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constructed wheels of this class, about 80 per cent of the table experiment, but seldom, if ever, used in practice. It is power may be utilised.

known by the name of Barker's Mill, or the Wheel of Recoil, Having thus noticed the wheels with horizontal axes, we must and is represented in Fig. 29. m is a glass vessel, mounted turn to those whose axes are vertical. Some of these are now so as to turn upon an axle, and capable of being filled by means coming into much more frequent use, being in many respects of a stopcock at the top. If used practically it would, of superior to those we have been considering, as they utilise a course, be so shaped that the water could enter here as rapidly larger portion of the force, occupy less room, and work under as it issued below. At the lower part water.

two arms, cc, are inserted. These The most useful and generally used of these is the turbine. are turned round at the end as shown

A cylinder is constructed with an opening round its lower at a, so that the water can issue portion, through which the water is allowed to flow from the from them, and in so doing, by its

higher to the lower recoil, it canses the vessel m to rotate
level. Surrounding this on its axis. Every part of the inner
opening, the width of surface of the tube sustains a pres-
which can be altered at sure produced by the water in the
pleasure, is a horizontal vessel, but the pressure on opposite
wheel with curved floats. sides of the tube is equal, and there-
This wheel is under fore no motion ensues from it, the
water, and is supported opposite pressures neutralising each
by a plate on which it other. As, however, a portion of the
rests, its axle passing surface is removed at a, the pressure
up through the cylinder. on the part opposite to it is not
The water as it issues balanced, and therefore causes motion.
from the cylinder strikes This mill is, however, at present only

Fig. 29.
against the floats, and an ingenious scientific toy, nor does
thus turns the wheel there seem much probability of its ever coming into use.
with very great speed. A very ingenions and useful piece of apparatus, invented by

Perhaps the best idea a celebrated Frenchman named Montgolfier, must be noticed

we can form of it, with here, as not only is it very useful, but it involves several of the Fig. 27.

out actually seeing one principles we have already considered. It is frequently required

at work, is to imagine to raise a quantity of water to some elevation, and this machine, a water wheel with curved floats to be turned on its end, and which is called the Hydraulic Ram (Fig. 30), accomplishes this by the internal cylinder removed, leaving the floats supported on the momentum acquired by the fall of a current of water. As the lower end, and held in their place above by a ring, to which a considerable fall of water is desirable, and it is likewise imthey are fastened. The water is then allowed to flow into the portant that it should remain nearly constant, a dam is usually interior of the wheel, and in its rush to escape between the built across the stream, so as to form a reservoir, which overfloats it strikes upon their curved surfaces, and thus sets the flows when full, and thus maintains a uniform level. From this wheel in motion.

reservoir pipes are brought along the bed of the stream to In order that the water, instead of flowing directly from the join on to D. The other end of this pipe is closed. A valve centre, may strike the floats at a more advantageous angle, the opening downwards is, however, inserted at c, near the end. cylinder is divided into compartments by means of curved par- The spindle of this passes through a guide, so as to keep it titions after the plan shown in Fig. 27, which represents an vertical, and it falls of its own weight when the pipe is empty; horizontal section of the cylinder and wheel, the outer ring being the pressure of the water, however, closes it. Weights are now the wheel. By this it will be seen that the water issues in a placed on the upper end of the spindle, so that when the pipes direction almost perpendicular to the surface of the floats, are full of water pressing upwards, the valve only just opens and thus produces the greatest effect. As the water enters at from its weight. Another opening is made in the pipe at F, the inner side of the wheel and is given off from the exterior, communicating with a large reservoir, a, from the upper part of there is little loss from currents in the water; the pressure, too, which issues the pipe, B, by which the water is to be raised. on the axle being equal in every direction, there is not a large The upper part of this reservoir is filled with air, and a small amount of friction as there is in water-wheels where the pres- valve, not shown in the figure, is so placed as to allow a small sure acts only on one side.

additional quantity to enter from time to time, and replace that The mode of construction just explained gives the best idea carried away by the water, which under pressure absorbs a small of the principles on which the turbine acts, but many important amount of it. alterations and modifications have been introduced which ren- The opening between the pipe A B and the reservoir is closed der the machine more useful. In some, the water, instead of by the valve F, which rises by the inward pressure of the water issuing from the sides of the cylinder, flows from an opening or and is closed by its own weight. a series of openings in the bottom, on to a wheel whose floats We will now suppose the machine to be set in action. Th

are curved vertically, the construction weight on the valve at c being more than sufficient to overcom
being then similar to that shown in
Fig. 28.

