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unstable. When their solutions are boiled, the corresponding REDUCTION OF IRON FROM THE CLAY IRON ORE.-We manganous salt is formed.

may conveniently divide this operation into four stages :Binoxide, Deutoride, or Peroxide (Mn0,), is the pyrolusite of 1. Roasting.-The ore, mixed with coal, is piled in large the mineralogist, the “manganese” of commerce. It is used heaps, and a fire is kindled to the windward, which gradually in the laboratory in the preparation of oxygen and chlorine. extends through the mass. This heat expels all moisture and When heated, it gives off one-third of its oxygen, and becomos carbonic acid gas. The " calcined ore” is left in a porous state, the red oxide

containing iron as an oxide. This process requires months 3Mn0, = (M1,03,MnO) + 0g.

for its completion. When heated with strong sulphuric acid, half its oxygen comes 2. Smelting.-The blast furnace is a structure, as in Fig. 50, off, thus

about fifty feet high. It is built of solid masonry, and lined MnO2 + 4,50. = MnSo, + 4,0 + 0.

with fire-bricks. The lower part of the cone contracts into the The commercial value of this black oxide depends upon the pro- crucible, EF. Below the tuyeres, or blast-pipes, the furnace portion of chlorine which it will liberate from hydrochloric acid, terminates in the hearth G, where the melted metal collects preand this again is dependent on the quantity of oxygen pre- viously to being drawn off; m is the tymp stone, over which the sent, which is over and above that requisite to make the ore a slag runs down, and thus leaves the furnace; T and F are the protoxide, for pyrolusite and psilomelane are never pure deut- tuyeres. At the lowest point of the furnace is the tap-hole by oxide. This is estimated on the principle that black oxide which the metal is drawn off. The calcined ore contains chiefly of manganese is decomposed in the presence of free sulphuric oxide of iron, silica, and clay. No amount of heat will separate and oxalic acids. The oxygen which is liberated as the salt these infusible bodies from the iron; hence it is necessary to add becomes a protosulphate (MnO,SO3), attacks the oxalic acid, lime in order that a fusible slag may be found. Thus the furcausing it to become carbonic acid, thus

nace is charged with alternate layers of coal, limestone, and ore. 0,03 + 0 = 200.

The air which forms the blast is driven by fans, and caused to By allowing this co, to pass through a weighed potash tube, pass through heated tubes, so that when it issues from the tuyeres its quantity may be estimated, and therefore that of the its temperature is about 350° Cent. If cold air were used, it binoxide in the sample of ore.

would seriously detract from the heat of the furnace, for as Manganic (H.Mno,) and Permanganic Acid (H, Mn,0z).— much as six tons of air pass through in an hour. The oxygen of When equal weights of caustic potash and manganese peroxide the

blast at once combines with the carbon of the fuel in that in fine powder are fused together, a bright-green mass is formed; part of the furnace called the “ boshes," D, and becomes car which, when diluted, slowly passes through purple to a claret carbonic oxide, which, mixed with nitrogen and carburetted this is potassium manganate. It forms a dark-green solution, bonic acid gas; ascending a little higher in the furnace this gas

-as in an ordinary fire-takes an atom of carbon, becoming colour, and hydrated manganic dioxide is found to be deposited. hydrogen, rises through the furnace. The cause of this is that the manganate absorbed oxygen,

In the presence of these becoming a permanganate. Owing to these changes of colour, rature at that part of the furnace is not sufficient to melt the

gases, the iron in the ore becomes reduced, but the tempeit has acquired the name of mineral chamelion. of potassium permanganate readily oxidises organic matter ; iron, or make the silica and lime fuse together. But when the hence it is used as a disinfecting agent, as Condy's Fluid. The charge sinks down into the crucible, the fusion of the slag is presence of manganese is easily detected by “Crum's test.” Add bines with the carbon,

and fuses into the carbide of iron, known

determined, and the iron, which is in a finely-divided state, com. to the suspected body a little dilute nitric acid, and a little peroxide of lead; if any manganese be present, the red colour as cast-iron. This falls to the bottom of the crucible, and the of permanganic acid will be produced. A bead of borax becomes slag, which is five or six times the bulk of the iron, swims violet if manganese be present in the oxidising flame of the upon it, and preserves it from the action of the air of the blow-pipe, but the colour is lost in the reducing flame. With blasts. As the slag accumulates, it rises to the level of the carbonate of soda, the salts of this metal give a bluish-green tymp stone, over which it flows to n, where it is received into an opaque bead in the blow-pipe flame.

iron box, and is thus removed. The iron is drawn from the furnace once in twelve hours, and run into sand-moulds, and

finds its way to the market as pig-iron. A blast-furnace SYMBOL, Fe- COMBINING WEIGHT, 56 --- SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 7.8. continues in action for six or eight years uninterruptedly.

