dom of heaven unless you acknowledge the blessings of God. 5. strong marks of exaggeration, especially in point of numbers, My brother went off yesterday, and we have heard nothing of the Saracen host being computed at near half a million of men, him. 6. It is self-evident that without nourishment man, ani we may yet gather that the contending hosts were vast, consider. mals, and plants cannot exist. 7. My knife is gone, and none ing the populations which furnished them, and also we may of the children know where it is. 8. Our money is all gone. 9. I believe that the Christians were in the minority. For seven know very well how far I have to go in this matter. 10. Where days the fight lasted; scarcely was night allowed to break the do you go to? 11. I am going to my brother. 12. How far continuance of the fray; the cross and the crescent struggled have you to go? 13. Just to the park. 14. What distance for the mastery, and the iron-clad warriors of the Church struck have you to go ? 15. About three quarters of a mile. 16. He hard and thrust deep against the lighter-armed Moslems, whose believed the time had now arrived to open his own path through skill and bravery had brought so many nationalities to their life.

feet. May we not join with the valiant and pious men who, having

fought and conquered with Charles the Hammer, ascribed the KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. victory, not to the strength of their own arms of flesh, but to EXERCISE 115 (Vol. II., page 246).

the mercy of the Lord, who fought on his people's side ? 1. 3st Ihr Bruder so vorsichtig als Ihr Onkel ? 2. Er ist nicht so vor:

Some accounts have it that 300,000 of the Saracens were sichtig, als mein Dikel. 3. Nimm, weter mehr noch weniger als die slain, an almost incredible statement when we consider the Noth erfortert. 4. Obichon er ein schönes Landgut befißt

, so will ich den gunpowderless weapons with which all the butchery must noch einen Theil des meinigen an ihn abtreten. 5. Sie thaten nichts

, als have been done; but however that may be, the Saracens were sich über ihr leptes Unglück beklagen. 6. Ich lub Niemand in dem Saal, routed with such tremendous loss that they never afterwards als den blinden Pfeifer . 7. Ie långer er bei ihm blieb, desto ungeduldiger crossed the mountains, and sought in the quiet of its Spanish

attempted an invasion of France. Their shattered army rewurde er. 8. Den wievielsten wird Ihr Freund von hier abreisen? 9. Seine Abreise ist auf den vierzehnten nächsten Monats festgelegt. 10. Wir provinces to be healed of the wounds which “so bloodily did wollen diesen Weg gehen, um die Landschaft in ter Nähe zu sehen. 11. yawn upon its face.” Charlemagne, grandson of the HamNichts als Fröhlichkeit war in der ganzen Familie

. 12. Nur Ein Wunsch mer, recovered from the Saracens a large portion even of their blieb ihm übrig. 13. Niemand ist unserer Güte so würdig, als der Freun Spanish territory, and established a military colony in the meines Bruders.

acquired districts to serve as a bulwark to Christendom against further encroachments from the south.

But who were the Saracens, and whence came they? The HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XXXI.

answer involves some mention of the origin of the Mahometan

religion. About the year of our Lord 569 there was born at THE MOSLEMS IN EUROPE.

Mecca one Mahomet, the son of a Christianised Jewess and her It was a momentous issue that was decided on the last day husband Abdallah, who was an idolater. Mahomet's parents of that seven days' battle between the Saracenic host and the died when he was a lad, and from the age of thirteen till he was army of European Christians under Charles the Hammer (80 more than forty he was engaged in trade, having been instructed called from the way in which he smote the enemy on this occa- and brought up by his uncles, Abu-Taleb and Abd-al-Motalleb. sion), which was fought on the banks of the Loire, at the spot While still a young man he married Kadijah, a rich widow, old where now stands the city of Tours, on October 10, A.D. 732. enough to be his mother, and being by the marriage placed in

