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nach seinem Hause gesdridt. 9. Er ging aus dem Zimmer. 10. Ich war b c, to the pp in the points E F G; determine the vp for these bei meinem Bruder. 11. Dies ist gegen das Gesef
lines only, and follow the instructions given with reference to EXERCISE 106 (Vol. II., page 156).
Figs. 27, 28, and 29 (Vol. III., page 9) in drawing the perspective 1. We cannot get through this forest. 2. I received these letters
of the base; the points of contact E and c will be the points to this morning through a kind acquaintance. 3. Along the river they be brought down to e' and d' for the base. The lines of contact saw the enemy's glittering arms. 4. One should be ready to sacri- from F and G must also be brought down to the base of the fice everything for a friend. 5. For this behaviour the father picture upon which to measure the height of the pyramid F'M and punished the boy. 6. They directed the cannons against the town. 7. G'n. Divide f'n or G'n into three equal parts, and through You are not now nearly so frank towards me as was the case formerly. the second from the base draw the line of sight parallel with 8. The enemy shot all the prisoners without exception. 9. Without the pp. Find the VP, to which draw lines from the points of the father's interposition, the children might have caused a great mis- contact E' and c'; these lines cut by visual rays from D and B in fortune. 10. Without doubt my friend will arrive here to-day, 11. In the plan will decide the extent of the base in h i and k. For the order not to increase the mother's fear still more, he did not tell her top lines must be drawn from m and n to the vp, and cut by the truth in all respects. waged war for seven years with Frederick the Second, king of Prussia, visual rays from the plan of the top, as was done with the base; about the possession of Silesia. 13. For this disease there is no draw the inclined edges mh, n i and o k; this will complete the medicine.
PROBLEM XXII. (Fig. 42).-Supposing an equilateral triangle, GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.–VII.
having its side 2.5 inches, to be the base of a pyramid 2.5 inches
high, draw a perspective representation of the pyramid. Assume PROBLEM XX. (Fig. 40).-Upon the board of the last question one side of the base to be inclined at an angle of 20° with the (see Vol. III., page 73) describe a circle, the circumference touch picture plane, the nearest edge of the pyramid to be į inch from ing the edges.
the picture plane, and the observer's eye to be 5 inches from the picFig. 39, Problem XIX., must be repeated: then upon f b de- ture plane, and 1.5 inch above the horizontal plane on which the scribe a semicircle, and about the semicircle the parallelogram pyramid stands, and opposite a point 2 inches to the left of the fh gb; from , the centre, draw h, %g; through the points angle of the pyramid nearest the picture plane. (From a Military where these last lines cut the circumference draw lines parallel Examination Paper.) to fh or b g, to i, k; next, through the points i, m, k, draw Draw a line, A x, at an angle of 200 with the PP, determine straight lines parallel to f a'c' or bd; draw the diagonals a' d, the point B inch from the PP, and make A B equal 2.5 inches, do, which intersect the parallel lines dropped from the incline upon which describe an equilateral triangle, the base of the k zi; the points of intersection numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, pyramid. The centre of the triangle must be found by bisecting will be those through which the plan of the inclined circle must two of the angles (or by bisecting two of the sides, because the be drawn.
figure is a regular one, having equal angles and equal sides); the Before proceeding with the perspective delineation of the board intersection of the bisecting lines will be the centre at G, which and circle, as shown in the lower part cf Fig. 40, we must detain is plan of the apex of the pyramid. Produce the line co to the pupil whilst we examine the principles upon which the plan D, and draw from A and B parallel lines to meet the pp in E and of the inclined circle is represented. The explanation given F. From E, D and r draw perpendicular lines to the base of the with Figs. 38 and 39 will be sufficient to clear all difficulties picture BP. Place the station point (SP), and draw the HL with respect to the board only. As the circle is lying on the according to the given distance stated in the question; find the board or inclined plane, the end or profile of which is f b, we VP for DG C, which will also be the yp for the other parallel must ascertain the whereabouts of the points through which the lines drawn from the plan to the PP: visual rays drawn from circle is drawn upon the incline. Let the pupil draw a square A, B, C, and cutting other lines drawn from H I K to the VP, will upon a separate piece of paper, and describe within it a circle, at their intersections give the perspective positions of the several then hold the paper at an angle with the horizon, the inclined angles of the triangle, which must be completed by straight edge being opposite the eye, he will first see how from an in. lines forming these angles. Thus far there is no particular clined line we can represent the whole of a square, as illustrated difference in the rule for drawing the perspective of the base from by Figs. 38 and 39, but in this case we have the addition of a the one given for the last problem and several others gone before; circle within the square, therefore the points through which the but we wish especially to draw the attention of our pupils as to circle is drawn must be brought to the edge of the inclined which of the lines of contact E H, D I, or F K must be the one square represented by the line f 6 (Fig. 40); a semicircle upon which the elevation or height of the pyramid is to be set off. will be sufficient to help us in this, as the opposite portions of It will be easily understood, when we consider that the vertex the circle and the several points through which it passes of the pyramid is over the centre of the base, that the line of contact correspond; therefore the method of construction above given connected with the centre must be the one, viz., D I. Therefore will enable us to produce upon the plan of the board the plan upon D i mark the height of the pyramid, viz., I L; from L draw of the circle also.