A still further improve
ment on this is effected by allowing
the water to enter from below instead of
from above, as in this way, instead of
increasing the pressure on the bearings,
it in a great degree removes it. As,
however, all different makers of turbines

have special plans, differing more or less,
Fig. 28.

and we have seen the general principle
on which all act, it is unnecessary to

describe minor details.
Another wheel which is much used in France is called the
spoon wheel ; several arms having somewhat of a spoon shape

Fig. 30. radiate from a centre to which they are fixed. These are so inclined that when the water issues from the trough along which the pressure of the water, the valve opens, and the water escap it flows, it strikes them almost at right angles to their surface, and runs to waste. That in the pipe, however, acquires ima and hence imparts a rapid rotation to the wheel.

diately a small amount of momentum, which enables it to ra There is another apparatus by which motion can be derived the valve and thus close the opening. The momentum th from falling water, which is frequently exhibited as a lecture- | acquired by the water cannot be instantaneously destroyed, a

[graphic]
[graphic]

Fould burst open the end of the pipe were it not for the valve which have not yet been explained; but it is best to consider all Str. This provides an escape, and the water opens it, and together, as in this way we can better understand their differcauses a certain amount to enter the reservoir, compressing the ences in construction. air contained in it, and thereby forcing a fresh amount of water First, then, we notice those which act mechanically. The plan up the tube B.

of raising water by means of a single bucket would naturally The compressed air, however, acts as a spring, and thus the suggest the idea of fixing several one below the other, and thus momentum of the column of water is soon destroyed, F then an endless chain of buckets passing over a wheel at the top was closes of its own weight, and the

constructed. water in the tube being now at

The buckets are brought up rest, C again opens and allows the

full, and when they reach the water to escape as at first. When

wheel strike against a support, the weight at c is carefully ad.

and being turned over discharge justed this opening and closing

their contents into a channel succeed one another rapidly, pro

prepared to receive them. The ducing a series of stoppages, by

wheel in this case may be turned each of which a small quantity of

by the foot, as is frequently water is raised in the pipe B.

done, or the power of animals A larger amount, however,

may be employed. escapes at c than ascends in B,

The next modification of this and the amount raised diminishes,

arrangement is what is known as of course, with the height to which

the Persian Wheel, which is reit is raised; still it is calculated

presented in Fig. 31. Floats are that about 60 per cent. of the

fixed to one side of an undershot power of the water may be utilised

or tidal wheel, and in the other by the arrangement, which cer

side of the rim are fixed a num. tainly by its ingenuity reflects

ber of pegs, from which buckets great credit on the inventor.

are suspended. As the wheel is Occasionally, in mines, a stream

turned by the force of the curof water is caused to move an

rent, these successively dip into engine, constructed on exactly

the water, and are brought up the same principle as the steam

nearly full. The weight of their engine, the motive power being

contents keeps them in a vertical the pressure of the water instead

position till they reach the top, of the pressure of steam. By an

Fig. 31.

where they strike against arrangement of valves the water

trough, and thus are emptied into is made to press alternately on the upper and lower sides of the it. The water is conveyed from this by a channel not shown piston, and the motion thus produced is by means of a crank in the figure. By this plan the water cannot well be lifted to and fly-wheel communicated to the machinery.

any great height, as the diameter of the wheel must be greater We have thus noticed all the most important machines than the height. This machine can be used in a tidal river, designed to derive motion from a fall of water, and now pass on as it will work in either direction. to the second class, or those which are intended to raise water A further supply of water is, in this wheel, raised to the level to any required elevation.

of the axis on a totally different principle. The spokes of the Water is one of the prime necessaries of life, and as its wheel, instead of being made straight, as is the case in ordinary tendency is always to sink to the lowest level, various plans of wheels, are hollow and curve considerably. Openings will be raising it have been tried from the very earliest ages. The perceived on the rim, by which the water enters when they are most primitive is by means of a

immersed, and from the shape bucket fastened to a rope; after

of the spokes it cannot flow a time, it was found more con

out again, since the openings venient, when the height to

are higher than the bends. The which the water had to be raised

water, therefore, travels along Tray not great, to fix this rope

them towards the axis, and there to one end of a lever supported

is discharged into a trough prenear the middle on crossed

pared for it. poles, and pull by means of a

Another very ingenious and rope fastened to the other and

elegant machine, acting on the shorter end. A further improve

same principle as the spokes in ment on this, which is at the

the Persian wheel, was invented present day much used on the

by the celebrated philosopher banks of the Nile, consisted in

Archimedes, and is called after fixing a weight at the other end

him the Archimedian Screw (Fig. of the lever, so as nearly to

32). It consists of an inclined balance the bucket of water; a

axis, which may be turned by a man then alternately raises and

winch. One end of this is in the lowers it by pulling the rope.