This, the most important of all the metals, is never found native, except in “meteorio stones." Its ores are plentiful, and widely diversified. The chief are

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XL.
Magnetic Iron Ore, Loadstone (Fe, O3, FeO).-It occurs in the
Swedish mountains, and in North America. Most of the cele-

SECT. LXXXI.-VARIOUS IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). brated Swedish iron is from this ore. It is found in masses in Nichts, or nicht dafür fönnen, signifies " not to be in fault

, or to the primary rocks; and therefore, coal being absent, wood is blame," as :-Ich kann nichts bafür, it is not my fault, or I cannot used in its reduction, which fact contributes to the fine quality help it (literally, I cannot, or can nothing therefore). Er fann of the metal it yields. The Iron Sand, found in India and New nicht dafür, daß er so arm ist, he cannot help it—that is, he is not Zealand, belongs to this class of ore. It is the only ore of iron to blame--that he is so poor. So also interrogatively; as:-Rann capable of magnetism, and is magnetised by the influence of die Welt etwas dafür, das sich ein großer Geist in ein schlechtes Kleid the earth's magnetism in its original state; hence the proper ceals itself in a plain dress ? that is, Die Welt kann nichts dafür.

verstedt? (Rabener)—is the world to blame, that a great soul conties of the loadstone. Specular Iron Ore (Fe,0,).---This is found in Elba, Russia,

VOCABULARY. and Sweden, and gives iron of a fine quality.

An'geben, to give, spe- , Kern, m, kernel. Un'würdigkeit, f. unRed Hæmatite is another form of the peroxide. It is some cify,

Kutscher, m.coachman. worthiness, indigtimes found massive, but generally as fibrous, crystallised An'strengung, f. exer- Ordnung, f. order, re nity. nodules, which, from their colour and smooth marmillary sur tion, effort, labour. gulation. Perver'ben, to spoil, face, have obtained for this ore the name of the “ kidney ore.” Bereit', ready, Schale, f. shell.

corrupt, destroy. It is seldom smelted alone, but generally with the clay ore. Beruf', m. calling, vo- Sdwächling, m. weak. Berzich'ten (auf Etwas), Brown Hematite is another variety of the peroxide, which is cation.

ling, weakly per

to resign, 4.e., as found in later deposits known as pea-iron ore.

Beru'bigen, to quiet.

a privilege or a Spathic Iron Ore is a carbonate of the metal, and so also is Bestim'men, to fix, de- Teller, m. plate. claim on anything. the great source of English iron

termine.

Umidließen, to en- Vor'gchen, to go beThe Clay Iron Ore.--This is found in bands in the coal Dafür', therefore, for close, surround.

fore, go too fast. deposits. It contains about 30 per cent of the metal, the rest it.

Umwerfen, to upset.

Wagen, . earriage. of its bulk being clay, lime, and magnesia.

Danf, m. thanks, ac- Un'ordentlich, disorder- Weisheit, f. wisdom. The Bog Iron Ore contains phosphate of iron, and, as its name knowledgment. ly, irregular, con- Wesen, n. existence, indicates, is found in alluvial tracts.

Erret'ten, to save, res fused.

being. Iron Pyrites (FeS.), though very abundant, is never worked cue, deliver. Interlassen, to leave Zerbre'den, to break for iron, but for sulphur,

furcht, f. fear, dread. off, omit, fail. (in pieces).

IRON

son.

get to

m.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Geschichte, the old sailor told, or related a moving (affecting) Id fann nichts bafür', daß idmein It is not my fault that I have

story. Selb perloʻren habe. lost my money.

2. Fort is often expressed in English by“ gone, off," etc.; Diese Uhr geht vor (or, zu schnell), This watch goes too fast, and

as :-3ft er schon lange fort ? has he already been gone long ? und jene geht nach (or, ju lang. that (one) goes too slow.

3. Es sei denn, daß=unless, except, etc.; as :--Der Mensch fann fam).

nicht wahrhaft glücklich sein, es sei denn, daß er tugendhaft sei, man cannot $at man mein Zimmer in Ordnung Has my room been put in be truly happy unless he be virtuous. Wahrlich, wahrlich, ich sage gebracht'?

order ?

bir: Es sei denn, daß Jemand von Neuem geboren werbe, kann er das Reich In ter Reihe seiner Schmeichler hat In the ranks of his flatterers he Gottes nicht sehen, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be er feinen wahren Freund.

has not a true friend.

born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Es giebt Biele, tie glauben, daß in There are many who believe

VOCABULARY. den meisten Fällen das Glück ober that, in (the) most cases, the Anwalt, m. attorney, Hin'kommen, to come, Scherz, m. jest, sport. Unglück eines Menschen vom 3d fortune or misfortune of a

defender.

Stören, to trouble, fall ab'hänge.

man depends on chance.
Bahnen, to open (as Parf, m. park.

disturb. leben Sie wohl, mein Herr, und em: Farewell, Sir, and please re

a path), facilitate. Pflanze, f. plant, ve Türfisch, Turkish, bfehlen Sie mich gütigst 3hrer member me kindly to your Ente, n. end.

getable.

Verschwen'derisd), proFrau Gemah'lin.

lady.