a line to the VP, and a visual ray from G cutting this line in I To proceed with the perspective representation, let the pupil will give the position of the vertex of the pyramid. Draw from draw visual rays from all the points in c'd and a'b, to cat m lines to meet the angles at the base, which will complete the the respective sides of the perspective projection of the square; representation required. Suppose the three inclined faces had draw lines between the corresponding points on the opposite not been equal, and that the plan of the vertex had been at y, sides of the perspective square, and also the diagonal lines of the then gd must be drawn parallel to a D, the line of contact square : the points through which the circle is to be drawn by brought down, and from the height measured to l a line drawn to hand will be those which are found to answer to the same in the the vp, and the visual ray from g to cut this line, to find the ground plan.
vertex from which intersection the edges drawn to the angles at PROBLEM XXI. (Fig. 41).--A truncated pyramid has a square the base as before will represent the pyramid. base of 1.5 inch side, the top is of 1 inch side, the height 2:5 inches. Suppose the solid to be a regular tetrahedron, that is, a figure Give a perspective representation of the pyramid resting on a hori- with four equal faces, each face would then be an equilateral zontal plane with the pion of the picture inclined to one of the triangle; the height in this case would have to be found. This edges of the bass at an angle of 150 The line of sight to be of obliges us to have recourse to geometrical or orthographic prothe height of the pyramid.
jection. Upon a little reflection the pupil will see that the disAfter placing the line c D (an edge of the base) at the given tance of the vertex from the ground will be less than the length angle, 15° with the PP, draw the plan according to the instruc- of the edge of the pyramid; first, because a straight line drawn tions given in Problem VI.(Vol. II., page 297). Here is an instance from an angle of the equilateral triangle to the centre of the where the use of one vp only will be absolutely necessary; opposite side is less than the side; and again, it would be further there are two sets of retiring lines, viz., C D and its paralle's, reduced because the triangular face is inclined. Now, how much and c B and its parallels; if we were obliged to determine the height may be less than the edge can be determined by the ve for c D and its parallels, we should find by drawing the following mode of proceeding :-Let A B C (Fig. 43) be the from the station point a parallel to c d that the vp would be plan of the pyramid at the base, and the plan of the vertex. at a very considerable and inconvenient distance out of the Now it is understood that all the faces of this solid are equal, aper; therefore produce
the para'lels to C B, viz., A D, a d and and that they are equilateral triangles. Again, we have the full
extent of each of the triangles represented by that of the plan ber at the average price, must be equal to the amount by which ABC, therefore we know the length of the edges of the inclined the cost of the number of pounds of the second kind exceeds triangles, of which A B D is the plan of one, B D C of the second, the cost of the same number at the average price. Hence, and A D C of the third. Of course the vertex of the pyramid Number of first kind x 150. = number of second kind x 3d. will be perpendicularly above its plan in the centre D, therefore Hence the required number of pounds are in the ratio of 3 : 15, or we must rabat the perpendicular, that is, turn it down upon the 1:5, i.e., inversely, as the difference of the prices from the arepaper, and thus form the right angle B D E. From B with the rage price. distance B A or B C cut the perpendicular D E in E, join B E, Hence, any pairs of numbers of pounds in this ratio will form a which will represent the rabatted and inclined edge of the py