stream or reservoir from which Much of the land in Egypt is

the water has to be raised, and irrigated by this contrivance,

Fig. 32.

the other over the reservoir into which is known as the Shadoof.

which it is required to flow. The common windlass is used instead of this where the water | A tube or pipe is twisted spirally round this axle, the angle at has to be raised from a great depth; as, however, there are a which it is twisted being so arranged that as it is turned by large number of machines in use, it will be best to make a the handle the water constantly flows towards the upper end. simple division of them, and perhaps the simplest we can make A glance at the illustration will show that the portions of the is the following

spiral on the side shown all incline to the right, so that the 1. Those which act mechanically;

water in them flows in that direction. When used in practice, 2. Those which act by the pressure of the air ;

instead of a tube being twisted in this way, a spiral flange, like 3. Those which act by centrifugal force.

the thread of a screw, but projeeting to a much greater disThe second of these divisions contains the common pump tance, is fixed on the axis and made to turn inside a straight and similar machines, which, strictly, onght not to be explained tube which it just fits. till we come to treat of pneumatics, as they involve principles In this way there is much less friction of the water, and a

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1

constructed wheels of this class, about 80 per cent of the table experiment, but seldom, if ever, used in practice. It is power may be utilised.

known by the name of Barker's Mill, or the Wheel of Recoil, Having thus noticed the wheels with horizontal axes, we must and is represented in Fig. 29. is a glass vessel, monnted turn to those whose axes are vertical. Some of these are now so as to turn upon an axle, and capable of being filled by means coming into much more frequent use, being in many respects of a stopcock at the top. If used practically it would, of superior to those we have been considering, as they utilise a course, be so shaped that the water could enter here as rapidly larger portion of the force, occupy less room, and work under as it issued below. At the lower part water.

two arms, cc, are inserted. These The most useful and generally used of these is the turbine. are turned round at the end as shown

A cylinder is constructed with an opening round its lower at A, so that the water can issue portion, through which the water is allowed to flow from the from them, and in so doing, by its

higher to the lower recoil, it causes the vessel M to rotate
level. Surrounding this on its axis. Every part of the inner
opening, the width of surface of the tube sustains a pres-
which can be altered at sure produced by the water in the
pleasure, is a horizontal vessel, but the pressure on opposite
wheel with curved floats. sides of the tube is equal, and there-
This wheel is under fore no motion ensues from it, the
water, and is supported opposite pressures neutralising each
by a plate on which it other. As, however, a portion of the
rests, its axle passing surface is removed at a, the pressure
up through the cylinder. on the part opposite to it is not
The water as it issues balanced, and therefore causes motion.
from the cylinder strikes This mill is, however, at present only

Fig. 29.
against the floats, and an ingenious scientific toy, nor does
thus turns the wheel there seem much probability of its ever coming into use.
with very great speed. A very ingenious and useful piece of apparatus, invented by

Perhaps the best idea a celebrated Frenchman named Montgolfier, must be noticed

we can form of it, with. here, as not only is it very useful, but it involves several of the Fig. 27.

out actually seeing one principles we have already considered. It is frequently required

at work, is to imagine to raise a quantity of water to some elevation, and this machine, a water wheel with curved floats to be turned on its end, and which is called the Hydraulic Ram (Fig. 30), accomplishes this by the internal cylinder removed, leaving the floats supported on the momentum acquired by the fall of a current of water. As the lower end, and held in their place above by a ring, to which a considerable fall of water is desirable, and it is likewise imthey are fastened. The water is then allowed to flow into the portant that it should remain nearly constant, a dam is usually interior of the wheel, and in its rush to escape between the built across the stream, so as to form a reservoir, which overfloats it strikes upon their curved surfaces, and thus sets the flows when full, and thus maintains a uniform level. From this wheel in motion.