The question at issue really was whether or not the domi- affluence, gave himself to contemplation and to study. Every nion of the Saracens, who had already conquered so far and year he retired to a cave near Mecca in order to spend a month 80 thoroughly, should be extended to northern and western in solitude and prayer, and he announced that during these Europe, and whether Christianity should be subverted by the periods the angel Gabriel appeared to him and told him hidden religion of Mahomet, whose intolerant disciples and zealous things. Then he related how he had been taken by the angel proselytisers the Arabian Saracens were. To the cries of into the presence of God, who had told him he was to be his * Death or the Koran!" " There is but one God, and Mahomet prophet, that prophet which should unite all men under one is the prophet of God!"-cries which were the knell of hundreds religion of which the one indivisible God was head. The Koran, of thousands of Christians--the Saracens burst from their desert or "Book that ought to be read," contained the revelations home in Arabia, and swept in one strong tide of conquest which the angel Gabriel, as the mouthpiece of the Almighty, through northern Africa, western Asia, and eastern Europe, till was supposed to have made to Mahomet. they paused on the Morocco shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The first to believe in Mahomet as the prophet of God was They looked northward; they were full of energy and restlessness, his wife Kadijah, whose example was followed by several of and they thought to gratify their ambition and to spread the Mahomet's kinsmen and acquaintance; but the people were religion of their prophet by further conquests on the continent slow to accept him, and the authorities at Mecca were so scanof Europe. While in this frame of mind a renegade Christian dalised at his professions, that after a short time spent in knight, Count Julian, displeased with the treatment he had preaching to the people he was forced to fly to Yatreb, now received from his master, the Gothic King of Spain, invited the Medina (the city), where he had many disciples. Medina became strangers to invade his master's kingdom. Under the conduct the nucleus of the prophet's power, and thither flocked the disof Tarik (whose name is preserved in that of the rock of Gib- contented and the converted to enrol themselves under his raltar, called by the Saracens Gibel-al-Tarik), a resolute band banner. Bands of armed men belonging to his sect infested the crossed the straits, landed in Spain, and, assisted by reinforce- road to Mecca, hostilities broke out, and Mahomet succeeded, ments of their countrymen, conquered the country, and reduced after several encounters in which fortune did not always favour the Christians to a condition of dependence, if not of slavery. As him, in arranging for peace, one of the conditions of which was soon as they had settled their new gain into something like order, his public entry into Mecca in his capacity of prophet. From they looked round for fresh conquests, and marching across the this time Mahomet became the most powerful prince in Arabia, Pyrenees, pushed on as far as the Loire, overcoming the very slight converts by the thousand were made to his religion, and he resistance that was opposed to them. Their plans included the began to turn his thoughts towards spreading his doctrines conquest of France, Italy, and Germany, the seizure and dis- beyond the limits of his own country. For “ the people of the memberment of the Greek empire being reserved as a sort of book”--that is to say, people who claimed to have had special bonne-bouche for the last. The effect of this would have been, revelations, as the Jews and the Christians-he allowed his in all human probability, to drive Christianity into the cold followers to have toleration on payment of tribute, but for regions of the extreme north, where the remnants left of the idolaters of all kinds the message brought by Mahomet conEuropean nations would have found a home, secure by virtue tained only a choice between the alternatives, Death or the of its climate, from the attacks of the cold-dreading sons of Koran. Mahomet, beyond sending a few military missionary Arabia. There seems, however, to be a rule of nature that the expeditions under enthusiastic commanders against some of the south shall not prevail over the north, but contrariwise, that southern provinces of the Greek empire, does not appear to have in the long run the north shall be master. So it proved at the done much more than to acquire for himself and his religion & battle of Tours in 732. Though the accounts we have of the complete supremacy in Arabia. All foreign rule was abolished battle, and of the circumstances attendant upon it, are chiefly by him, all other religious systems were forced to yield prefrom Christian writers, whose record bears upon the face of it cedence to his within the borders of Arabia, and ready to do

his bidding was an army of 100,000 hardy warriors, unener-nominee of their own, in order to give them a sort of title rated by civilisation, and entirely possessed with the belief to commit the acts of government they wished. In the year that it was their duty and their privilege to spread the know- 1258 it was finally abolished, the slave-masters having by that ledge of Mahomet and his teaching.