mixture of the required kind. ramid, whilst D E will represent the height of the pyramid. We 5. When there are more than two quantities at different prices, may, perhaps, make it clearer in this way :-that as the line which are to be mixed ? BD must be the plan of an inclined edge of the triangle A B D, of This kind of question can be solved by the same principles. which В D is the plan, and because B E, the rabatted edge, is Separating the quantities to be mixed into two sets, one equal to B A, 'and D E perpendicular to D B, therefore D E must cheaper and the other dearer than the average price, we must be equal to the height of E, the vertex from the ground. To evidently have the sum of the quantities which are cheaper represent the elevation draw B B', A A', and c c', at right angles than the average, multiplied each by the amount by which its with a y (the axis of the plane of projection), produce D D' to price is less than the average price, equal to the sum of the any length and make D'E' equal to D E; draw from E' lines quantities which are dearer, multiplied each by the amount by to B', A', and c', which will represent the vertical projection or which its price is greater than the average price. elevation of the pyramid. To draw the plan, and ascertain the There is one difference, however, in this case and that of only height of the pyramid by the rabatment of the right-angled tri-two ingredients. In the latter, the ingredients must be mixed angle B D E, will be all that is necessary to prepare the subject in one given ratio; in the former, an infinite number of numbers for the perspective representation. We have added the ortho can be found, so that ingredients mixed proportionately to them graphic elevation, trusting it may assist the pupil to understand will satisfy the required condition. that the height is not equal to one of the edges.
6. EXAMPLE.-How may teas, at 38. 6d., 4s., and 4s. 6d. a To proceed with the perspective elevation, draw the plan as in pound respectively, be mixed so as to form a mixture worth Fig. 42, find its height by Fig. 43, and set off that height from 4s. 2d. a pound ? I to L (Fig. 42). For the rest proceed as in Fig. 42. We will Here the first two are less than the average price, and the last is give another question similar in character to the last problem, greater; and the differences are 8d., 22., and 4d. respectively. for the pupil to work out by himself, without any accompanying Therefore, explanation except the figure.
No. of lbs. of first x 8d. + no. of lbs. of second * 20. = no. of lbs. PROBLEM XXIII. (Fig. 44).-Give a perspective view of a regular
of third x 4d. pyramid on an hexagonal base, the height of the pyramid being Take, then, any number of pounds of the first and any numequal to three times the length of one of the edges of its base. ber of pounds of the second, at pleasure. We can then deterAssume that it is seen from a point to the right of it, and at a mine what number of pounds of the third must be mixed with height above the horizontal plane equal to į the height of the these, so as to satisfy the required condition. As the simplest pyramid.
case, suppose we take 1 pound of each of the first two kinds. We will merely add that as no definite scale is given with the Then we have above problem, the pupil can please himself as to the size, only he Number of pounds of the third x 4d. = 8d. + 20. = 10d.; or, must take care to observe the proportions mentioned. The ex
number of pounds of the third = to = 2. pression “the horizontal plane” means the ground upon which
Now 1:1:1 are in the proportion of 2 : 2:5. it stands. The question is taken from one of the Military Hence 2 pounds of the first, 2 pounds of the second, and 7 pounds of Examination Papers.
the third will form a mixture worth 4s. 20. a pound.
7. EXAMPLE.-How may wines at 15s., 18s. 60., 20s., 26., LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.--XL. and 30s. a gallon respectively, be mixed so as to form a mixture
worth 24s. a gallon ? AVERAGES, ETC. 3. The Average, or Mean, of any set of numbers is the number. The first three are in defect, the differences being 98., 58. 6d., and 48.
respectively; and the last two are in excess, the differences being obtained by dividing their sum by the number of different quan 28. and 6s. tities forming the set. It is that number which, if placed in Taking 1 gal. of each of the first four kinds, we must have the position of each of the quantities forming the set, will,
9 + 53 + 4 = 2 + no. of gals. of last * 6. when added together, give the same result as the original quan- Hence
9 + 5% + 4 - 2
will give the number of gallons of the last kind, tities, when treated in the same manner.
6 EXAMPLE 1.-A man spends, in seven successive years, the
which, mixed with one gallon of each of the others, will produce following sums :-£200, £250, £300, £320, £180, £330, £210.
a mixture worth 24s, a gallon.
