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extent of each of the triangles represented by that of the plan ber at the average price, must be equal to the amount by which ABC, therefore we know the length of the edges of the inclined the cost of the number of pounds of the second kind exceeds triangles, of which A B D is the plan of one, B D C of the second, the cost of the same number at the average price. Hence, and A D C of the third. Of course the vertex of the pyramid Number of first kind x 150. = number of second kind x 3d. will be perpendicularly above its plan in the centre D, therefore Hence the required number of pounds are in the ratio of 3 : 15, or we must rabat the perpendicular, that is, turn it down upon the 1:5, i.e., inversely, as the difference of the prices from the arepaper, and thus form the right angle B D E. From B with the rage price. distance B A or B C cut the perpendicular D E in E, join B E, Hence, any pairs of numbers of pounds in this ratio will form a which will represent the rabatted and inclined edge of the py
mixture of the required kind. ramid, whilst D E will represent the height of the pyramid. We 5. When there are more than two quantities at different prices, may, perhaps, make it clearer in this way :-that as the line which are to be mixed ? BD must be the plan of an inclined edge of the triangle A B D, of This kind of question can be solved by the same principles. which В D is the plan, and because B E, the rabatted edge, is Separating the quantities to be mixed into two sets, one equal to B A, 'and D E perpendicular to D B, therefore D E must cheaper and the other dearer than the average price, we must be equal to the height of E, the vertex from the ground. To evidently have the sum of the quantities which are cheaper represent the elevation draw B B', A A', and c c', at right angles than the average, multiplied each by the amount by which its with a y (the axis of the plane of projection), produce D D' to price is less than the average price, equal to the sum of the any length and make D'E' equal to D E; draw from E' lines quantities which are dearer, multiplied each by the amount by to B', A', and c', which will represent the vertical projection or which its price is greater than the average price. elevation of the pyramid. To draw the plan, and ascertain the There is one difference, however, in this case and that of only height of the pyramid by the rabatment of the right-angled tri-two ingredients. In the latter, the ingredients must be mixed angle B D E, will be all that is necessary to prepare the subject in one given ratio; in the former, an infinite number of numbers for the perspective representation. We have added the ortho can be found, so that ingredients mixed proportionately to them graphic elevation, trusting it may assist the pupil to understand will satisfy the required condition. that the height is not equal to one of the edges.
6. EXAMPLE.-How may teas, at 38. 6d., 4s., and 4s. 6d. a To proceed with the perspective elevation, draw the plan as in pound respectively, be mixed so as to form a mixture worth Fig. 42, find its height by Fig. 43, and set off that height from 4s. 2d. a pound ? I to L (Fig. 42). For the rest proceed as in Fig. 42. We will Here the first two are less than the average price, and the last is give another question similar in character to the last problem, greater; and the differences are 8d., 22., and 4d. respectively. for the pupil to work out by himself, without any accompanying Therefore, explanation except the figure.
No. of lbs. of first x 8d. + no. of lbs. of second * 20. = no. of lbs. PROBLEM XXIII. (Fig. 44).-Give a perspective view of a regular
of third x 4d. pyramid on an hexagonal base, the height of the pyramid being Take, then, any number of pounds of the first and any numequal to three times the length of one of the edges of its base. ber of pounds of the second, at pleasure. We can then deterAssume that it is seen from a point to the right of it, and at a mine what number of pounds of the third must be mixed with height above the horizontal plane equal to į the height of the these, so as to satisfy the required condition. As the simplest pyramid.
case, suppose we take 1 pound of each of the first two kinds. We will merely add that as no definite scale is given with the Then we have above problem, the pupil can please himself as to the size, only he Number of pounds of the third x 4d. = 8d. + 20. = 10d.; or, must take care to observe the proportions mentioned. The ex
number of pounds of the third = to = 2. pression “the horizontal plane” means the ground upon which
Now 1:1:1 are in the proportion of 2 : 2:5. it stands. The question is taken from one of the Military Hence 2 pounds of the first, 2 pounds of the second, and 7 pounds of Examination Papers.
the third will form a mixture worth 4s. 20. a pound.
