reflexed; Composed of, compono, I place together.

capsule many-seeded ; seeds enveloped in a loose testa; embryo cedo, I yield.

dicotyledonous, straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the concipio, I take together.

length of which it equals. The members of this natural order Concerned at, for, concerner, to regard.

are eroot trees, having simple opposite leaves without stipules. curro, I run.

Their flowers are complete, regular, white, odoriferous, disposed damnum, injury.

either in oyme or panicle. descendo, I go down

The Philadelphus coronarius, or garland syringa (Fig. 220), is duco, I lead, fero, I bear.

indigenous to Central Europe, and a frequent garden ornament. Stady and endeavour to reproduce the following gem from medicine. They contain a volatile oil sometimes employed as an

Its flowers are very odorous, and were formerly held in esteem as a the German of Kraumacher :

agent for the adulteration of oil of jasmine. The Deutzia scabra, THE SEVEN CHILDREN.

or rough-leaved deutzia, is a native of Japan, now cultivated in Early in the morning, as the day began to dawn, the devout father botanic gardens. The Japanese employ

the inner bark of this de Samily store with his

wife from the couch, and thanked God for tree as a plaster; its leaves are employed to impart a polish to "sadas, aud for their refreshing slumber.

wood.

back.

Concede to,
Conceive of,

Concur with, in, Condemn to, Condescend to, Cerânce to, Center on,

I say

I buy

a wave

(fæděris

) } a treaty

I fly to fly

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1

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXX.

Latin words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.
LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico

dict

dictate, predict, diction. Dies a day

di WORDS are undergoing constant change of signification. The Medius

dial, diary, meridian.
middle
modi

mediate, mediocrity. changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable,

Dignus worthy digni dignity, dignify. except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of mind which contracts and expands, and expands and con- Doceo I teach doc, doct docile, doctor, doctrine. tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo I grieve

dot

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction ard expansion of the import of words. The term Dominus a master domin

domineer, dominion. “import" furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is, Domus a house

dom

domestic, domicile. Donum a gift

don according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

donation, donor. Duco

I lead carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

duc, duct duct, induce, educate. Duo troo du

dual, duel. variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity. Durus

hard
dur

durable, durance. The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug- Ebrins drunken ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im- Ego I

ego

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo

(e)em, empt red(e)em, exemption. the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add a Flecto I bend flect

reflect, inflect. few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

Flexus bent

flex

Beaible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate

Flictus (fligo) dashed flict

conflict, afflict. Flos (floris)

a flower so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

flor

floral, florist. Fluctus

fluctu fluctuate. signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and Fluo I flow flui

fluent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus a floring flux

reflux, efflux. contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Fædus chapels of the Nonconformists.

feder federal, confederate. “It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole Foro I bore, pierce for

perforate, church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy conventicles, which, Fors (fortis) chance fort

fortuitous, fortunate. covered with pretence of religion, may serve unto dangerous practices." Fortis strong forti fortify, fortitude. -Hooker.

Fossa a ditch

foss

fosse. The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

Fossus dug

foss

fossil. skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current Fractus

Frango I break frag, fring fragment, infringe.
broken fract

fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made; for example

Frigeo I am cold frig

frigid, refrigeration. " If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit fructi fructify.
Let my right hand forget her cunning."-Ps. cxxxvii. 5. Fruor I enjoy fru

fruition. Ounning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

Fugio

fug

refuge, subterfuge.

Fugitum superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase, “a Fulmen

fugit fugitive. knowing one," knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness. (fulminis)

lightning fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo I pour fund

refund, too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured

fus

fusible, infuse, refuse. craft as applied to a trade :

Gelu

frost gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gelat. "A poem is the work of the poet ; poesy is his skill or craft of Gens (gentis) a nation gent

gentile, genteel. (inous. making." --Ben Jonson.

Genu
a knee
genu

genuflexion. Our craft is the Saxon kroft, or the German kraft, which denotes

Gero I carry

ger, gest

belligerent,gesture, digestion. Exter outward ecter

external, cæterior. internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber a workman

fabr

fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

Facilis

facil, facul, facilitate, faculty. The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

easy
ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition. Facio I make

fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

fic, fy soporific, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) heaviness, sleep sopor soporiferous. English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

Fallo I deceive fall

fallacious, infallible.