This reduces to : What is his average or mean annual expenditure during that Honce 4 gallons of each of the first four kinds mixed with 11 gallons time?
of the last will fulfil the required condition. 200 + 250 + 300 + 820 + 180 + 330 + 210 The answer is
8. These examples will sufficiently explain the following which is £2554
Rule for determining a proportion of Ingredients at Diferent If he spent £255% every year, he would in seven years have Prices, to form a Mixture at a Given Price. spent the same sum as he actually spent in that time.
Divide the differences from the average price into two setsEXAMPLE 2.-Out of 20 men, 6 die at 25 years of age, 3 at those which are in excess, and those which are in defect. 30, 4 at 35, and 7 at 40. What is the average duration of (1.) When there are only 3 ingredients. their lives?
Add together the two differences which are of the same kind, The total number of years they live is
and divide this sum by the third difference. This will give the (6 * 25) + (3 x 30) + (4 * 35) + (7 40),
quantity of the last, which must be mixed with one unit of each which is 660 years.
of the former. Hence the average required is, or 33 years.--Answer.
(2.) When there are more than 3 ingredients. 4. EXAMPLE.—How may a mixture of tea at 3s. 3d. a pound Add one set together, and subtract from the result the sum of and tea at 4s. 9d. a pound be made so as to produce a mixture the other set with one difference omitted. This result, divided worth 4s. 6d. a pound ?
by the omitted difference, will give the quantity of this last, We shall call 4s. 6d. the average price.
which must be mixed with one unit of each of the former. The tea at 3s. 3d. a pound is ls. 3d. a pound cheaper than the
EXERCISE 61. mixture; The tea at 4s. 98. a pound is 3d. a pound dearer than the mixture.
1. Find the average of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
2. Find the average of 25, 34, 19, 0, 12, and 5. It is evident that the amount by which the cost of the number of
3. Find the average of 114, 45, 935, 0, 3.625, and 41. pounds of the first kind is less than the cost of the same num 4. A master pays his labourers as follows: 20 receive 1s. A woch,
15 receive 12s. a week, and 10 receive 18s. a week. What is the average price per week of a labourer's wages? 5, ord of a property pays 3 per cent. ; ;th 4 per cent., 4th 5 per cent., and the remainder 6 per cent. What is the average per-centage received? 6. The populations of 4 parishes are 4,520, 3,250, 1,200, and 850 respectively. When they have increased respectively 5, 10, 15, and 20 per cent, find the average population of the 4 parishes; find also the average increase per cent. 7. How may three kinds of coffee at 1s., 1s. 4d., and 2s. a pound be mixed, so as to produce a coffee worth 1s. 6d. a pound? 8. Find a way in which sugar at 2%d., 3d., 3}d., and 4d. a pound may be mixed, so that the mixture will be worth £1 10s. 4d. a cwt. 9. A vintner mixes wine at 15s., 20s., and 24s. a gallon respectively, in the proportions 5:3:1. What must he sell the mixture at to gain 20 per cent. P 10. How may spirits at 15s., 16s., 17s., and 22s. a gallon respectirely be mixed with water so that the mixture may be worth (1) 10s. (2) 18s. a gallon P
"AND there being among the Spaniards some who are not only cruel, but very cruel, when a man occasionally wished to punish a slave, either for some crime that he had committed, or for not having done a good day's work, or for spite that he had towards him, or for not having extracted the usual quantity of silver or gold from the mine, when he came home at night, instead of giving him supper, he made him undress, if he happened to have a shirt on, and being thrown down on the ground, he had his hands and feet tied to a piece of wood laid across, so permitted under the rule called by the Spaniards the law of Baiona—a law suggested, I think, by some great demon; then with a thong or rope he was beaten, until his body streamed with blood; which done, they took a pound of pitch or a pipkin of boiling oil, and threw it gradually all over the unfortunate victim; then he was washed with some of the country pepper mixed with salt and water. He was thus left on a plank covered over with a cloth, until the master thought he was able again to work. Others dug a hole in the ground and put the man in, upright, leaving anly his head out, and left him in all night; the Spaniards saying that they have recourse to this cure because the earth absorbs the blood and preserves the flesh from forming any wound, so they get well sooner. And if any die (which sometimes happens) through great pain, there is no heavier punishment by late than that the master shall pay another slave to the king.”