7. EXAMPLE.-How may wines at 15s., 18s. 60., 20s., 26., LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.--XL. and 30s. a gallon respectively, be mixed so as to form a mixture
worth 24s. a gallon ? AVERAGES, ETC. 3. The Average, or Mean, of any set of numbers is the number. The first three are in defect, the differences being 98., 58. 6d., and 48.
respectively; and the last two are in excess, the differences being obtained by dividing their sum by the number of different quan 28. and 6s. tities forming the set. It is that number which, if placed in Taking 1 gal. of each of the first four kinds, we must have the position of each of the quantities forming the set, will,
9 + 53 + 4 = 2 + no. of gals. of last * 6. when added together, give the same result as the original quan- Hence
9 + 5% + 4 - 2
will give the number of gallons of the last kind, tities, when treated in the same manner.
6 EXAMPLE 1.-A man spends, in seven successive years, the
which, mixed with one gallon of each of the others, will produce following sums :-£200, £250, £300, £320, £180, £330, £210.
a mixture worth 24s, a gallon.
This reduces to : What is his average or mean annual expenditure during that Honce 4 gallons of each of the first four kinds mixed with 11 gallons time?
of the last will fulfil the required condition. 200 + 250 + 300 + 820 + 180 + 330 + 210 The answer is
8. These examples will sufficiently explain the following which is £2554
Rule for determining a proportion of Ingredients at Diferent If he spent £255% every year, he would in seven years have Prices, to form a Mixture at a Given Price. spent the same sum as he actually spent in that time.
Divide the differences from the average price into two setsEXAMPLE 2.-Out of 20 men, 6 die at 25 years of age, 3 at those which are in excess, and those which are in defect. 30, 4 at 35, and 7 at 40. What is the average duration of (1.) When there are only 3 ingredients. their lives?
Add together the two differences which are of the same kind, The total number of years they live is
and divide this sum by the third difference. This will give the (6 * 25) + (3 x 30) + (4 * 35) + (7 40),
quantity of the last, which must be mixed with one unit of each which is 660 years.
of the former. Hence the average required is, or 33 years.--Answer.
(2.) When there are more than 3 ingredients. 4. EXAMPLE.—How may a mixture of tea at 3s. 3d. a pound Add one set together, and subtract from the result the sum of and tea at 4s. 9d. a pound be made so as to produce a mixture the other set with one difference omitted. This result, divided worth 4s. 6d. a pound ?
by the omitted difference, will give the quantity of this last, We shall call 4s. 6d. the average price.
which must be mixed with one unit of each of the former. The tea at 3s. 3d. a pound is ls. 3d. a pound cheaper than the
EXERCISE 61. mixture; The tea at 4s. 98. a pound is 3d. a pound dearer than the mixture.
1. Find the average of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
2. Find the average of 25, 34, 19, 0, 12, and 5. It is evident that the amount by which the cost of the number of
3. Find the average of 114, 45, 935, 0, 3.625, and 41. pounds of the first kind is less than the cost of the same num 4. A master pays his labourers as follows: 20 receive 1s. A woch,
15 receive 12. a week, and 10 receive 188. a week. What is the ave- gested, by the other :-“Of those (Spaniards) whom they (the rage price per week of a labourer's wages ?
Indians) caught alive, especially the captains, they used to tie 5. Ard of a property paye 3 per cent.; th 4 per cent., įth 5 per the hands and feet, throw them down on the ground, and pour cents, and the remainder 6 per cent. What is the average per-centage gold into their mouth, saying, 'Eat, eat gold, Christian ;' and received ?
6. The populations of 4 parishes are 4,520, 3,250, 1,200, and 850 re- the more to ill-treat and disgrace them, with knives made of spectively. When they have increased respectively 5, 10, 15, and 20 flint, some cut off an arm, some a shoulder
, others a leg, and then per cent., find the average population of the 4 parishes; find also roasting it on the embers, eat it, dancing and singing, suspend. the average increase per cent.
ing the bones in their temples, or in the houses of their chiefs, 7. How may three kinds of coffee at 18., 18. 4d., and 28. pound as trophies of victory." be mixed, so as to produce a coffee worth 18. 6d. a pound ?
It is a sad and singular history, that of the conquest and pos& Find a way in which sugar at 2£d., 30., 34d., and 4d, a pound session of the West Indies and America by the Spaniards. To may be mixed, so that the mixture will be worth £i 10s. 4d, a cwt. 2. A vintner mixes wine at 158., 20., and 24s, & gallon respectively, actual discovery, the story of the nautical difficulties encountered
the history of maritime discovery belongs the narrative of the in the proportions 5:8:1. What must he sell the mixture at to gain and surmounted, of the superstitious fears of sailors for the first 20 per cent. ?