reservoir pipes are brought along the bed of the stream to In order that the water, instead of flowing directly from the join on to D. The other end of this pipe is closed. A valve centre, may strike the floats at a more advantageous angle, the opening downwards is, however, inserted at c, near the end. cylinder is divided into compartments by means of curved par. The spindle of this passes through a guide, so as to keep it titions after the plan shown in Fig. 27, which represents an vertical, and it falls of its own weight when the pipe is empty; horizontal section of the cylinder and wheel, the outer ring being the pressure of the water, however, closes it. Weights are now the wheel. By this it will be seen that the water issues in a placed on the upper end of the spindle, so that when the pipes direction almost perpendicular to the surface of the floats, are full of water pressing upwards, the valve only just opens and thus produces the greatest effect. As the water enters at from its weight. Another opening is made in the pipe at F, the inner side of the wheel and is given off from the exterior, communicating with a large reservoir, A, from the upper part of there is little loss from currents in the water; the pressure, too, which issues the pipe, B, by which the water is to be raised. on the axle being equal in every direction, there is not a large The upper part of this reservoir is filled with air, and a small amount of friction as there is in water-wheels where the pres. valve, not shown in the figure, is so placed as to allow a small sure acts only on one side.

additional quantity to enter from time to time, and replace that The mode of construction just explained gives the best idea carried away by the water, which under pressure absorbs a small of the principles on which the turbine acts, but many important amount of it. alterations and modifications have been introduced which ren. The opening between the pipe A B and the reservoir is closed der the machine more useful. In some, the water, instead of by the valve F, which rises by the inward pressure of the water issuing from the sides of the cylinder, flows from an opening or and is closed by its own weight. a series of openings in the bottom, on to a wheel whose floats We will now suppose the machine to be set in action. The

are curved vertically, the construction weight on the valve at c being more than sufficient to overcome
being then similar to that shown in
Fig. 28. A still further improve
ment on this is effected by allowing
the water to enter from below instead of
from above, as in this way, instead of
increasing the pressure on the bearings,
it in a great degree removes it. As,
however, all different makers of turbines

have special plans, differing more or less,
Fig. 28.

and we have seen the general principle
on which all act, it is unnecessary to

describe minor details.
Another wheel which is much used in France is called the
spoon wheel ; several arms having somewhat of a spoon shape

Fig. 30. radiate from a centre to which they are fixed. These are so inclined that when the water issues from the trough

along which the pressure of the water, the valve opens, and the water escap it flows, it strikes them almost at right angles to their surface, and runs to waste. That in the pipe, however, acquires im and hence imparts a rapid rotation to the wheel.

diately a small amount of momentum, which enables it to ra There is another apparatus by which motion can be derived the valve and thus close the opening. The momentum th from falling water, which is frequently exhibited as a lecture | acquired by the water cannot be instantaneously destroyed,

[graphic]
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would barst open the end of the pipe were it not for the valve which have not yet been explained; but it is best to consider all St F. This provides an escape, and the water opens it, and together, as in this way we can better understand their differcauses a certain amount to enter the reservoir, compressing the ences in construction. sit contained in it, and thereby forcing a fresh amount of water First, then, we notice those which act mechanically. The plan up the tube B.

of raising water by means of a single bucket would naturally The compressed air, however, acts as a spring, and thus the suggest the idea of fixing several one below the other, and thus momentum of the column of water is soon destroyed, F then an endless chain of buckets passing over a wheel at the top was closes of its own weight, and the

constructed. water in the tube being now at

The buckets are brought up rest, C again opens and allows the

full, and when they reach the water to escape as at first. When

wheel strike against a support, the weight at c is carefully ad.

and being turned over discharge justed this opening and closing

their contents into a channel succeed one another rapidly, pro

prepared to receive them. The daeing a series of stoppages, by

wheel in this case may be turned each of which a small quantity of

by the foot, as is frequently water is raised in the pipe B.

done, or the power of animals A larger amount, however,

may be employed. escapes at c than ascends in B,

The next modification of this and the amount raised diminishes,

arrangement is what is known as of course, with the height to which

the Persian Wheel, which is reit is raised; still it is calculated

presented in Fig. 31. Floats are that about 60 per cent. of the

fixed to one side of an undershot power of the water may be utilised

or tidal wheel, and in the other by the arrangement, which cer

side of the rim are fixed a num. tainly by its ingenuity reflects

ber of pegs, from which buckets great credit on the inventor.