Fort'gehen, to
go Schein,

shine, digal, lavish, proEXERCISE 156.

away.
light.

fuse. 1. Sie fönnen nichts dafür, daß Sie so unglücklich sind. 2. Er konnte

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. nicht: dafür, daß er dieses Glas zerbrach. 3. Ich kann nichts dafür geben, als Wissen Sie, wie weit Sie in der Do you know how far you have meinen Danf. 4. Die Gründe dafür werde ich angeben, wenn es verlangt Sache zu gehen haben ?

to go in the matter? (how far werden sollte. 5. Können Sie mir fagen (Sect. LXXXII. 1), wie viel

you are at liberty to go.) Ukr (Sect. XXIV. 9) es ist? 6. Nein, denn meine Uhr ist stehen geblies Einen wie langen (§ 120. 4) Spa How long a (pleasure) ride have ben. 7. Steht Zhre Uhr schon lange ? 8. Ia, beinahe cine Stunde. 9. zier'ritt haben Sie gemacht? you taken? Meine Uhr geht zu schnell, sie geht beinahe eine halbe Stunde vor. 10. Die Es versteht sich von selbst, daß ein It is self-evident that a lazy lht meines Freundes geht fünf Minuten vor. 11. geben Sie wohl, und

fauler Schüler feine Fort'schritte scholar can make no provergessen Sie nicht, mich bald wieder zu besuchen. 12. leben Sie wohl, machen kann.

gress, mein Herr ! 13. Wann wollen wir zusammen Herrn N. besuchen? 14. Dieser Italie'ner versteht sich auf This Italian is a judge of music. Gs hängt ganz von Ihnen ab (Sect. LXXX. 1) welche Zeit Sie dazu Musik'. bestimmen wollen, ich bin zu jeder Zeit bereit, mitzugehen. 15. Es hängt Herr M. ist heute Morgen fort nach Mr. M. left (is off) this morning ten Ihnen ab, diese Familie zu erretten oder zu verderben. 16. Der

Norb-Ame'rifa.

for North America. Nachbar arbeitet in seinem Garten und sucht denselben in Ordnung zu

So weit er auch von hier wohnt, und However far he resides from bringen. 17. Bei aller Anstrengung bringt er diese Sadie nicht in Ord

so lange ich auch zu gehen habe, so here, and however great a disnung. 18. Gr suchte mich in die Reihe seiner Kameraden zu bringen. besuche ich ihn dennoch alle Tage. tance I have to walk, I never19. &s halt stiver (Sect. XLV. 2), einen unvrdentlichen Menschen an

theless visit him every day. Dronung zu gewöhnen. 20. Nach vieler Mühe hat er die Rechnung in Wohin' eilen sie so schnell ? Whither are you hastening so Denung gebracht. 21. Wer an den Fuße eines steilen Berges stehen

rapidly? bleibt, und aus Furcht vor Anstrengung denselben zu erklimmen unterläft, Ich gehe zu tem Zahn’arzte. I am going to the dentist. und lieber auf die schöne Aussicht verzichtet, der zeigt damit an, daß er ein Die Sache sei nun, wie sie wolle, ich Well, be it (the thing) as it Schmidling und eines solchen Genusses unwerth ist, -—und wer aus eigner werbe ihm nicht verzei'ien, es sei may, I shall not forgive him Shult in der Mitte seiner geistigen Ausbildung stehen bleibt, und den süßen tenn, daß er mich um Entschul's unless he ask my pardon. Kern der Weisheit entbehren will, weil eine rauhe und harte Schale denselben

digung bitte. umschließt, der zeigt ebenfalls nicht nur seine Unwürdigkeit, denselben zu

EXERCISE 158. genießen, an sondern auch, wie wenig er den Beruf und die Pflicht tes 1. Der Dieb ist seines Verbrechens überführt worden, und eß versteht Menschen, als eines geistigen Wesens, erkannt hat.

sich von selbst, daß er bestraft werden wird. 2. Der Vater ist seit heut EXERCISE 157.

Morgen fort und bis jeft noch nicht wieder zurücgekehrt. 3. Dal Budy ist

fort, und feiner dieser Schüler will ( 83. 8, Remark) wissen, wo es hin1. It is not my fault that you have had the mishap. 2. You gekommen ist. 4. Meine Neffen sind fortgegangen, ohne zu sagen, wohin are not to blame that the servant has broken the plate. 3. He fie gingen. 5. Unser Obst ist alle. (Sect. XL. 3). 6. Auch noch so could not give me anything for it, except his thanks. 4. He vicles Geld wird alle, wenn man verschwenderisch ist. 7. Der türkische could not help it, he only spoke the truth. 5. Is the coachman Kaiser Soliman II. sagte furz vor seinem Tode: „Meine Kräfte sind zu to blame that the carriage was upset ? 6. No, he is not to be Ende, nicht aber mein Muth." 8. Wie weit gehen Sie spazieren ? 9. Ich blamed, for the horses could not be quieted. 7. Can you tell gehe, bis ich müde werde, gewöhnlich bis an (Sect. LVII., Note) den Park. me what time it is? 8. No, my watch goes too slow. 9. To