10. How may spirits at 155., 168., 178., and 228. a gallon respec-time venturing into unknown waters, upon whose surface brooded tirely be mixed with water so that the mixture may be worth (1) (so the wiseacres reported) the numerous fiends and giants who 108. (2) 188. a gallon ?
acknowledged the dominion of the Prince of the power of
the air, and who waited impatiently for the presumptuous visit KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.—XXXIX. of the voyagers, utterly to destroy them and swallow them up. EXERCISE 60.
To the same department must be relegated the task of recording 1. 23148., 21, 6., 18}s., 16, . 4. £24675, 27613, £24613, £23015. how the discoverer Columbus was cheated of immortalising 2. £241, £34434, £4133%. 5. £750 each.
his name by giving it to the new continent, and of relating the 3. £48, 272, 214
6. £180, £360, £270, £90. manner in which the great seaman was rewarded. It is proposed
here simply to give a slight sketch of the Spanish doings in HISTORIC SKETCHES.--XXX.
America and the Indies after obtaining possession of them, how
they furiously raged together, imagined all sorts of vain things, THE SPANIARDS IN AMERICA,
and how in the end the power was reft from them. "And there being among the Spaniards some who are not only The first permanent settlement made in the West was on cruel, but very cruel, when a man occasionally wished to punish a Haiti, or as Columbus called it, La Isla Española, of which slave, either for some crime that he had committed, or for not Bartholomew Columbus was made governor on his brother having done a good day's work, or for spite that he had towards Christopher's return to Spain. During his administration all him, or for not having extracted the usual quantity of silver or went well with the colony, the Indians wondering at the bearded gold from the mine, when he came home at night, instead of men who had come they knew not from whence with iron giving him supper, he made him undress, if he happened to have tubes from which they hurled lightnings, and by the aid of a shirt on, and being thrown down on the ground, he had his which they made noises like thunder ; but discord sprung up hands and feet tied to a piece of wood laid across, so permitted before Christopher's return, the Spaniards ill-used the women, under the rule called by the Spaniards the law of Baiona-a law beat the men, and otherwise behaved oppressively; and the suggested, I think, by some great demon; then with a thong or Indians having ascertained, by the purely philosophical process rope he was beaten, until his body streamed with blood; which of holding a Spaniard under water for ten minutes, that the done, they took a pound of pitch or a pipkin of boiling oil, new-comers were mortal, rose against them when familiarity and threw it gradually all over the unfortunate victim; then he had somewhat taken away the dread of them, and killed some was washed with some of the country pepper mixed with salt and of the garrison. water. He was thus left on a plank covered over with a cloth, So long as Colambus and his brother remained in authority until the master thought he was able again to work. Others the Indians had tolerable treatment, for the influence of the dug a hole in the ground and put the man in, upright, leaving two, weakened though it was by jealousies and mutinies, which only his head out, and left him in all night; the Spaniards saying sprang up among the Spaniards, was strong enough to hold the that they have recourse to this cure because the earth absorbs greater part of the adventurers in check; but when Spanish the blood and preserves the flesh from forming any wound, governors came to be in power, and every consideration was sacriso they get well sooner. And if any die (which sometimes iced to the greed for gold, the most merciless demands for life happens) through great pain, there is no heavier punishment by were made in order to supply the slave labour necessary for the law than that the master shall pay another slave to the king." working of the mines. So rapid was the loss of life from this
Thus wrote Girolamo Benzoni the Milanese, who, in the year cause--for the Indians had never been accustomed to such 1541, "started from Milan in the name of God, the sustainer severe work--that in a few years Haiti was all but depopulated, and governor of all the universe," to seek his fortune or what and the Spaniards brought in slaves from the neighbouring ever might present itself to him in the newly-discovered pos- islands and from the mainland to fill their place. Porto Rico, sessions of the Spaniards across the Atlantic. Benzoni was, to Cuba, Jamaica, and all the lesser islands were brought under the judge from his own account of his travels, a perfectly ingenuous yoke ; Jamaica, which was densely populated, but which did not man, who mentioned gravely and without aiming at effect yield gold, being made the slave-mart for the gold-seekers, who whatever came under his notice, nothing extenuating nor setting caught the people as they would have snared so many wild down aught in malice. He was not particularly squeamish beasts, and shipped them off to the islands