Fanum One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar

a temple fan

profane, profanation, Fari

to speak fa bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in Fatus

fable, ineffable. spoken

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy felic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina

femin feminine, ef feminacy. years I followed in my own school. Luoy Aikin, her biographer, Fero I bear fer

ferry, infer, circumference. tells us: “On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo

I boil ferv fervid, effervescence, separate classes to her apartment; she read a fable, a short Fidelis faithful fidel

fidelity, infidel. story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them

Fido
I trust fid

confide, diffidence. back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in Filius

Filia
a daughter

filial, affiliate. their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by Filum

a thread

filament. her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo I feign fig

figment. were chastised, the idle epithets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus feigned fict

fiction, fictitious. reason was always assigned for every correction; so that the Finis an end

final, finite, definite, defini. arts of editing and of criticising were in some degree learnt Fiscus the treasury fisc

fiscal, confiscate. [tive. together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in Fissus cleft

fiss

fissure. Latin and Greek, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the Flatus a puff of wind flat flatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such dis

“Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin; bu cipline." LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to signi!

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said t Latin words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural."-Clark Curro I run

incur, curricle, current. "Latin Grammar.” Cursus a running

excursion, succour.

"A duel, called by the Greeks monomachia (single-fight), and by t? Datus

given dit, dat addition, date, datum, data. Latins duellum, receiving its denomination from the persons engage Derrr

in it, is properly a fight or combat between two persons." --South. (tiecoris) grace decor decorous, decoration.

" I suppose I need not take any pains to prove the unlawfulness, Der dentis) a tooth dont

dentist, indontatiou. the sottishness of such duellings, when men sold their lives for a crow Deng (dei) a god

deity, doify.

or an angel; and by a preposterous way of labouring not to get the Dexter right-handed dexter dexterity, dexterous.

living, but to procure their death,"-South.

fat

a woman

} fili

a son

fin

culi, curr
curs, cour

There is one kind of egotist which is very common in the world. I Bat the glow of morning beamed into the little chamber where their mean those empty, conceited fellows, who repeat as sayings of their seven abildren lay in their beds asleep. own, or some of their particular friends, several jests which were made Then they gazed at the children one by one, and the mother said, before they were born, and which every one who has conversed in the "They are sovon in number ; alas ! it will be hard for us to find them world has heard a hundred times over."-Spactator.

food." Thus sighed the mother, for there was a famine in the land. "If a pawnbroker receives plate or jewels as a pledge or security for But the father smiled, and said, "See, do they not lie there, all the the repayment of money lent thereon, on a day certain, he has them soven ? And they have all red cheeks, and the beans of the morning apon an express contract or condition to restore them, if the pledger stream over them, so that they appear lovelier than ever, like seven performs his part by redeeming them in due time."-Blackstone. blooming roses. Mother, that shows us that He who creates the

"A just, though terrible, judgment of God upon these play-hunters morning and sends us sleep, is true and unchangeable.” and prophaners of his holy day."-Prynne.

As they stepped from the chamber, they saw at the door fourteen "Somewhat allied to this blasphemy), though in an inferior degree, shoes in a row, growing smaller and smaller, two by two, a pair for is the offence of profane and common swearing."--Blackstone.

each child. The mother gazed at them, and when she saw that they a When one tossed his weaver's beam, and the other carried the were so many, she wept. gates of Gaza, they performed their prodigious feats by tender filaments, Bat the father said, “Mother, why dost thou weep? Have not all slighter than a cobweb, undiscernible with a microscope."-Search, the seven received sound and active feet? Why, then, should we be * Light of Nature."

anxions about that which covers them? If the children have con. Definite and definitive are synonymous, that is, words which Aidence in us, should we not have confidence in Him who can do more come near in meaning to each other ; I say near in meaning, for than we can comprehend ? there are few pairs of words that have exactly the same force. work with a cheerful countenance.”

“Soe, his sun rises ! Come, then, like it let us begin our day's Definite and definitive, as coming from finis, an end, agree in

Thus they spoke and toiled at their labours, and God blessed the that they both put an end to a matter : a definite answer puts work of their hands, and they had enough and to spare, they and their an end to your question by speaking so clearly, and so exactly, seven children; for faith gives strength and courage, and love elevates as to leave no room for its repetition; but a definitive answer the soul. pata an end to the matter in issue as well as to the question. By a definite answer I leave you in no doubt as to my meaning ;

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIX. and by a definitive answer I put & negative on your propobal. Honest men, and clear-minded men give definite answers; men

SECTION LXVI.-HAMAMELIDACEÆ, OR WITCH-HAZELS. who have come to & final conclusion pronounce a definitive Characteristics : Calyx tubular, adherent to the ovary; limb judgment.

four to five partite; petals absent or inserted upon the calyx, They never have suffered, and never will suffer, the fixed estate of and alternating with its divisions ; stamens indefinite in the the church to be converted into a pension, to depend on the treasury, apetalous genera, in the petaliferous genera double the number and to be delayed, withheld, or perhaps to be extinguished, by fiscal of the petals, some sterile, and opposite to the petals, others difficulties."-Burke, “ French Revolution."

fertile and alternate; anthers square or semi-circular; ovary * And all their landes, goodes, and possessions were confiscate and half inferior, two-celled, ini- or multi-ovulate; ovules pendent, seased to ye kynge's vse (use)."-Hall, Richard III."