are suspended. As the wheel is Occasionally, in mines, a stream

turned by the force of the curof water is caused to move an

rent, these successively dip into engine, constructed on exactly

the water, and are brought up the same principle as the steam

nearly full. The weight of their engine, the motive power being

contents keeps them in a vertical the pressure of the water instead

position till they reach the top, of the pressure of steam. By an

Fig. 31.

where they strike against arrangement of valves the water

trough, and thus are emptied into is made to press alternately on the upper and lower sides of the it. The water is conveyed from this by a channel not shown piston, and the motion thus produced is by means of a crank in the figure. By this plan the water cannot well be lifted to and 17-wheel communicated to the machinery.

any great height, as the diameter of the wheel must be greater We have thus noticed all the most important machines than the height. This machine can be used in a tidal river, designed to derive motion from a fall of water, and now pass on as it will work in either direction. to the second class, or those which are intended to raise water A further supply of water is, in this wheel, raised to the level to any required elevation.

of the axis on a totally different principle. The spokes of the Water is one of the prime necessaries of life, and as its wheel, instead of being made straight, as is the case in ordinary tendency is always to sink to the lowest level, various plans of wheels, are hollow and curve considerably. Openings will be mising it have been tried from the very earliest ages. The perceived on the rim, by which the water enters when they are Best primitive is by means of a

immersed, and from the shape bracket fastened to a rope; after

of the spokes it cannot flow 3 time, it was found more con

out again, since the openings Tenient, when the height to

are higher than the bends. The which the water had to be raised

water, therefore, travels along Tas not great, to fix this rope

them towards the axis, and there to one end of a lever supported

is discharged into a trough prenear the middle on crossed

pared for it. poles, and pull by means of a

Another very ingenious and rupe fastened to the other and

elegant machine, acting on the aborter ead. A further improve

same principle as the spokes in bent on this, which is at the

MEMADE TOASTRANADA U the Persian wheel, was invented present day much used on the

by the celebrated philosopher banks of the Nile, consisted in

Archimedes, and is called after bring a weight at the other end

him the Archimedian Screw (Fig. of the lever, so as nearly to

32). It consists of an inclined lalance the bucket of water; a

axis, which may be turned by a man then alternately raises and

winch. One end of this is in the lowers it by pulling the rope.

stream or reservoir from which Wach of the land in Egypt is

the water has to be raised, and imigated by this contrivance,

Fig. 32.

the other over the reservoir into which is known as the Shadoof.

which it is required to flow. The common windlass is used instead of this where the water. A tube or pipe is twisted spirally round this axle, the angle at has to be raised from a great depth; as, however, there are a which it is twisted being so arranged that as it is turned by large number of machines in use, it will be best to make a the handle the water constantly flows towards the upper end. umple division of them, and perhaps the simplest we can make A glance at the illustration will show that the portions of the in the following:

spiral on the side shown all incline to the right, so that the 1. Those which act mechanically;

water in them flows in that direction. When used in practice, 2. Those which act by the pressure of the air ;

instead of a tube being twisted in this way, a spiral flange, like 3. Those which act by centrifugal foree.

the thread of a screw, but projecting to a much greater dis. The second of these divisions contains the common pump tance, is fixed on the axis and made to turn inside a straight sed similar machines, which, strictly, onght not to be explained tube which it just fits. tull me come to treat of pneumatics, as they involve principles In this way there is much less friction of the water, and a

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-ας,

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larger amount can be raised than when a twisted pipe is used.

6. μικρος, small
μικροτερος

μικροτατος, -η, «αν. A working model of this screw can, with a little ingenuity, be

ελαττων (ελασσων) ελαχιστος easily constructed with a piece of flexible pipe.

7. ολιγος, few
μείων

ολιγιστος There is another machine, known as the tympan, which is 8. μεγας, great μειζων

μέγιστος sometimes used to raise water, and acts on the same principle,

5

9. πολυς, much πλειων (πλεων) πλειστος though constructed differently. A hollow drum is made to turn 10. padios, easy ραων

ραστος on a horizontal axis, motion being imparted to it by a wheel 11. Terwv, ripe πεπαιτερος

πεπαιτατος working in the cogs round its edge. This drum is divided into 12. mwv, fat

πιοτερος

πιοτατος compartments by means of partitions curved in a similar way to the spokes of the Persian wheel, and as it rotates the water

Several adjectives which express the idea of order or succession enters these compartments, and is emptied at the axle into appear in the comparative and superlative only, since from their channels made to receive it. This, however, can only be used import they cannot denote an absolute quality, and may be used with advantage when the water is not required to be raised to only in comparison. Their root will be found in a preposition, a great height.

or adverb of place; for example

ADJECTIVES WITHOUT A POSITIVE.
LESSONS IN GREEK.--XVII.