where the mines about what he did or what others did, though he appears to have were. Haiti remained for many years the head-quarters of the had what was lacking in the Spanish composition-some of the Spanish Government in the West Indies, but when the attracfeelings of the human heart. He is, therefore, a very fair, un- tions of the mainland of Mexico, Peru, and Chili had drawn prejudiced witness in respect of the Spanish treatment of the away many Spaniards, and the negroes imported from Africa Indians, who, he tells us in another place, would often rather began to be more numerous than consorted with the safety of hang themselves and their children in the woods, or leap down the whites, the island was virtually abandoned, and each sepachasms from the top of rocks, than fall into the hands of the rate governor of an island or a province received his orders Spaniards. His testimony is moreover abundantly confirmed by direct from Spain. that of many others equally disinterested-by Las Casas, who The Spaniards having spoiled all the islands of the West $0 pitied the Indians that he suggested (all innocent of intend. Indies—those which yielded gold for sake of the gold, and ing the slave-trade horrors) the importation of negroes from those which yielded only slaves for sake of the slaves--turned Africa as a remedy for the decimation the natives were under their attention to the mainland, which hitherto they had not going under Spanish rule; by Sir Walter Raleigh, who, on thoroughly explored. Balboa, an independent pioneer, made a putting into Trinidad, found the Spanish governor chaining settlement on the Isthmus of Darien, and having there learned Indian chiefs to stakes placed in the sun, and basting
their that on the other side of the isthmus was a kingdom in which bodies with burning bacon, in order to induce them to show any quantity of gold was to be had for the seeking, sent where their gold was.
to Isla Española for reinforcements, and went meantime himHere is another picture, not justified perhaps, though sug- self with a small body of men to where the mighty Pacific was
first revealed to the eyes of a European. Gathering as much sor of Montezuma was put to death by slow tortare, multitudes gold as he could get, and which the native chiefs freely gave him, of Mexicans were slain, and possession was formally taken of he returned for assistance, not daring with his few friends to the country as a dependency of Spain. draw down the hostility of the wealthy nation which he under. Twelve years after Cortez had landed at Vera Cruz, Pizarro stood was also exceedingly strong. On April 2, 1519, an ex. in 1531) arrived with a small force on the coast of Peru, and tensive expedition which had been fitted out in the ports of dissembling his object from people who probably did not know Cuba, and which sailed under the command of Fernando Cortez, what had befallen Mexico, advanced inland, pretending that he landed on the coast of Yucatan, and was well received by the would mediate between Huascar and Atahualpa, sons of the natives. Cortez immediately formed an entrenched camp, which late Inca or king, who were striving for the mastery. Atahualpa subsequently became the city of Vera Cruz, and having esta had the upper hand, and Pizarro managed to get his conblished himself there began to negotiate for an interview with sent to an interview, at which the intention was to seize the Montezuma, the emperor of the country.
Inca, and hold him as a hostage and as a lever of power. At Whether the Mexicans suspected the character of the wolves the meeting the Inca was informed that Alexander VI., Pope of who came to them in sheep's clothing; whether the Spaniards, Rome, had given Peru and all the other kingdoms in America as is most likely, did not refrain from acts of violence even at to the Spaniards; that the Pope of Rome was lord of the whole the beginning of their occupation; or whether it was from fear earth by virtue of his being vice-gerent of Christ, of whom of the firearms which so greatly astonished the people, the until this moment the Inca had never heard. Atahualpa was Mexicans held back from this proposal. Montezuma sent rich required to acknowledge the supremacy of the King of Spain, presents which only inflamed the greed of the Spaniards, and and to be baptised into the Christian faith. On the luckless Cortez, after entering into alliances with tribes discontented man treating these modest demands with derision, a tumult was with the government, marched inland with 500 foot soldiers, raised, a heavy fire of musketry and artillery was opened on the fifteen horsemen, and six pieces of cannon. With such a force Peruvians, and Atahualpa was seized and loaded with irons, he proposed to himself the conquest of a populous and power-Cruel as had been the conduct of the Spaniards in Mexico, it was ful empire. By striking terror into opponents who had never very cruel in Peru; the grossest frauds were practised on the seen a gun fired until now, by artifice, by playing off hostile natives, who were reduced to the most dreadful form of slavery, chiefs one against the other, Cortez marched on, his admiration and