10. Mein Freund weiß recht gut, wie weit er in dieser Sache zu gehen hat. fix the hour of my departure depends upon my parents. 10. 11. Man muß selbst im Scherze wissen, wie weit man zu gehen hat; benn Farewell, Madam; please do not forget to remember me to your auch im Scherze fann man beleidigen. 12. Wo gehen Sie hin? 13. Ich parents. 11. It depends upon you what time you will fix to gehe zu meinem Anwalt. 14. Wie weit haben Sie zu gehen? 15. Bis visit your friends; I shall always be ready to accompany you. an das Ende der Stadt. 16. Wie lange haben Sie zu gehen? 17. Ueber 12. Fortune and misfortune, life and death, poverty and riches, eine Stunde. 18. Einen wie weiten Spaziergang haben Sie gemacht? all depend on the will of God.

19. Ich bin bis in der Nähe des Flusses gewesen. 20. Einen wie langen SECTION LXXXII.--VARIOUS IDIOMATIC PHRASES

Spaziergang haben Sie gemacht? 21. Ich bin über eine halbe Stunde (continued). spazieren gegangen. 22. Wie lange sind Sie aus dem Hause gewesen ?

24. Waren Sie weit be a judge of, to be skilled in ;” as :—Er versteht sich auf Alles, he demselben entfernt gewesen. 26. Id hoffe euch wiederzusehen, sei es nun Sich verstehen (to understand one's self), with auf, signifies" to 23. Ich war dreiviertel Stunten aus demselben.

von demselben cutfernt ? 25. Ich bin beinahe eine halbe Stunde weit von is skilled in everything.

in dieser, oder sei es in jener Welt. 27. Der Gefangene meinte, e fei Es versteht sich (literally, it understands itself—that is, it is understood, is self-evident) answers to our phrase "of course," or

nun lange genug, daß er den warmen Schein der Sonne und die frische Luft "as a matter of course;

as :-Es versteht fich, or e& versteht sich von Habe entbehren müssen. 28. Ich kann morgen nicht zu dir kommen, es sei felbft , daß ich meinen Eltern geħorchen muß, of course, or as a matter denn, daß mein Bruder

bis dahin wieder ganz gefund würde. 29. Ich kann of course, I must obey my parents. The word natürlich, natu

heute unmöglich diesen Brief beendigen, es sei denn, daß ich diesen Nachmittag

30. Es wird Niemand in die Statt eingelassen, et rally, is often used in the same manner; as :-Natürlich muß es so sei denn, daß er einen Paß habe.

weniger gestört werde. sein, of course it must be so. 1. Sagen answers to the English " say” or “tell;" to tell or

EXERCISE 159. narrate, however, is often expressed in German by erzählen; as : 1. Tell me if that is your own horse? 2. That farmer told Das sagte er? what did he say? Was hat er Ihnen gesagt? what me many things about agriculture. 3. I shall not go out to-day has he told, or said to you ? Der alte Matrose erzählte eine rührende unless necessity compels me. 4. You will not enter the king

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dom of heaven unless you acknowledge the blessings of God. 5. strong marks of exaggeration, especially in point of numbers, My brother went off yesterday, and we have heard nothing of the Saracen host being computed at near half a million of men, him. 6. It is self-evident that without nourishment man, ani. we may yet gather that the contending hosts were vast, considermals, and plants cannot exist. 7. My knife is gone, and none ing the populations which furnished them, and also we may of the children know where it is. 8. Our money is all gone. 9. I believe that the Christians were in the minority. For seven know very well how far I have to go in this matter. 10. Where days the fight lasted; scarcely was night allowed to break the do you go to? 11. I am going to my brother. 12. How far continuance of the fray; the cross and the crescent struggled have you to go? 13. Just to the park. 14. What distance for the mastery, and the iron-clad warriors of the Church struck have you to go? 15. About three quarters of a mile. 16. He hard and thrust deep against the lighter-armed Moslems, whose believed the time had now arrived to open his own path through skill and bravery had brought so many nationalities to their life.

feet. May we not join with the valiant and pious men who, having

fought and conquered with Charles the Hammer, ascribed the KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. victory, not to the strength of their own arms of flesh, but to EXERCISE 115 (Vol. II., page 246).

the mercy of the Lord, who fought on his people's side ? 1. Ist Ihr Bruder so vorsichtig als Ihr Onfel? 2. Er ist nicht so vor