time become sufficiently strong to dispense with assistance, and On the 8th of June, A.D. 632, the prophet died from the effects to hold their possessions by the help of their own swords. of poison, administered, it is said, by a Jewess who wished to Reinforced by large additions from Tartary, the Turks took try whether he actually was, as he asserted himself to be, the some time to consolidate their power. They borrowed from the Messiah that should come into the world. Discord sprang up Saracens most of what was valuable in their system, they among the chiefs upon the question of a successor, but the adopted their religion, and they imported from home certain supreme command over the faithful was at length accorded to hardy principles and practices which gave solidity and robustAbubeker, the father of Ayesha, Mahomet's favourite wife. ness to the state. Now and again they had to endure the Abubeker crushed by force of arms the efforts of rivals to attack of some unusually energetic Greek emperor, who led his depose him, assumed the title of Khaliph, or Vicar, and pro- armies from Constantinople for the purpose of winning back ceeded forthwith to enlarge the borders of the Saracenic empire. some of the lost ground that had been wrested from feeble Making wise choice of commanders, chief of whom was the governors. But not unfrequently they gained the advantage mighty Khaled, "the sword of God," he invaded Syria, Baby- in this strife, and whether they did or not, they noted down the lonia, and the nearest provinces of the Greek empire, and aggression as a thing to be paid back with interest some day, covered the Saracen arms with the laurels of victory. Damascus That day came when Constantinople fell before their assault; and Jerusalem were both attacked, and the former, though but that event did not happen for more than three centuries defended by a numerous garrison, and though the Emperor after the Turks had become a power in the world. Heraclius sent an army of 100,000 men to relieve it, was cap The separate kingdoms of Saracenic foundation remained in tured on the very day that Abubeker died (A.D. 634). Under statu quo for long periods of years, excepting that the Sultan of Omar, the successor of Abubeker, Persia, Egypt, and Syria fell, Egypt assumed the lead among them, and, as it fell to pieces, Jerusalem itself falling into the Khaliph's power in the year of absorbed such provinces of the Bagdad empire as the negliour Lord 637. Upon the spot where Solomon's temple had gence or the impotence of the Turks suffered to drift away. It stood, the great mosque of Omar was built; the Christians was with the Sultans of Egypt, most famous of whom was were allowed to retain their churches, and were promised pro- Saladin, that the Crusaders had to reckon when they endeatection in return for tribute, and at first it seemed as if the roured to recover the Holy Land. (See Historic Sketches.-X., change of masters would prove beneficial—the change from the Vol. I., page 311.) Syria had fallen to Egypt, and the Sultans slothful mis-government by provincial governors appointed by of Egypt protected it, succeeding, ere they in due time fell the emperor, to the strong, just, and wise government of the before the westward march of the Turks, in driving the ChrisKhaliph.

tians out of the whole of Palestine, and in rendering barren of From the death of Omar, who was assassinated in 643, till results all the work of the Crusades. the invasion of Spain in 710, the Saracen empire had extended The kingdoms of Tunis, Tripoli, and Morocco remain to this ita borders with little intermission. Besides establishing itself day, though in them also the dominion has departed from the all along the coast of aorthern Africa, it had mastered the grasp of pure Arabian or Saracen hands to that of strong islands of Sardinia, Sicily, Rhodes, and Crete, and had effected strangers. In Spain the Saracenic, or, as it was called from its a lodgment on the Italian peninsula. But during that time also identity of interest and from its origin, the Moorish kingdom, divisions had sprung up among chiefs who each claimed the long remained in spite of the strennous efforts of the Christian throne, and who appealed to the sword to decide between them. princes of the north to destroy it. Not until several of the The Arabian simplicity and hardihood became diminished by small Christian states had been rolled into one, and made one contact with civilisation and refinement, and it was found by in interest, one in political purpose, one as a nation, was an imthe middle of the eighth century that the authority of the pression made on the kingdom of Granada, and even then the Khaliph at Bagdad was practicaily set at nought, and his impression was, so to speak, a slight one. From indolence, in. dominion confined to the limits of the city itself. Quasi-inde capacity, from whatever cause, the Christian princes who strove pendent kingdoms were erected in Tunis, Tripoli, Egypt, from the year 1100 downwards, with some prospect of ultimate Morocco, Damascus, and Spain, each under some successful success, to oust the Moors, proved unequal to the task. It was soldier chief, who owned only a nominal allegiance, if any, to reserved for Ferdinand the Catholic, whose marriage with the Commander of the Faithful at Bagdad.