compelled to yield forced labour. Atahualpa was made to being excited at every step by the magnificence of the scenery, pay as ransom room full of bars of gold, and then, the gold and his cupidity aroused by the signs which he daily saw of the having been received, he was strangled, and his body burned at enormous wealth of the soil. After short sojourns in some of a stake. Furious dissensions arose among the Spaniards aboat the cities which fell before him like snow before the sun, he ad. the division of the spoil; Pizarro was murdered, his murderer vanced to the city of Mexico, in the environs of which Montezuma succumbing in turn to some other ruffian, and a long period of came out to meet him in friendly sort, with barbaric but splendid anarchy and bloody revolution ensued, during which the native state, and magnificent gifts. The emperor was so gracious and Peruvians suffered from each successive ruler, hospitable that Cortez had much difficulty in knowing how even Besides the West Indies, Mexico, Peru, and Chili, the Spaniards he was to begin playing the villain. The Spaniards were did not care for their other possessions in America, which fell in brought into the city, lodged, fed, and clothed, and all that they course of time under the dominion of the English, French, and wanted was supplied to them. Cortez resolved to avail himself Dutch, and include at the present day the whole of the United of an outrage on some Spaniards on the coast to possess him. States of America. self of the person of Montezuma. He first complained of What of all they once held do the Spaniards retain at this the outrage and demanded the punishment of the murderers, who, moment ? Cuba only, and Porto Rico. Ruthless, selfish governincluding a cacique or chief, were brought to Mexico and burned ment like that they set up, practices subversive of all good such alive as a punishment; but the sufferers having averred, truly as they practised, could bring about but one conclusion. Even or not, that what they had done was by. Montezuma's own in Benzoni's time (1550), the demoralisation was such that "many order, Cortez seized the emperor, and kept him a prisoner in Spaniards prophesied for certain that the island (Isla Española) irons in the Spanish quarters. He wrote to the King of Spain, in a short time will fall entirely into the hands of these blacks telling him what he had done, and how that he had done it for imported Africans), and such has been its fate after many and the better security of the lives of the Spaniards in Mexico, and deadly struggles between Spaniards, French, and English for for the purpose of more effectually bringing the empire under the mastery there. When the news of the French Revolution the dominion of the Spanish king. The enormous consignments in 1789 reached the island, the French being then masters, the of gold sent to Europe astonished the Old World folk, and population rose en masse, and in the awful massacre of San attracted thousands of them across the water. The gold itself Domingo repaid the wrongs of centuries. Jamaica was taken was spent in attempts to found universal dominion, and in from Spain by commanders sent by Cromwell, and since that endeavours, continued through many years, to crush out as a time successive conquests have stripped her of all but Cuba plague the spirit of liberty both in church and state. In Mexico, and Porto Rico, the only remaining homes of slavery, Brazil after the imprisonment of Montezuma, the Mexicans were com- excepted, in the civilised world. pelled to be the slaves of the Spaniards and to work their own Mexico, Peru, and Chili remained under the curse of Spanish gold mines for them. The waste of life became as prodigious rule till quite recent times; but the bursting of the old bands of as in the West India Islands, and the sufferings of the people tyranny in Europe by Napoleon Bonaparte loosened them indiso great that the Spanish priests remonstrated, and orders were rectly in America. As soon as it was known in Mexico (in 1808) obtained from the Pope and from the King of Spain for the that the Spanish Bourbons were overthrown, the viceroy called better treatment of the Indians. But such orders to a man like on the people to support King Ferdinand, but when they rose Cortez were as nothing, and the state of the poor people grew to do so the Spanish colonists resented their interference, though worse and worse. They had resolved at any cost to get rid of their it was on their own behalf. "No native American shall par. tyrants, when Cortez was called away from the capital to fight a ticipate in the government so long as there is a mule-driver in Spanish expedition which had been sent from Cuba, the gover-La Mancha, or a cobbler in Castile, to represent Spanish asnor of which thought fit to override the authority of Cortez, and cendancy.” In this spirit the Spaniards in Mexico conducted to seek himself to gather where he had not sown. Cortez themselves, and the result was that after three formidable insardefeated the expedition, killed its leader, and induced the rections, bloodily suppressed, Iturbide, a nativo Mexican, so soldiers to enlist under him.