Some accounts have it that 300,000 of the Saracens were sichtig, als mein Onkel. 3. Nimm, weder mehr noch weniger als die slain, an almost incredible statement when we consider the Noth erfordert. 4. Obicon er ein schönes Landgut besikt, so will ich dene have been done ; but however that may be, the Saracens were

gunpowderless weapons with which all the butchery must noch einen Theil des meinigen an ihn abtreten. 5. Sie thaten nichts, als sich über ihr leptes Unglüc beklagen. 6. Ich sah Niemand in dem Saal, routed with such tremendous loss that they never afterwards alt den blinden Pfeifer. 7. Ie lânger er bei ihm blieb, desto ungeduldiger crossed the mountains, and sought in the quiet of its Spanish

attempted an invasion of France. Their shattered army rewurde er. 8. Den wievielsten wird Ihr Freund von hier abreisen? 9. Seine Abreise ist auf den vierzehnten nächsten Monats festgesett. 10. Wir provinces to be healed of the wounds which “so bloodíly did wollen diesen Weg gehen, um die Landschaft in der Nähe zu sehen. 11. yawn upon its face." Charlemagne, grandson of the HamNichts als Fröhlichkeit war in der ganzen Familic. 12. Nur Gin Wunsch mer, recovered from the Saracens a large portion even of their blieb ihm übrig. 13. Niemand ist unserer Güte so würdig, als der Freund Spanish territory, and established a military colony in the meines Bruders.

acquired districts to serve as a bulwark to Christendom against further encroachments from the south.

But who were the Saracens, and whence came they? The HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXXI.

answer involves some mention of the origin of the Mahometan

religion. About the year of our Lord 569 there was born at THE MOSLEMS IN EUROPE.

Mecca one Mahomet, the son of a Christianised Jewess and her It was a momentous issue that was decided on the last day husband Abdallah, who was an idolater. Mahomet's parents of that seven days' battle between the Saracenic host and the died when he was a lad, and from the age of thirteen till he was army of European Christians under Charles the Hammer (80 more than forty he was engaged in trade, having been instracted called from the way in which he smote the enemy on this occa- and brought up by his uncles, Abu-Taleb and Abd-al- Motalleb. sion), which was fought on the banks of the Loire, at the spot While still a young man he married Kadijah, a rich widow, old where now stands the city of Tours, on October 10, A.D. 732. enough to be his mother, and being by the marriage placed in

The question at issue really was whether or not the domi- affluence, gave himself to contemplation and to study. Every nion of the Saracens, who had already conquered so far and year he retired to a cave near Mecca in order to spend a month 50 thoroughly, should be extended to northern and western in solitude and prayer, and he announced that during these Europe, and whether Christianity should be subverted by the periods the angel Gabriel appeared to him and told him hidden religion of Mahomet, whose intolerant disciples and zealous things. Then he related how he had been taken by the angel proselytisers the Arabian Saracens were. To the cries of into the presence of God, who had told him he was to be his * Death or the Koran!” “ There is but one God, and Mahomet prophet, that prophet which should unite all men under one is the prophet of God!"-cries which were the knell of hundreds religion of which the one indivisible God was head. The Koran, of thousands of Christians—the Saracens burst from their desert or " Book that ought to be read,” contained the revelations home in Arabia, and swept in one strong tide of conquest which the angel Gabriel, as the mouthpiece of the Almighty, through northern Africa, western Asia, and eastern Europe, till was supposed to have made to Mahomet. they paused on the Morocco shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The first to believe in Mahomet as the prophet of God was They looked northward; they were full of energy and restlessness, his wife Kadijah, whose example was followed by several of and they thought to gratify their ambition and to spread the Mahomet's kinsmen and acquaintance; but the people were religion of their prophet by further conquests on the continent slow to accept him, and the authorities at Mecca were so scanof Europe. While in this frame of mind a renegade Christian dalised at his professions, that after a short time spent in knight, Count Julian, displeased with the treatment he had preaching to the people he was forced to fly to Yatreb, now received from his master, the Gothic King of Spain, invited the Medina (the city), where he had many disciples. Medina became strangers to invade his master's kingdom. Under the conduct the nucleus of the prophet's power, and thither flocked the disof Tarik (whose name is preserved in that of the rock of Gib. contented and the converted to enrol themselves under his raltar, called by the Saracens Gibel-al-Tarik), a resolute band banner. Bands of armed men belonging to his sect infested the crossed the straits, landed in Spain, and, assisted by reinforce road to Mecca, hostilities broke out, and Mahomet succeeded, ments of their countrymen, conquered the country, and reduced after several encounters in which fortune did not always favour the Christians to a condition of dependence, if not of slavery. As him, in arranging for peace, one of the conditions of which was soon as they had settled their new gain into something like order, his public entry into Mecca in his capacity of prophet. From they looked round for fresh conquests, and marching across the this time Mahomet became the most powerful prince in Arabia, Pyrenees, pushed on as far as the Loire, overcoming the very slight converts by the thousand were made to his religion, and he resistance that was opposed to them. Their plans included the began to turn his thoughts towards spreading his doctrines conquest of France, Italy, and Germany, the seizure and dis- beyond the limits of his own country. For “the people of the memberment of the Greek empire being reserved as a sort of book”-that is to say, people who claimed to have had special bonne-bouche for the last. The effect of this would have been, revelations, as the Jews and the Christians-he allowed his in all human probability, to drive Christianity into the cold followers to have toleration on payment of tribute, but for regions of the extreme north, where the remnants left of the idolaters of all kinds the message brought by Mahomet conEuropean nations would have found a home, secure by virtue tained only a choice between the alternatives, Death or the of its climate, from the attacks of the cold-dreading sons of Koran. Mahomet, beyond sending a few military missionary Arabia. There seems, however, to be a rule of nature that the expeditions under enthusiastic commanders against some of the south shall not prevail over the north, but contrariwise, that southern provinces of the Greek empire, does not appear to have in the long run the north shall be master. So it proved at the done much more than to acquire for himself and his religion ? battle of Tours in 732. Though the accounts we have of the complete supremacy in Arabia. All foreign rule was abolished battle, and of the circumstances attendant upon it, are chiefly by him, all other religious systems were forced to yield preom Christian writers, whose record bears upon the face of it cedence to his within the borders of Arabia, and ready to do