" There are other subterraneous juts and channels, fissures and reflexed; two styles, two stigmata, both distinct ; capsule passages through which many times the waters make their way." - septicidal, having one-Beeded cells. Derham, “Physico-Theology."

The members of this natural order are trees or shrubs, ordiwhence the French P From refutare, says Richardson; and disposed in panicles, capitula, or spikes. To refuse comes immediately from the French refuser. Bat Darily covered with hair arranged in the form of stars. Leaves

alternate, petiolate, simple, bi-stipulate. Flowers almost sessile, certainly refutare, both in good and in middle-aged Latin, primarily signifies to put down, put back, refuse, and only deri

The few species composing this natural order are dispersed ratively to prove logically wrong. But this view makes to refuse over North America, Japan, China, India

, Madagascar, and the

The Virginian hamamelis (Hamamelis Virginica) is a and to refute the same in origin. Besides, the t and s are not shrub having yellow fasciculated flowers, the ovary of which does erchangeable. It seems less incorrect to derive refuse from re not ripen until the second year. It is cultivated in gardens for and fundo (fusus, fusion), which thus means a pouring or handing the sake of its oily farinaceous seeds; the decoction of its bark back. Refuse, the noun, signifying rubbish, comes from the same and leaves is charged with tannle bitter principles and a peculiar root, only it takes its special import from a custom which pre- volatile oil. The alder-leaved fothergillia (Fothergillia alnifolia) railed in some cathedral and collegiate churches, according to is a shrub, a native of Carolina, but cultivated in Europe. Its which those who held the benefices were required to put together. inflorescence is a spike composed of white and odoriferous every year into a common treasury, for the common use, some Aowers. Its fruits discharge their seeds with a considerable portion of their income. That portion was seldom the best, and noise. The Rhodoleia Championi (Fig. 218) is a small tree dishence the refusio, as the Latin name for the common contri-covered in China by Captain Champion, in the forests which bution was, refuse in English, came to have a bad character, sarround Canton. It is cultivated with facility in the open air and to be nearly equivalent to our rubbish. Rubbish, or in an of European countries. The leaves of this tree are persistent, older form of the word, rubbage, is that which was rubbed off its flowers grouped in five, surrounded with roseate bracts, which (Latin, detritus), as refuse is that which is poured or thrown might be almost taken for a petaloid floral envelope. EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

SECTION LXVII.-PHILADELPHACEÆ, OR SYRINGAS. Historical Theme : The Mission of Moses to Pharaoh.Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary, valvate in æstiWORDS WITH THEIR PROPER PREPOSITIONS.

vation ; petals in number equal to the divisions of the calyx, Words. Foreign Representatives.

with contorted æstivation; stamens, a multiple number of that Compelled to, pello, I drive.

of the petals; ovary, three or many celled; placenta central, Compliance with, plica, a fold.

multi-ovolate; ovules ascendant or pendent, imbricate, reflexed; Composed of, compono, I place together,

capsule many-seeded ; seeds enveloped in a loose testa; embryo Concede to, cedo, I yield.

dicotyledonons, straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the Conceive of, concipio, I take together.

length of which it equals. The members of this natural order Concerned at, for, concerner, to regard.

are erect trees, having simple opposite leaves without stipules. Concur with, in, curro, I run,

Their flowers are complete, regular, white, odoriferous, disposed Condemn to, damnum, injury.

either in oyme or panicle. Condescend to,

descendo, I go down Conduce to, duco, I lead.

The Philadelphus coronarius, or garland syringa (Fig. 220), is Confer on, fero, I bear.

indigenous to Central Europe, and a frequent garden ornament.

Its flowers are very odorous, and were formerly held in esteem as a Study and endeavour to reproduce the following gem from medicine. They contain a volatile oil sometimes employed as an the German of Krummacher :

agent for the adulteration of oil of jasmine. The Deutzio scabra, THE SEVEN CHILDREN.

or rough-leaved deutzia, is a native of Japan, now cultivated in Early in the morning, as the day began to dawn, the devout father botanic gardens. The Japanese employ the inner bark of this of a family arose with his wife from the couch, and thanked God for tree as a plaster; its leaves are employed to impart a polish to the day, and for their refreshing slumber.

wood.

back.