gathered up the national party into his hands that he drove the On his return to Mexico city his quarters were assailed by a Spaniards out, and received on the 27th of November, 1821, the vast multitude of Mexicans, desperate at the return of their surrender of the capital on condition that the Spaniards should dreadful enemy, and bent on his destruction. In vain did forthwith leave the country. Cortez try everything that skill or valour could dictate, in vain After passing through a dreadful ordeal analogous to the did he bring out Montezuma on the ramparts to quiet the above, Peru and Chili, making common cause, threw off the people. Montezuma was killed by a missile flung by one of his Spanish yoke, and on the 26th of February, 1826, compelled own subjects, and Cortez and his followers had to cut their way the surrender of Callao, the last foothold of the Spaniards on out of the city. In due time he returned with fresh troops the territories won for them by Cortez and Pizarro. So may the procured from Isla Española, and captured the city ; the succes. dominion of all oppressors and wrong-doers perish.
RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. tail tremulously vibrated. The creature thus floats as easily as if
it were a piece of wood. The newts are then, generally, looking THE NEWT AND SALAMANDER.
out for a dinner. No sooner does some small animal come near MANY of our readers must have frequently seen the common newt, than it is seized with a ferocity which we should not have exor eft, so abundant in ditches, pools, brooks, and moist places. pected to find in these timid reptiles. The tadpole of the frog Whether the animal may have been the great water-newt (Triton meets with no mercy, and indeed the large newt, when hungry, cristatus, or crested newt), measuring six inches in length, or the will swallow its relative, the small water-eft, without hesitation. small water-newt (Triton punstatus, or speckled newt), not more The teeth of these reptiles, though fine, are sharp and numerous, than half that size, the observer must have paused a moment looking like a saw of minute points. Some foreign species, to mark the motions of the creature. Both belong to the once closely allied to our newts, possess above three hundred of these dreaded salamander family; but no land salamander is found needle-like teeth. Few persons looking at a newt as it swims in Britain, their proper homes being in central and southern in a ditch would suppose that such an insignificant creature has Europe. The whole family is closely allied to the frogs and been the subject of study and experiments by some of the toads, and has, both in ancient and modern times, excited the greatest physiologists and anatomists. A deep mystery of life attention of naturalists. Our observations must be principally was the problem to be solved; and in spite of all the labours of on the British newts, which, the reader will remember, are often men like Spalanzani, Duméril, Bonnet, Von Siebald, and Owen, called salamanders.
the solution has not been No one can mistake the
made. The legs of newts large English water-newt
have been repeatedly amfor any other reptile. The
putated, and have grown orange tint and black
again. The limb when spots on the under part
thus reproduced has been of the body; the sides
again cut off, and again speckled with white dots;
Las it been formed. In the overhanging upper
case the same leg lip; the body covered
was thus amputated and with little wart-like tu
thus re-formed four times bercles; - all give the
in succession. The tail animal a peculiar appear
has shown again and again ance. The crest along
the same mysterious vital the back of the male is
energy, forming gradually seen in the spring only,
new bones, new nerves, when the animal assumes
and new muscles. These its brightest tints and
fresh limbs were not alexhibits the greatest ac
ways reproduced exactly tivity. Some of the
in their original form and foreign newts are much
perfection. Sometimes & larger than our British
claw would be deficient, kinds. The species found
sometimes redundant. in the waters of the Al
The eye was completely leghany and Ohio rivers
removed from a newt; in is two feet long, being
a year a perfectly-formed called in some parts the
new eye was reproduced. ** fish salamander," in
No part of the complex others the “ground
organ of vision was wantpuppy," or young alli
ing, no part distorted. gator.
The above experiments The newts
show a singular power some respects, peculiarly
of reproducing destroyed formed. Though belong.
organs; the following ing to the great division
illustrates an extraordiof vertebrated animals,
nary degree of vital they cannot be said to
energy. M. Duméril cut possess true ribs. An
off all that part of a inspection of a skeleton
newt's head which conwill show the rudiments
tains the eyes, nostrils, of these bones, looking
ears and tongue, and na if the ribs had begun THE TRITON CRISTATUS, OR LARGE WATER-NEWT.