his bidding was an army of 100,000 hardy warriors, unener- nominee of their own, in order to give them a sort of title vated by civilisation, and entirely possessed with the belief to commit the acts of government they wished. In the year that it was their duty and their privilege to spread the know. 1258 it was finally abolished, the slave-masters having by that ledge of Mahomet and his teaching.

time become sufficiently strong to dispense with assistance, and On the 8th of June, A.D. 632, the prophet died from the effects to hold their possessions by the help of their own swords. of poison, administered, it is said, by a Jewess who wished to Reinforced by large additions from Tartary, the Turks took try whether he actually was, as he asserted himself to be, the some time to consolidate their power. They borrowed from the Messiah that should come into the world. Discord sprang up Saracens most of what was valuable in their system, they among the chiefs upon the question of a successor, but the adopted their religion, and they imported from home certain supreme command over the faithful was at length accorded to hardy principles and practices which gave solidity and robustAbubeker, the father of Ayesha, Mahomet's favourite wife. ness to the state. Now and again they had to endure the Ababeker crushed by force of arms the efforts of rivals to attack of some unusually energetic Greek emperor, who led his depose him, assumed the title of Khaliph, or Vicar, and pro- armies from Constantinople for the purpose of winning back ceeded forthwith to enlarge the borders of the Saracenic empire. some of the lost ground that had been wrested from feeble Making wise choice of commanders, chief of whom was the governors. But not unfrequently they gained the advantage mighty Khaled, "the sword of God," he invaded Syria, Baby- in this strife, and whether they did or not, they noted down the lonia, and the nearest provinces of the Greek empire, and aggression as a thing to be paid back with interest some day, covered the Saracen arms with the laurels of victory. Damascus That day came when Constantinople fell before their assault; and Jerusalem were both attacked, and the former, though but that event did not happen for more than three centuries defended by a numerous garrison, and though the Emperor after the Turks had become a power in the world. Heraclius sent an army of 100,000 men to relieve it, was cap The separate kingdoms of Saracenic foundation remained in tored on the very day that Abubeker died (A.D. 634). Under statu quo for long periods of years, excepting that the Sultan of Omar, the successor of Abubeker, Persia, Egypt, and Syria fell, Egypt assumed the lead among them, and, as it fell to pieces, Jerusalem itself falling into the Khaliph's power in the year of absorbed such provinces of the Bagdad empire as the negliour Lord 637. Upon the spot where Solomon's temple had gence or the impotence of the Turks suffered to drift away. It stood, the great mosque of Omar was built; the Christians was with the Sultans of Egypt, most famous of whom was were allowed to retain their churches, and were promised pro- Saladin, that the Crusaders had to reckon when they endeatection in return for tribute, and at first it seemed as if the voured to recover the Holy Land. (See Historic Sketches.--X., change of masters would prove beneficial—the change from the Vol. I., page 311.) Syria had fallen to Egypt, and the Sultans slothful mis-government by provincial governors appointed by of Egypt protected it, succeeding, ere they in due time fell the emperor, to the strong, just, and wise government of the before the westward march of the Turks, in driving the ChrisKhaliph.

tians out of the whole of Palestine, and in rendering barren of From the death of Omar, who was assassinated in 643, till results all the work of the Crusades. the invasion of Spain in 710, the Saracen empire had extended The kingdoms of Tunis, Tripoli, and Morocco remain to this its borders with little intermission. Besides establishing itself day, though in them also the dominion has departed from the all along the coast of aorthern Africa, it had mastered the grasp of pure Arabian or Saracen hands to that of strong islands of Sardinia, Sicily, Rhodes, and Crete, and had effected strangers. In Spain the Saracenic, or, as it was called from its a lodgment on the Italian peninsula. But during that time also identity of interest and from its origin, the Moorish kingdom, divisions had sprung up among chiefs who each claimed the long remained in spite of the strenuous efforts of the Christian throne, and who appealed to the sword to decide between them. princes of the north to destroy it. Not until several of the The Arabian simplicity and hardihood became diminished by small Christian states had been rolled into one, and made one contact with civilisation and refinement, and it was found by in interest, one in political purpose, one as a nation, was an im. the middle of the eighth century that the authority of the pression made on the kingdom of Granada, and even then the Khaliph at Bagdad was practically set at nonght, and his impression was, so to speak, a slight one. From indolence, in. dominion confined to the limits of the city itself. Quasi-inde capacity, from whatever cause, the Christian princes who strove pendent kingdoms were erected in Tunis, Tripoli

, Egypt, from the year 1100 downwards, with some prospect of ultimate Morocco, Damascus, and Spain, each under some successful success, to oust the Moors, proved unequal to the task. It was soldier chief, who owned only a nominal allegiance, if any, to reserved for Ferdinand the Catholic, whose marriage with the Commander of the Faithfui at Bagdad.