SECTION LXVIII.-CEPHALOTACEÆ.

arid soils, and remain fresh by reason of the humidity they The genus Cephalotus, which Labillardiere placed amongst absorb from the air as well as the soil. Nearly all the moisthe Rosacee, and which other authors have annexed to the Saxi- | ture thus absorbed is retained, because the surface of these frages, is considered by Dr. Lindley as being likely to be ulti- plants suffer but little transudation, very few stomata or mately classed by botanists as a sub-family of the natural order evaporating pores existing in their structure. All the CrassiRanunculaceo, or Crowfoots.

laceæ abound in a slightly saline aqueous juice containing malic It is constituted by certain perennial plants of Australia, acid. On account of these constituents, the Crassulaceæ have having a short subterraneous stem and leaves united in a tuft, acquired some celebrity as medicinal agents. A few species are and offering two distinct forms; one form plane, oval oblong, edible. The purple stonecrop (Sedum telephium), the white the other situated a little below the preceding, composed of a stonecrop (Sedum album), and the yellow stonecrop (Sedum petiole dilated into a pair of labiate expansions, the lower one reflexum), as well as the house-leek (Sedum sempervivum), are being large, hollowed out like a cup, the upper one smaller, flat, frequently employed for stimulating wounds; the Mediterranean and serving as a cover. The stem is pseudo-cauline, on the Crassulæ possess similar qualities. The acrid stonecrop (Sedum extremity of which the flowers expand. The flowers are white acre), a plant which grows in sundry places in Europe, contains and small; the calyx is free, six-partite, petaloid, valvate in an acrid principle, in virtue of which it is rubefacient, or causes æstivation, corolla absent. The twelve stamens are inserted a redness of the skin when externally applied, purgative and upon the border of the tube of the calyx. The six ovaries are emetic when administered internally. The root of the rosesessile upon a plane receptacle alternate with the sepals, uni- scented stonecrop (Sedum rhodiola), so called from the circumlocular, uni- or bi-ovulate. Ovules erect, reflexed. Fruit com. stance of its diffusing an odour similar to that of a rose, was

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219. COM B-LIKE HEDGEHOG THISTLE (ECHINOCACTUS PECTINIFERUS).

218. CHAMPION'S RHODOLEIA (RIODOLEIA CHAMPIONI).

posed of six achænia, which open circularly at their base. Coty. | formerly used by medical practitioners and herbalists as a ledon small, straight, at the base of a fleshy albumen. One sedative. The Greenlanders boil this vegetable, and eat it as a species, the Cephalotus follicularis, or New Holland pitcher pot-herb. plant (Fig. 225), has been some years introduced into European The leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum, a species of house-leek, gardens.

a native of the East Indies, present a very curious physiological SECTION LXIX.-CRASSULACEÆ, OR HOUSE.LEEKS. phenomenon, the germs of this plant growing at the extremity Characteristics : Calyx frec; petals inserted upon the base of of the leaf-nerves. A single leaf laid on a damp surface will the calyx, in number equal to the divisions of the latter, free or throw out young plants all round its margin. coherent at the base ; imbricated in æstivation; stamens in. serted with the petals and ordinarily adherent to them; their

SECTION LXX.-MESEMBRYACEÆ, OR FICOIDS. number equal to that of the petals, or double; free or attached Characteristics : Tubular calyx consolidated with the ovary : to an axis, each furnished with a scale at its base, and pluri. petals indefinite, inserted on the calyx ; ovary many-celled, plaovulate; opules horizontal or pendent; follicules ordinarily free ; centa applied to the midrib of the carpels, and occupying the dehiscence ventral, sometimes attached to the capsule, in which lower part of the cell ; ovules numerous, curved; stigmas sescase the dehiscence is dorsal; seed dicotyledonous, straight, sile; capsule multi-valvular; seed dicotyledonous; embryo surexalbuminous, occupying the axis of a small fleshy albumen. rounding a farinaceous albumen.

The Crassulaceæ are in some cases subligneous herbs, more or The members of this natural order are herbs or small shrubs, less charged with juicy matter; leaves ordinarily simple, de- and are all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Their leaves are prived of stipules; flowers terminal, corymbous, or in cymes, or fleshy, their flowers axillary or terminal, solitary, or disposed in agglomerated, occasionally solitary (Fig. 221, 224).

the form of a cymous corymb. Capsule at first fleshy, then The Crassulaceæ grow in the warmer parts of the temperate almost woody; its cells opening centrifugally. Epicarp thick regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. They thrive in the most and coriaceous, separated from the endocarp, which latter is

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