From πρo, before, προτερος, prior, πρωτος,

first. .

From ανω, αp, COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (continued).

ανωτερος, apper, ανωτατος, αφmost.

From υπερ, over, υπερτερος, higher, υπερτατος, highest. ADJECTIVES IN -ιων (or -ων) AND -ιστος.

From υπο, under, υστερος, posterior, ύστατος, most behind. THESE forms are taken by mous, sweet, and taxus, swift, the From et, from,

εσχατος, Iast, most termination -vs being removed; Taxus, however, has in the

from, most remote. comparative θαττων (θασσων is another form of the same word), From πλησιον, near, in πλησιαιτερος, nearer, πλησιαιτατος, nearthus :

Homer πλησιος,

est. Positive. Comparative.

Superlative. From προσω, forwards, πρoσωτερος, further, πρoσωτατος, furthest. ήδ-us. ο, η ηδ-ιων. το ήδ-ιον. ήδ-ιστος.

more in advance, ταχ-υς.

θαττων. θαττον, ταχ-ιστος. The other adjectives in -ύς -- as βαρυς, heavy ; βαθυς, deep;

VoCABULARY, . βραχυς, short ; δασυς, thicle ; ευρυς, broad; οξυς, sharp; πρεσβυς,

Αναγκαιος, -α, -ον, Εμφυτος, -ον, in- Μαλακος, -η, -ον, εoft. old; ωκυς, stoift-take the forms in -τερος, -τατος, thus :

necessary,

born.

Μετρον, -ου, τo, mea-
Positive.
Comparative. Superlative.
Αναγκη, ης, ή, neces. Eνιοτε, sometimes.

sure, moderation. ο βαθυς. το βαθυ. βαθυ-τερος. βαθυ-τατος.

sity.

Ευτυχης, -ες, fortu- Σκωπτω, I jeer.

Αναρχια, -ας, The forms iwv and Lotos are taken also by two adjectives ending

ή, nate. .

Στεργω, I love, I am

absence of govern- H, n, either, or. satisfied with, I in -pos, namely, quo xpos, hateful, shameful, and expos, hostile ; the termination -os being cut off; as

ment, anarchy. Ιβηρια, ας, ή, Spain. put up with.

Γειτων, -ονος, o, a Ισχυω, I am strong. | Συμβουλος, -ου, ο, οι Positive. Comparative. ,

Superlative.

neighbour. Κελενω, I order. advisor. αισχρος. ο, η αισχ-ιων. το αισχ-ιον. αισχ-ιστος.

Ελευθερος, -α, -ον, Κολακεια, ή, Σωφροσυνη, -ης, ή,
VOCABULARY.

free. .
flattery.

sound-mindedness. Αλλοι, -αι, -α, others. Μεταφερω, I bear | Παρεχω, I afford, Ζωον, τo, a living away, change.

Os, with a superlative, adds strength to it, as quàm in Latin ;

communicate ; being, an animal. Οι ακρατεις, the in (middle voice),

for example, ás Taxiotos, quàm celerrimus, as suist as possible. Καιρος, -ου, ο, season, temperate. .

yield, give.

EXERCISE 59.-GREEK-ENGLISH. time generally. Οσμη, -ης, ή, smell. Πραγμα, -άτος, τo, a 1. Ουχ ο μακροτατος βιος αριστος εστιν, αλλα και σπουδαιοτατος. Λοιπος, , -ον, the re- Οφις,

• €ως, 8, a deed, thing. 2. Μετρον επι πασιν αριστον (understand εστιν). 3. Γνωμαι των mainder, the rest. serpent.

γεραιτερων αμεινους εισιν. 4. Συμβουλος ουδεις εστι βελτιων EXERCISE 57.--GREEK-ENGLISH. χρονου. 5. Η λεγε σιγης κρειττονα, η σιγην έχε.