Thus wrote Girolamo Benzoni the Milanese, who, in the year 1541, “started from Milan in the name of God, the sustainer and governor of all the universe,” to seek his fortune or whatever might present itself to him in the newly-discovered possessions of the Spaniards across the Atlantic. Benzoni was, to judge from his own account of his travels, a perfectly ingenuous man, who mentioned gravely and without aiming at effect whatever came under his notice, nothing extenuating nor setting down anght in malice. He was not particularly squeamish about what he did or what others did, though he appears to have had what was lacking in the Spanish composition—some of the feelings of the human heart. He is, therefore, a very fair, unprejudiced witness in respect of the Spanish treatment of the Indians, who, he tells us in another place, would often rather hing themselves and their children in the woods, or leap down chasms from the top of rocks, than fall into the hands of the Spaniards. His testimony is moreover abundantly confirmed by that of many others equally disinterested—by Las Casas, who so pitied the Indians that he suggested (all innocent of intending the slave-trade horrors) the importation of negroes from Africa as a remedy for the decimation the natives were undergoing under Spanish rule; by Sir Walter Raleigh, who, on
gested, by the other:-"Of those (Spaniards) whom they (the Indians) caught alive, especially the captains, they used to tie the hands and feet, throw them down on the ground, and pour gold into their mouth, saying, ‘Eat, eat gold, Christian;' and the more to ill-treat and disgrace them, with knives made of flint, some cut off an arm, some a shoulder, others a leg, and then roasting it on the embers, eat it, dancing and singing, suspending the bones in their temples, or in the houses of their chiefs, as trophies of victory.” It is a sad and singular history, that of the conquest and possession of the West Indies and America by the Spaniards. To the history of maritime discovery belongs the narrative of the actual discovery, the story of the nautical difficulties encountered and surmounted, of the superstitious fears of sailors for the first time venturing into unknown waters, upon whose surface brooded (so the wiseacres reported) the numerous fiends and giants who acknowledged the dominion of the Prince of the power of the air, and who waited impatiently for the presumptuous visit of the voyagers, utterly to destroy them and swallow them up. To the same department must be relegated the task of recording how the discoverer Columbus was cheated of immortalising his name by giving it to the new continent, and of relating the manner in which the great seaman was rewarded. It is proposed here simply to give a slight sketch of the Spanish doings in America and the Indies after obtaining possession of them, how they furiously raged together, imagined all sorts of vain things, and how in the end the power was reft from them. The first permanent settlement made in the West was on Haiti, or as Columbus called it, La Isla Española, of which Bartholomew Columbus was made governor on his brother Christopher's return to Spain. During his administration all went well with the colony, the Indians wondering at the bearded men who had come they knew not from whence with iron tubes from which they hurled lightnings, and by the aid of which they made noises like thunder; but discord sprung up before Christopher's return, the Spaniards ill-used the women, beat the men, and otherwise behaved oppressively; and the Indians having ascertained, by the purely philosophical process of holding a Spaniard under water for ten minutes, that the new-comers were mortal, rose against them when familiarity had somewhat taken away the dread of them, and killed some of the garrison. So long as Columbus and his brother remained in authority the Indians had tolerable treatment, for the influence of the two, weakened though it was by jealousies and mutinies, which sprang up among the Spaniards, was strong enough to hold the greater part of the adventurers in check; but when Spanish governors came to be in power, and every consideration was sacrificed to the greed for gold, the most merciless demands for life were made in order to supply the slave labour necessary for the working of the mines. So rapid was the loss of life from this cause—for the Indians had never been accustomed to such severe work—that in a few years Haiti was all but depopulated, and the Spaniards brought in slaves from the neighbouring islands and from the mainland to fill their place. Porto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, and all the lesser islands were brought under the yoke; Jamaica, which was densely populated, but which did not yield gold, being made the slave-mart for the gold-seekers, who caught the people as they would have snared so many wild beasts, and shipped them off to the islands where the mines were. Haiti remained for many years the head-quarters of the Spanish Government in the West Indies, but when the attractions of the mainland of Mexico, Peru, and Chili had drawn away many Spaniards, and the negroes imported from Africa. began to be more numerous than consorted with the safety of the whites, the island was virtually abandoned, and each separate governor of an island or a province received his orders direct from Spain. The Spaniards having spoiled all the islands of the West Indies—those which yielded gold for sake of the gold, and those which yielded only slaves for sake of the slaves—turned their attention to the mainland, which hitherto they had not thoroughly explored. Balboa, an independent pioneer, made a