then placed the creature to grow and were then
in water at the bottom suddenly checked in their
of a jar. Fresh water development. The vertebræ of the tail are very numerous, ' was supplied every day, and the animal's motions were carethirty-six having been counted in the tail of the small newt, and fully watched for about three months. The newt came to Dearly the same number in that of the large water-eft. These the top of the water at first, as if to breathe; its movements numerous joints probably facilitate the rapid vibratory move were slow, as if perplexed by its novel condition, but the creaments of the organ characteristic of this reptile, especially in ture continued to live, and retained all the vital energies unspring. The bones of the fore-leg have a striking resemblance impaired. The wounded part healed, new flesh was formed, to a miniature human arm. The two bones—the radius, to and the hole made by the scissors in cutting off the head was which the hand is united, and the ulna, linked to the upper completely closed within three months. How did the animal arm at the elbow joint-are both visible in the newt. Thus breathe ? Probably through the skin, which thus discharged the grand unity of strncture, so remarkable in the vertebrated t
the office of a lung. How long the newt would have lived, and animals, is clearly to be traced through all the links which' whether any reproduction of the lost head might have ensued, connect the highest forms with the lowest. One plan is seen, must be left doubtful. The reptile, having been left in charge amidst all the diversities. The legs of the newt, though of a fresh attendant, died from inattention, not being supplied small, are used in combination with the tail to support the with fresh water. The above experiments should be made in animal in a remarkablo way on the surface of the water. the spring, when the newt's vital energies are most active and These reptiles may often be soen floating on the surface most able to recover from the shock which such mutilation must of a pool, with so little ruotion that they appear dead. The give, even to a reptile's system. legs are extended on the water, the feet spread out, and the A series of observations were carried on by the naturalist
Rusconi, in order to trace all the stops by which a water-newt sucked their milk, robbing them and the irritated farmer by one advances from the egg to its perfect state. The egg was noted felonious act. The bite of the creature was deemed so deadly on the 23rd of April, when it was deposited by the parent on a that a proverb expressed the fears of men and the helplessness leaf, and the daily changes were watched under the microscope of the physician. “If a salamander bites you, put on your until the 6th of May, when the young newt was hatched. The shroud," was the doleful counsel given to the luckless wight water was kept all the time at a temperature of about 70° of who might have been scratched by the tiny teeth of this animal
. Fahrenheit's thermometer. Want of spaca prevents us from Could no good, then, be obtained from the horrid creature : describing all the steps in the development of the animal, but Yes; the heart, worn round the neck, would preserve the wearer many readers can conduct a similar series of observations for from perils by fire! The chemists of old times professed to be themselves. We will, however, note a few of the more im- able to turn the salamander to a wondrous use. The mode of portant stages in the advance. In five days the head, gills, fore-operation and the expected results may thus be stated :-Catch feet, and tail were first seen in the egg; in four days more the one of the reptiles, put it in a crucible on a fire, pour quicksilver beating of the heart was noticed; in another day the little crea- over the roasting animal ; then, if all went well, the metal would ture moved in the egg; and on the 5th of May the eyes wero be turned into gold! But one cantion was essential: the ope clearly seen. On the next day the struggles of the imprisoned rator must be a man of pure mind and heart, or no treasure reptile broke its shell, and the newt was hatched. The would appear. The universal failure of the experiments speaks second set of observations now began, by waich the progress of little in favour of the moral condition of the old chemists. the animal was noted through all the tadpole stages to the fully The reader will see, from the preceding remarks, how ignorance developed animal. The little fish-like reptile secured itself by two has filled the minds of men with abject dread of nature. War hook-like appendages to a leaf, and then seemed to go to sleep against the animal kingdom was the result. It is not the least for a day or two. On the 18th of May, twelve days after the advantage of natural history that it has dispelled most of these hatching, the newt measured about half an inch long; the toes delusions, while it discloses innumerable wonders of structure, of the fore-feet were formed, the gills appeared; the tadpole was and remarkable instances of animal ingenuity. able to swim actively, and even to catch aquatic insects. On the 28th of May it had grown to the length of an inch; the hindlegs appeared, and the toes of the fore-leg were nearly perfect. LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.--XX. On the 18th of June the tadpole reached its final stage, and then THE METALS OF THE EARTH-GLASS, PORCELAIN-ZINC. began to change into the newt. The gills were gradually obliterated, the lungs formed, the ear-holes closed, and on the 27th In the third class of metals are those whose oxides have not of July the reptile took the complete form of a water-newt.