Isabella of Castile had welded into one the Christian power in This decline in power, these splittings up of the unity of the Spain, to overthrow without hope of restoration the throne of empire, were the salvation for a while of the Greek empire. the Moslem in Cordova. Many strong towns had been gradually They were the causes, too, coupled with the establishment of won, the bulwarks of the kingdom had been sapped since many the Christian kingdoms of Leon, Castile, the Asturias, and years, but on the 2nd of January, 1492, the Spanish king had Navarre, and the continuous bearing down from the north upon the satisfaction of receiving as conqueror the keys of Granada, the south of the large nationalities of the German and Sclavonic the last stronghold of the Moors. families, why the Saracenic wave of conquest did not sweep Forty years had not elapsed since every echo in Europe had northwards after it was first stemmed by Charles the Ham. resounded to the crash of the Greek empire as its capital fell to mer at the battle of Tours.

the Turks. Fresh influxes of men, fresh leaders, new dynasties, There was another and more deadly cause for the break-up had come to swell the might and to develop the resources of of the Saracenic power, at least in the East. In the wars which those invaders. An irrepressible ardour burned in their hearts the Khaliphs waged from time to time upon the barbarous people to burst their bounds and to achieve conquests, and the weakwho dwelt on their north-eastern frontier, there had been cap- ness and the riches of the Greek empire proved an irresistible tared many stalwart men, of large frame and sturdy constitu- bait. With a multitudinous army, supplied with everything for tion, who were allowed their freedom from labour and from the the siege of the greatest city of the world—with skill, courage, other incidents of conquest on condition of entering the military and confidence in himself-Mahomet II. pitched his camp service of their captors. These men were from Turkestan, around the fated city, and carried it at last by assault. ConTartars of the roughest, strongest kind. They accepted the stantinople passed into Turkish hands, by which it has been conditions, and they formed the household troops of the retained ever since; and for a while it was feared that the Khaliph about the time when the energetic brethren of their Moslem faith which had been kept out of Europe, save Spain, master were establishing themselves in their newly-gained would be forced upon it by the Turks. Vienna was twice be. Spanish possessions. From guards they soon learned to become sieged by the Turks, the last time in 1683; and it was but masters, and to dispose of the succession when that came in owing to victories like the naval one of Lepanto in 1571, to question according to their own liking. The Kaliphate declined those in which the king and people of Hungary so frequently viably. Al Radi, who died in 940, was the last of the real sacrificed themselves, and to heroic efforts like those which enaKhaliphs; after him there

was no head of the empire, and the bled John Sobieski, King of Poland, to rescue Vienna in 1683, Turkish soldiers seized for themselves the provinces imme- that the Turkish power was kept from encroaching further diately surrounding the capital city of Bagdad. The title of westward in Europe. Few and short, it is probable, are the Khaliph was, however, maintained by the Turks for some days of its future pilgrimage.


William. Oh, yes, and I have tried to look into it, but never CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-IV.

could get to know much about its works or its operations.

Thomas. No, and long enough might the watchmaker's ABOUT ENGLISH DICTIONARIES.

apprentice look at and look into his master's watches before he William. I find the study of those Greek stems difficult. would acquire the knowledge and skill requisite to make him

Thomas. Every study is difficult at the first, and often is a a watchmaker. Now, in regard to the English, you wish to be study the more difficult the more valuable it is, both for the a watchmaker, that is, you wish to write good English; how information it contains, and for the mental discipline which it can you succeed unless by learning the parts of the structure gives. Pursue the course which the Lessons in English take, with which you have to deal ? No, no, you must follow the exactly in the order in which it is presented, and master each watchmaker's practice; you must take the language to pieces, lesson in succession.

study those several pieces, and then try to put them all together William. If by mastering you mean that I should thoroughly bit by bit. In this operation everything depends on your accomprehend and retain in mind every part, I must candidly tell quiring a correct knowledge of the several component parts. you that I am unable to do so.

Therefore study etymology, study the Greek, Latin, and other Thomas. Why? every word likely to cause difficulty is sters. If you fail in this you will be, and you will renmin, ir explained, and an example of its import and use is given; the the condition of the watchmaker's apprentice. etymology of the words is, too, so set forth, that I should have William. Surely, I may become a master by studying a good thought you would, from that alone, have been led to the several English dictionary. meanings.