putting into Trinidad, found the Spanish governor chaining settlement on the Isthmus of Darien, and having there learned Indian chiefs to stakes placed in the sun, and basting their that on the other side of the isthmus was a kingdom in which bodies with burning bacon, in order to induce them to show any quantity of gold was to be had for the see -- ea-4:
where their gold was. Here is another picture, not justified perhaps, though sug
to Isla Española for reinforcements, and went me self with a small body of men to where the migh'
first revealed to the eyes of a European. gold as he could get, and which the native chiefs freely gave him, he returned for assistance, not daring with his few friends to draw down the hostility of the wealthy nation which he understood was also exceedingly strong. On April 2, 1519, an extensive expedition which had been fitted out in the ports of Cuba, and which sailed under the command of Fernando Cortez, landed on the coast of Yucatan, and was well received by the natives. Cortez immediately formed an entrenched camp, which subsequently became the city of Vera Cruz, and having established himself there began to negotiate for an interview with Montezuma, the emperor of the country. Whether the Mexicans suspected the character of the wolves who came to them in sheep's clothing; whether the Spaniards, as is most likely, did not refrain from acts of violence even at the beginning of their occupation; or whether it was from fear of the firearms which so greatly astonished the people, the Mexicans held back from this proposal. Montezuma sent rich presents which only inflamed the greed of the Spaniards, and Cortez, after entering into alliances with tribes discontented with the government, marched inland with 500 foot soldiers, fifteen horsemen, and six pieces of cannon. With such a force he proposed to himself the conquest of a populous and powerful empire. By striking terror into opponents who had never seen a gun fired until now, by artifice, by playing off hostile chiefs one against the other, Cortez marched on, his admiration being excited at every step by the magnificence of the scenery, and his cupidity aroused by the signs which he daily saw of the enormous wealth of the soil. After short sojourns in some of the cities which fell before him like snow before the sun, he advanced to the city of Mexico, in the environs of which Montezuma came out to meet him in friendly sort, with barbaric but splendid state, and magnificent gifts. The emperor was so gracious and hospitable that Cortez had much difficulty in knowing how even he was to begin playing the villain. The Spaniards were brought into the city, lodged, fed, and clothed, and all that they wanted was supplied to them. Cortez resolved to avail himself of an outrage on some Spaniards on the coast to possess himself of the person of Montezuma. He first complained of the outrage and demanded the punishment of the murderers, who, including a cacique or chief, were brought to Mexico and burned alive as a punishment; but the sufferers having averred, truly or not, that what they had done was by. Montezuma's own order, Cortez seized the emperor, and kept him a prisoner in irons in the Spanish quarters. He wrote to the King of Spain, telling him what he had done, and how that he had done it for the better security of the lives of the Spaniards in Mexico, and for the purpose of more effectually bringing the empire under the dominion of the Spanish king. The enormous consignments of gold sent to Europe astonished the Old World folk, and attracted thousands of them across the water. The gold itself was spent in attempts to found universal dominion, and in endeavours, continued through many years, to crush out as a plague the spirit of liberty both in church and state. In Mexico, after the imprisonment of Montezuma, the Mexicans were compelled to be the slaves of the Spaniards and to work their own gold mines for them. The waste of life became as prodigious as in the West India Islands, and the sufferings of the people so great that the Spanish priests remonstrated, and orders were obtained from the Pope and from the King of Spain for the better treatment of the Indians. But such orders to a man like Cortez were as nothing, and the state of the poor people grew worse and worse. They had resolved at any cost to get rid of their tyrants, when Cortez was called away from the capital to fight a Spanish expedition which had been sent from Cuba, the governor of which thought fit to override the authority of Cortez, and to seek himself to gather where he had not sown. Cortez defeated the expedition, killed its leader, and induced the soldiers to enlist under him. On his return to Mexico city his quarters were assailed by a vast multitude of Mexicans, desperate at the return of their dreadful enemy, and bent on his destruction. In vain did Cortez try everything that skill or valour could dictate, in vain did he bring out Montezuma on the ramparts to quiet the people. Montezuma was killed by a missile flung by one of his own subjects, and Cortez and his followers had to cut their way out of the city. In due time he returned with fresh troops