such marked basic properties as either of the preceding classes, We must now pause to describe the ingenious method by alkaline earths. They are ten in number--aluminum, glucinum,
and they are therefore denominated metals of the earths, not which the eft* secures the safety of her eggs, and shows herself zirconium, thorinum, yttrium, erbium, terbium, cerium, lan. to be a clever mechanic. She selects a leaf of some water plant, thanum, and didymium. None of the group present sufficient deposits a single erg upon the under-side of the leaf, then with interest to require our attention except her feet bends the leaf back, so that it forms a case or box for the egg. But the leaf, thus doubled back, would soon straighten
ALUMINUM Or ALUMINIUM. again, and leave the egg unprotected. To prevent this, the SYMBOL, AI - COMBINING WEIGHT, 27:4 — SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 26. newt pours out a gummy finid from her body, and glues the bent
This metal may be obtained by decomposing its chloride by part of the leaf to the other or lower portion. Thus a pro- the galvanic current; but, as in the case of magnesium, an tecting receptaclo is formed for the egg, where it is hatched in easier method is found to be by the agency of sodium. The security. The modo in which this leaf-nest is formed, and the chloride, melted into vapour, is caused to pass over melted exact order in wich all the stages of the work proceed, may sodium; this latter metal appropriates the chlorine of the salt, almost lead some to suspect that the newt “must be able and the aluminum is deposited. It is a bluish-white metal, to reason." These bent and doubled leaves may often be seen remarkable for its lightness. It does not readily oxidise when in places where efts abound, and by breaking three or four off exposed to air. These properties have recommended it for the and putting them into a jar, with water not lower in tempera. making of ornamental trinkets. It is capable of being drawn ture than 65° Fahrenheit, the reader may watch all the stages of out into wire and rolled into plates. When struck it gives a a newt's life. We must now make a few remarks on the eft's relative, the solves with rapidity in hydrochloric acid, giving off hydroger,
clear musical note. It is but little affected by nitric, but disonce dreaded salamander. Never was an animal so hated with and forming the chloride; thusso little reason. The salamander proper (Salamandra maculosa) resembles the newts in form, but it dwells on the land, loving
2A1 + 6HCI = A1,C1, + 6H. cool holes under old walls, and the roots of trees. One quality Hence the metal is Triatomic. It promises to become of some universally ascribed to this reptile was its power of living in the value in making alloys. Ten of aluminum and ninety of copper fire. It was one of “the best proved facts” in natural history produce an alloy of great strength and elasticity—the " Aluthat the salamander was the “lord of fire.” Francis I. of minum bronze.” Its appearance is very like gold. France showed his belief in the marvellous tale by adopting for Alumina (A),0,) is the only oxide. It appears almost pure, his device a salamander in the flames, thereby hinting to his foes and in a crystalline state, in the precious stones-corundum, that he, like that fearful reptile, was indestructible. The wild ruby, sapphire. Emery is another form of this substance. It belief in some countries was that if a fire should ever be allowed is also present in considerable quantities in clay, being originally to continue burning for seven years, a salamander would be pro- derived from the decomposition of felspar. For commercial duced from such flames. This superstition, however, was not purposes it is got by treating a solution of soda-alum with the cause of the intense hate borne towards the salamander, but hydrochloric acid, which is evaporated to dryness and heated; it invested the animal with a dread mysteriousness. How could the mass is then washed with water, and alumina remains. Its such a notion continue through so many ages, when the matter chief use is in dyeing; it possesses the property of combining might have been easily tested by throwing a salamander on the with certain organic colouring matters, and forming insoluble fire ? People are not willing to put their superstitions to the pigments termed lakes. Most colouring matters will not *** test, and there was one slight foundation of fact on which the main in the fibre of the material; when this is the case, the whole monstrous pile of error was raised. The salamander can cloth, etc., is soaked in a preparation of alumina, and then pour out a little watery fluid from its skin when excited, and on dipped into a bath of the dye. By this means an insoluble some occasions this fluid may have damped for a moment the compound is formed in the fibre of the
material, and the subflame of some fire, on which the animal may have been cast. stance is dyed "fast.” The sesquioxides of iron and chromium, The poor salamander was also believed to have the deadly power and the oxide of tin, are mordants as well as alumina. of poisoning, not only the whole fruit of a tree on which it might Aluminum Chloride (A1,C1).—The process which would at creep, but the vegetation of a large district. Even innocent cows once suggest itself for obtaining this salt-namely, of acting were not safe from the malicious reptile, which sometimes on alumina with hydrochloric acid-does not admit of being
practised, for on evaporating and heating the acid is driven off
. * Readers will remember that the animal is called both eft and newt. The method devised by Oersted is therefore used. Alumina