Thomas. Never ; the mere use of the dictionary is like lookWilliam. Well, I have, I believe, made out the meanings ing at the watch on the outside; at the best you will thns look of some of the words from a knowledge of their constituent only a small way into it, and after all, having given much more elements.

trouble than would be necessary to acquire the language Thomas. Doubtless you have, and with practice you will thoroughly with the aid of etymology, you will, whatever succeed in thus making yourself acquainted with them all; it is efforts you may make, acquire nothing more than a superby this means that I have learnt the import of thousands of the ficial acquaintance with English. The etymological study of a words with which I am familiar.

language is the only wise and proper one; it is also the shortest Williar. Oh, you have had good dictionaries.

and the easiest in the long run. Thomas. True, I possess good dictionaries, but the best William. What do you mean by “ etymological study po dictionaries will not suffice to give any one even a verbal know Thomas. That study which is founded on etymology or a ledge of a language ; and I assure you, it is very possible for a knowledge of root-meanings, a knowledge of the meanings of dictionary to be so used as to be a hindrance to a real, and the component parts or the elements of a language. Etymology thorough, and exact acquaintance with a language. A dic- is the A B C of a language ; and as you cannot write withont tionary is a very good servant, but a very bad master. A slavish knowing "your alphabet," so you cannot read without knowing use of a dictionary retards and obstructs even a verbal know the materials you have to employ. I fancy I should ill succeed ledge of a language. You should aim at becoming your own in your cabinet-making. Why? dictionary; and to a great extent your own dictionary you may William. For one thing, you don't know the tools. become, if you take the trouble to make yourself familiar with Thomas. No; but the tools of the English language I do the roots of the English. Do you think you would ever acquire know, and want to teach you what they are, and what they are a knowledge of the steam-engine, so as to be able to make an for. Therefore study the Greek and Latin stems or roots, engine yourself, if you confined your inspection to its exterior ? William. But you do not forbid the use of a dictionary. The way to know how to put a steam-engine together is first to Some of the words given in the lessons I cannot make oat-what take it to pieces, and then carefully to examine the structure am I to do ? and use of every part.

Thomas. Consult a good English dictionary. I am not William. Yes, there is sense in that; I had a proof last against the proper use of a dictionary ; it is the abuse of a week; I took my watch to be repaired, and as I stood there at dictionary I wish to guard you against. Do not expect too the counter chatting with the watchmaker, he began to take my much from a dictionary. Do not place your reliance on a watch to pieces; my curiosity was excited, I watched every step, dictionary. Do not fly to a dictionary the moment you meet and when he had done (or rather undone the watch), he explained with a word you do not understand. Instead of consulting the to me the use and function of every part. To-morrow I am to dictionary, consult your own head. Surely you will be better go to see him put the parts together.

off if you carry a dictionary about with you. Thomas. A very good illustration; now you would under William. Yes, I will get a pocket dictionary. stand what you see to-morrow very imperfectly if you had not Thomas. No, no; I don't mean that. Pocket dictionaries are seen the watch taken to pieces, and if, further, you had not of little more use than "pocket pistols;” it is a head-dictionary carefully marked and studied every piece of the machinery. that I wish to recommend. If you have a dictionary in your own After all, your knowledge of the structure and the movements head, you will never be at a loss; and the way to acquire such a of the watch will remain very much inferior to the watchmaker's treasure is by systematic study—the etymological study of the knowledge; why?

English tongue. William. I suppose, because he is more exactly and more William. Still you think å dictionary may be useful; what thoroughly familiar with the several parts.

dictionary do you recommend ? Thomas. Exactly. Apply this to a language : it is the parts Thomas. I think it indispensable that you should possess a or the elements of the English language that I want you to be good English dictionary. Talent and industry of the first class master of, well knowing that when you are so, you will know might do without a dictionary; and you yourself will fail in and write the language well; but without that mastery you your duty if you do not learn far more without, than you learn must not expect to become a proficient in our tongue. You did by means of a dictionary. Nevertheless, there are occasions not, I fancy, entrust your watch to the watchmaker's apprentice? when a dictionary is useful, not to say necessary, and on that William. I should be very sorry do so.

account I will set before you moans for determining which of the Thomas. Why?

dictionaries of the English language you should purchase. William. Why? because he is an apprentice, and a young William. I suppose, from what you say, that there are one, too.

several dictionaries of the English language ? Thomas. Very well, you thought he did not understand his Thomas. Yes, there are several. business; and if he did not understand his business, it was William. Well, then, which am I to choose ? chiefly because he was unacquainted with the structure and uses Thomas. The selection, in part, depends on the amount of of the parts of your watch,

money you can spare for the purpose. William. But why take the watch to pieces in order to William. My stock is small, but I wonld rather wait until it acquire that knowledge ?

has increased than purchase an inferior book. Thomas. Simply because that knowledge cannot well be Thomas. Very good, but what should you say to five guineas otherwise acquired. I dare say you have looked at your watch for a dictionary? very often.