Isabella of Castile had welded into one the Christian power in This decline in power, these splittings up of the unity of the Spain, to overthrow without hope of restoration the throne of empire, were the salvation for a while of the Greek empire. the Moslem in Cordova. Many strong towns had been gradually They were the causes, too, coupled with the establishment of won, the bulwarks of the kingdom had been sapped since many the Christian kingdoms of Leon, Castile, the Asturias, and years, but on the 2nd of January, 1492, the Spanish king had Navarre, and the continuous bearing down from the north upon the satisfaction of receiving as conqueror the keys of Granada, the south of the large nationalities of the German and Sclavonic the last stronghold of the Moors. families, why the Saracenic wave of conquest did not sweep Forty years had not elapsed since every echo in Europe had northwards after it was first stemmed by Charles the Ham- resounded to the crash of the Greek empire as its capital fell to mer at the battle of Tours.

the Turks. Fresh influxes of men, fresh leaders, new dynasties, There was another and more deadly cause for the break-up had come to swell the might and to develop the resources of of the Saracenic power, at least in the East. In the wars which those invaders. An irrepressible ardour burned in their hearts the Khaliphs waged from time to time upon the barbarous people to burst their bounds and to achieve conquests, and the weakwho dwelt on their north-eastern frontier, there had been cap ness and the riches of the Greek empire proved an irresistible tured many stalwart men, of large frame and sturdy constitu- bait. With a multitudinous army, supplied with everything for tion, who were allowed their freedom from labour and from the the siege of the greatest city of the world-with skill, courage, other incidents of conquest on condition of entering the military and confidence in himself-Mahomet II. pitched his camp service of their captors. These men were from Turkestan, around the fated city, and carried it at last by assault. ConTartars of the ronghest, strongest kind. They accepted the stantinople passed into Turkish hands, by which it has been conditions, and they formed the household troops of the retained ever since; and for a while it was feared that the Khaliph about the time when the energetic brethren of their Moslem faith which had been kept out of Europe, save Spain, master were establishing themselves in their newly-gained would be forced upon it by the Turks. Vienna was twice beSpanish possessions. From guards they soon learned to become sieged by the Turks, the last time in 1683; and it was but masters, and to dispose of the succession when that came in owing to victories like the naval one of Lepanto in 1571, to question according to their own liking. The Kaliphate declined those in which the king and people of Hungary so frequently visibly. Al Radi, who died in 940, was the last of the real sacrificed themselves, and to heroio efforts like those which enaKhaliphs; after him there was no head of the empire, and the bled John Sobieski, King of Poland, to rescue Vienna in 1683, Tarkish soldiers seized for themselves the provinces imme that the Turkish power was kept from encroaching further diately gorrounding the capital city of Bagdad. The title of westward in Europe. Few and short, it is probable, are the Khaliph was, however, maintained by the Turks for some days of its future pilgrimage.