6. Αει 1. Ο βαθυτατος ύπνος ήδιστος εστιν. 2. Πολλα ανθη ήδιστην κρατιστον εστι το ασφαλέστατον. 7. Σκωπτεις, ω λωστε. 8. οσμην παρεχεται, 3. Ουδεν θαττον εστι της ήβης. 4. Την Βελτιονων κακιους ενιοτε ευτυχεστεροι εισιν.

9. Ουκ εστι λυπης αισχιστην δουλειαν οι ακρατεις δουλευουσιν. 5. Παντων ήδιστον χειρον ανθρωπω κακον. 10. Κολακεια των αλλων απαντων κακων εστιν ή φιλια. 6. Ουδεν αισχιον εστιν η αλλο μεν εν να εχειν, χειριστον εστιν. 11. Ανηρ μαλακός την ψυχην (as to his sool, αλλο δε λεγειν (to think one thing and say another). 7, οι ίnd) και (even) χρηματων ηττων. 12. Ταις γυναιξιν η σωφροσυνη οφεις τους λοιπους ζωοις εχθιστοι εισιν. 8. Ουδεν το ανθρωπο καλλιστη αρετη εστιν. 13. Ουκ εστι κτημα καλλιον φιλου. 14. εχθιον εστιν η ο ανθρωπος. 9. Ταχιστα ο καιρος μεταφερει τα Η δουλεια των ελευθερω αλγιστη εστιν. 15. Η οδος μηκιστη εστιν. πραγματα.

16. Ο κροκοδειλος εξ ελαχιστου γιγνεται μεγιστος. 17. Η γη EXERCISE 58.--ENGLISH-GREEK.

ελαττων εστι του ήλιου. 18. Στεργε και τα μειω. 19. Ολιγιστοι 1. Nothing is sweater than deep sleep. 2. Sleep is very ανθρωποι ευδαιμονες εισιν. 20. Ουδεις νομος ισχυει μειζον της sweet. 3. Nothing is more disgraceful than slavery, 4. Slavery αναγκης. 21. Μικρα κερδη πολλακις μειζονας βλαβας φερει. 22. is a very bitter thing. 5. Horses are very swift. 6. Nothing Αναρχιας μειζον ουκ εστι κακον. 23. Ο πολεμος πλειστε κακα is more hostile (unfriendly) than bad advice. 7. It is shameful φερει. 24. Εμφυτος εστι τοις ανθρωπους ή του πλειονος επιθυμια. to think one thing and say another. 8. Bad men think one thing | 25. Γυνη εσθλη πλειστα αγαθα το οικω φερει. 26. Τα αναγκαια and say another. 9. Nothing is sweeter than a faithful friend. | βαον εστι του πραττειν. 28. Oι της σοφης καρποι πεπαιτατοι εισι:

του βιου φερε ως ραστα (as easily as you can): 27. Το κελεύειν A number of adjectives not being reducible to either of these εισιν, η εν τω του γειτονος. 30. Ιβηρια τρεφει πιοτατα προβατα.

29. Εν τω του πατρος κηπο οι της αμπελου βοτρυες πεπαιτεροι forms, are called irregular. I subjoin a list of ADJECTIVES OF IRREGULAR COMPARISON.

EXERCISE 60.---ENGLISH-GREEK. 1. αγαθος, good αμεινων, Ν. αμεινον αριστος, -η, -ον. 1. There is nothing better than a very diligent life. 2. The βελτιων

βελτιστος

opinion of the ancients is very good. 3. Time is the best κρειττων (κρεισσων). κρατιστος

adviser. . 4. The safest is the best. 5. Grief is a very great λφων

λωστος

evil. 6. Nothing is worse than flattery. 7. The intemperate 2. κακος, bad

man is the slave of pleasures. 8. Women have nothing more χειρων

χειριστος

beautiful than wisdom. 9. To a free man nothing is worse than ήττων (ήσσων), inferior ήκιστα (adv.) slavery. 10. The crocodile is very long. 11. The son is less 3. καλος, beautiful καλλιων

καλλιστος

than the father. 12. The bad often have more property than 4. αλγεινος, painful αλγεινοτερος

αλγεινότατος the good. 13. War brings very great evils. 14. It is easy to αλγιων

αλγιστος

command, it is hard to obey. 15. We enjoy most (superlative 5. μακρος, long μακροτερος

μακροτατος

neut. of nous) the ripest fruits. 16. My father's sheep are μασσων

μηκιστος

fatter than those of (the article ta) his neighbour.

κακιών

κακιστος

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