TYilliam. I can afford no such sum; the utmost that my


means will allow me to expend in the work is a guinea, or a learners. Besides, Dr. Johnson was but imperfectly acquainted guinea and a half.

with the constituent elements of the English language, and Thomas. Let us set the limit at a guinea and a half

therefore he was not a thoroughly competent etymologist. William. Nay, I am not sure I shall be able to raise that William. To whom, then, are we to look for sound instrucsum, and I am sure it will be a long time first.

tion in etymology ? Thomas. You did not hear me out; I was going to say that Thomas. The science is yet in its infancy; I cannot recomtaking a gainea and a half as the highest price, I would mention mend a wholly satisfactory guide. Even Todd's Johnson's dicseveral dictionaries which range from that down to six or seven tionary comes not up to the mark. Nor could I recommend, as shillings.

a sufficient etymological guide, Dr. Richardson's very valuable William. Thank you, that plan will suit me very well. English dictionary. However, by their price, Johnson's and

Thomas. With a guinea and a half for our highest point, we Richardson's dictionaries are beyond your reach. exclude the dictionary of the celebrated Dr. Samuel Johnson. William. What dictionary then am I to purchase ? I may, however, remark that to that learned man we owe the Thomas. You may possibly find resources to procure a copy commencement of sound lexicography in regard to the English of Webster's, if not the “Grammar School Dictionary," which tongue.

can be had for 3s. 6d., and would answer your purpose in William, Lexicography! what is that?

every way. Thomas. Dr. Johnson himself shall inform you ; in his celebrated dictionary he defines lexicography as "the art or practice of writing dictionaries." Now, can you tell me the derivation


William. Graphe means writing.
Thomas. Yes; what does the former part of the word mean? In the early ages of the Christian Church, when its members
William. Is it connected with lego or logos ?

became sufficiently free from persecution to erect buildings for Thomas. With both; the original Greek is Lexicon, which, their worship, they appear to have beon anxious to avoid, in from lego, I speak (logos, a word), may be rendered word-book.

their structures, any of the forms peculiar to either heathen or William. I wish *word-book” had been in use, I should Jewish temples. They therefore adopted the simple style of then have had no difficulty. I like those Saxon compounds, they the Roman basilicæ, or courts of justice. There was a fitness are so obvious in their import. How much better would word in the general plan of these buildings which rendered its selecbook have been than dictionary or lexicon. But where is the tion natural and appropriate. The basilica were usually endifference between dictionary and lexicon ?

closures surrounded by a colonnade, sometimes roofed, but at Thomas. In general, there is no difference between them, others open to the air, and built designedly so as to be accesthough dictionary is by usage applied to word-books relating to sible to all persons at all times of the day. Occasionally they the English or the Latin, and lexicon is applied to word-books were used as places for the transaction of ordinary business, and relating to the Greek, the Hebrew, and other learned languages. thus in character and purpose they closely resembled some of William. Then, why have we two words?

the buildings known in our own time as "exchanges.” But Thomas. As a matter of fact, we have two words, because their simplicity, the freedom of access which they afforded, and the English has been supplied with its terms from two languages the dignified object for which they were primarily founded-the Greek, whence we get lexicon, and the Latin, whence we namely, the dispensation of justice-no doubt commended their get dictionary. But we have more than two words which, in design as a model to the imitation of the primitive Christians, their general import, correspond to word-book; there is vocabu- and on this model the earliest of their buildings arose. It has lary from the Latin, and glossary from the Greek: the former left its impress on many of the edifices famous in Christian from yox, a voice or articulate sound, signifies a list or collection architecture, and the name of basilica for a church is still of words with or without their several significations, and is current in Italy and in Rome. mostly applied either to all the words of a language considered The usual form of a Roman basilica was a parallelogram, collectively (thus we say, “The English is a rich and varied with a seat for the judges at one of the ends; and in adopting Focabulary"), or to a number of words put together for a certain this form it was natural that the place occupied by this seat purpose, be that number smaller or larger : thus, a Latin voca- should be devoted by the members of the early Church to the bulary would be a selection of such words as a beginner in the purposes of an altar. This, by an easy transition, is believed language ought first of all to learn. Glossary is, so to say, a to have given rise to the formation of the semi-circular recess at learned book, and denotes a list of terms hard to be understood, one end of the building, known as the apse (from the Latin selected and given for explanation.