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XXXI. CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.—IV. ABOUT ENGLISH DICTIONARIES. William. I find the study of those Greek stems difficult. Thomas. Every study is difficult at the first, and often is a study the more difficult the more valuable it is, both for the information it contains, and for the mental discipline which it gives. Pursue the course which the Lessons in English take, exactly in the order in which it is presented, and master each lesson in succession. William. If by mastering you mean that I should thoroughl comprehend and retain in mind every part, I must candidly you that I am unable to do so. Thomas. Why? every word likely to cause difficulty is explained, and an example of its import and use is given; the etymology of the words is, too, so set forth, that I should have thought you would, from that alone, have been led to the several meanings. William. Well, I have, I believe, made out the meanings of some of the words from a knowledge of their constituent elements. Thomas. Doubtless you have, and with practice you will succeed in thus making yourself acquainted with them all; it is by this means that I have learnt the import of thousands of the words with which I am familiar. William. Oh, you have had good dictionaries. Thomas, True, I possess good dictionaries, but the best dictionaries will not suffice to give any one even a verbal knowledge of a language; and I assure you, it is very possible for a dictionary to be so used as to be a hindrance to a real, and thorough, and exact acquaintance with a language. A dictionary is a very good servant, but a very bad master. A slavish use of a dictionary retards and obstructs even a verbal knowledge of a language. You should aim at becoming your own dictionary; and to a great extent your own dictionary you may become, if you take the trouble to make yourself familiar with the roots of the English. Do you think you would ever acquire a knowledge of the steam-engine, so as to be able to make an engine yourself, if you confined your inspection to its exterior P The way to know how to put a steam-engine together is first to take it to pieces, and then carefully to examine the structure and use of every part. William. Yes, there is sense in that; I had a proof last week; I took my watch to be repaired, and as I stood there at the counter chatting with the watchmaker, he began to take my watch to pieces; my curiosity was excited, Iwatched every step, and when he had done (or rather undone the watch), he explained to me the use and function of every part. To-morrow I am to go to see him put the parts together. Thomas. A very good illustration; now you would understand what you see to-morrow very imperfectly if you had not seen the watch taken to pieces, and if, further, you had not carefully marked and studied every piece of the machinery. After all, your knowledge of the structure and the movements of the watch will remain very much inferior to the watchmaker's knowledge; why? William. I suppose, because he is more exactly and more thoroughly familiar with the several parts. Thomas. Exactly. Apply this to a language: it is the parts or the elements of the English language that I want you to be master of, well knowing that when you are so, you will know and write the language well; but without that mastery you must not expect to become a proficient in our tongue. You did not, I fancy, entrust your watch to the watchmaker's apprentice? William. I should be very sorry do so. Thomas. Why? William. Why? because he is an apprentice, and a young one, too. Thomas. Very well, you thought he did not understand his business; and if he did not understand his business, it was chiefly because he was unacquainted with the structure and uses of the parts of your watch. William. But why take the watch to pieces in order to acquire that knowledge? Thomas. Simply because that knowledge cannot well be otherwise acquired. I dare say you have looked at your watch

William. Oh, yes, and I have tried to look into it, but never

could get to know much about its works or its operations.

Thomas. No, and long enough might the watchmaker's apprentice look at and look into his master's watches before he would acquire the knowledge and skill requisite to make him a watchmaker. Now, in regard to the English, you wish to be a watchmaker, that is, you wish to write good English; how can you succeed unless by learning the parts of the structure with which you have to deal No, no; you must follow the watchmaker's practice; you must take the language to pieces, study those several pieces, and then try to put them all together bit by bit. In this operation everything depends on your acquiring a correct knowledge of the several component parts. Therefore study etymology, study the Greek, Latin, and other stems. If you fail in this you will be, and you will remain, in the condition of the watchmaker's apprentice.

William. Surely, I may become a master by studying a good English dictionary.

Thomas. Never; the mere use of the dictionary is like look. ing at the watch on the outside; at the best you will thus look only a small way into it, and after all, having given much more trouble than would be necessary to acquire the language thoroughly with the aid of etymology, you will, whatever efforts you may make, acquire nothing more than a super- . ficial acquaintance with English. The etymological study of a language is the only wise and proper one; it is also the shortest and the easiest in the long run.

William. What do you mean by “etymological study ?”

Thomas. That study which is founded on etymology or a knowledge of root-meanings, a knowledge of the meanings of the component parts or the elements of a language. Etymology is the A B C of a language; and as you cannot write without knowing “your alphabet,” so you cannot read without knowing the materials you have to employ. I fancy I should ill succeed in your cabinet-making. Why? William. For one thing, you don't know the tools. Thomas. No; but the tools of the English language I do know, and want to teach you what they are, and what they are for. Therefore study the Greek and Latin stems or roots, William. But you do not forbid the use of a dictionary, Some of the words given in the lessons I cannot make out—what am I to do? Thomas. Consult a good English dictionary. I am not against the proper use of a dictionary; it is the abuse of a dictionary I wish to guard you against. Do not expect too much from a dictionary. Do not place your reliance on a dictionary. Do not fly to a dictionary the moment you meet with a word you do not understand. Instead of consulting the dictionary, consult your own head. Surely you will be better off if you carry a dictionary about with you. William. Yes, I will get a pocket dictionary. Thomas. No, no; I don't mean that. Pocket dictionaries are of little more use than “pocket pistols;” it is a head-dictionary that I wish to recommend. If you have a dictionary in your own head, you will never be at a loss; and the way to acquire such a treasure is by systematic study—the etymological study of the English tongue. William. Still you think a dictionary may be useful; what dictionary do you recommend? Thomas. I think it indispensable that you should possess a good English dictionary. Talent and industry of the first class might do without a dictionary; and you yourself will fail in your duty if you do not learn far more without, than you learn by means of a dictionary. Nevertheless, there are occasions when a dictionary is useful, not to say necessary, and on that account I will set before you means for determining which of the dictionaries of the English language you should purchase.

William. I suppose, from what you say, that there are several dictionaries of the English language? Thomas. Yes, there are several. William. Well, then, which am I to choose P Thomas. The selection, in part, depends on the amount of money you can spare for the purpose. William. My stock is small, but I would rather wait until it has increased than purchase an inferior book. Thomas. Very good, but what should you say to five guineas for a dictionary *

very often.

William. I can afford no such sum; the utinost that my

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