Gathering as much sor of Montezuma was put to death by slow torture, multitudes
of Mexicans were slain, and possession was formally taken of the country as a dependency of Spain. Twelve years after Cortez had landed at Vera Cruz, Pizarro (in 1531) arrived with a small force on the coast of Peru, and dissembling his object from people who probably did not know what had befallen Mexico, advanced inland, pretending that he would mediate between Huascar and Atahualpa, sons of the late Inca or king, who were striving for the mastery. Atahualpa had the upper hand, and Pizarro managed to get his con. sent to an interview, at which the intention was to seize the Inca, and hold him as a hostage and as a lever of power. At the meeting the Inca was informed that Alexander WL, Pope of Rome, had given Peru and all the other kingdoms in America to the Spaniards; that the Pope of Rome was lord of the whole earth by virtue of his being vice-gerent of Christ, of whom until this moment the Inca had never heard. Atahualpa was required to acknowledge the supremacy of the King of Spain, and to be baptised into the Christian faith. On the luckless man treating these modest demands with derision, a tumult was raised, a heavy fire of musketry and artillery was opened on the Peruvians, and Atahualpa was seized and loaded with irons. Cruel as had been the conduct of the Spaniards in Mexico, it was very cruel in Peru; the grossest frauds were practised on the natives, who were reduced to the most dreadful form of slavery, and compelled to yield forced labour. Atahualpa was made to pay as ransom a room full of bars of gold, and then, the gold having been received, he was strangled, and his body burned at a stake. Furious dissensions arose among the Spaniards about the division of the spoil; Pizarro was murdered, his murderer succumbing in turn to some other ruffian, and a long period of anarchy and bloody revolution ensued, during which the native Peruvians suffered from each successive ruler, Besides the West Indies, Mexico, Peru, and Chili, the Spaniards did not care for their other possessions in America, which fell in course of time under the dominion of the English, French, and Dutch, and include at the present day the whole of the United States of America. What of all they once held do the Spaniards retain at this moment? Cuba only, and Porto Rico. Ruthless, selfish government like that they set up, practices subversive of all good such as they practised, could bring about but one conclusion. Even in Benzoni's time (1550), the demoralisation was such that “many Spaniards prophesied for certain that the island (Isla Española) in a short time will fall entirely into the hands of these blacks" (imported Africans), and such has been its fate after many and deadly struggles between Spaniards, French, and English for the mastery there. When the news of the French Revolution in 1789 reached the island, the French being then masters, the population rose en masse, and in the awful massacre of San Domingo repaid the wrongs of centuries. Jamaica was taken from Spain by commanders sent by Cromwell, and since that time successive conquests have stripped her of all but Cuba and Porto Rico, the only remaining homes of slavery, Brazil excepted, in the civilised world. Mexico, Peru, and Chili remained under the curse of Spanisl rule till quite recent times; but the bursting of the old bands o tyranny in Europe by Napoleon Bonaparte loosened them ind rectly in America. As soon as it was known in Mexico (in 1808 that the Spanish Bourbons were overthrown, the viceroy calle on the people to support King Ferdinand, but when they ros to do so the Spanish colonists resented their interference, thoug it was on their own behalf. “No native American shall pa ticipate in the government so long as there is a mule-driver La Mancha, or a cobbler in Castile, to represent Spanish a cendancy.” In this spirit the Spaniards in Mexico conduct themselves, and the result was that after three formidable inst rections, bloodily suppressed, Iturbide, a native Mexican, gathered up the national party into his hands that he drove t Spaniards out, and received on the 27th of November, 1821, t surrender of the capital on condition that the Spaniards shou forthwith leave the country. After passing through a dreadful ordeal analogous to above, Peru and Chili, making common cause, threw off Spanish yoke, and on the 26th of February, 1826, compel the surrender of Callao, the last foothold of the Spaniards the territories won for them by Cortez and Pizarro. So may
procured from Isla Española, and captured the city; the succes
dominion of all oppressors and wrong-doers perish.