apsis, a bow or arch), which is characteristic of the ground-plan William. What is the origin of glossary?

of many of the oldest churches. Thomas. It comes from the Greek glossé, or, as the word Occasionally the oblong space enclosed for the basilica was appears in another form, glotté, which means a tongue, the organ divided by rows of columns into three parts, running from end being given for the product of the organ, that is, word. to end, the central being the widest. This form, too, was

William. Then glotté is the term we find in polyglott? adopted for the larger of the buildings devoted to Christian Thomas. Yes, polyglott is from the Greek glotté, tongue, and worship, and was the germ of the idea of the division of its polūs, many, and so signifies a many-tongued book; for instance, more imposing edifices into the nave, or body of the church, and the Sacred Scriptures in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, and its side aisles. English.

Being thus Roman in the nature of their ground-plan, the William. You think highly of Dr. Johnson's dictionary ? Roman type of architecture, characterised by the plain round Thomas. Yes.

arch, also impressed itself on the general features of the earlier William. Do you not think I could procure a copy in an old Christian buildings. On the destruction of the Pagan temples book-shop for a small sum ?

by order of the Emperor Constantine in the year 330, the mateThomas. Probably, but though I sometimes go to such places rials of which they were composed were in many cases turned myself in search of book-rarities, I advise you to avoid them. to account for the new edifices for Christian worship; and this Old books are not good for young students ; you will obtain would tend, also, to keep up the Roman character prevalent in more real, because more true, knowledge in one volume of the their design. Thus was formed a style known as the Romanesque, POPULAR EDUCATOR, than by careful searching and sifting, which prevailed throughout the early ages of the Church, and with years of labour, you could obtain from a shop full of old of which the later styles known in our own country as the books. Old books are very much like old clothes--they are worn Saxon and the Norman were only modifications. out. Knowledge is ever in movement, and ever on the advance; As to the external appearance the earliest Christian buildings consequently, the sum of knowledge undergoes incessant change presented, there is little doubt that they were for the most part -what was once thought true, is proved to be false ; what was unpretending in character, and that some time elapsed before once thought exact, is proved to be inexact. Therefore, dic- there arose anything like a definite church architecture, beyond tionaries which contain the sum of knowledge in detailed expla- that comprised in the general features to which we have alluded. natione, come in time to be wrong; consequently, old English But as the Christian Church' grew in security, and more attendictionaries lose, at least, a part of their value as guides to tion became devoted to the subject of its edifices, a departure

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from the original ground-plan

the Byzantine style. In this arose, another and more charac

style we still find as a chief teristic design being adopted.

feature the Roman arch applied The form of the basilica fre

in a variety of ways, the dome quently gave place to that

itself being simply this arch, which was the accepted symbol

in a perfect form, used as the of the Christian religion, and

crowning work of the structure. instead of the plain parallelo

Where it was used, the church gram, the figure of the cross

itself generally took the form gradually became used, in one

of the Greek cross, which was or other of its variations. Nor

better calculated to support the did this involve a very great

weight of the cupola. On the alteration of the custom pre

other hand, in the architecture viously in vogue. The basilico

of the West, where the flat frequently had entrances at the

square tower, afterwards deveside, and merely by the throw

loped into the steeple, prevailed ing out of these entrances to

as the finishing-point, the orithe right and to the left, the

ginal form of the Latin cross Christian symbol was at once

was retained, and this is theredeveloped. The plan was avail.

fore the general characteristic able, and probably sometimes

of the ground-plan of the adopted, with regard to buildings

churches of Western Europe. already in existence, as it made

The nations of the West grathem suitably distinctive in

dually departed from the Rocharacter and removed them

manesque style of architeeture, from heathen associations. But

and struck out for themselves a it also commended itself at once

manner and style of their own, for future adoption; and from

which, although it still conthe early times of which we are

tained some of the Romanesque speaking down to the present

features, was nevertheless difday, it has continued to prevail

ferent in character, and graas one great characteristic of

dually became more and more the architecture of the Christian SAXON TOWER AT EARL'S BARTON, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 80. In this way the great style Church.

known as the Gothic developed We come, then, here to the second stage in its early history, | itself between the sixth century and the twelfth, when it became when one or other of the forms known as the Latin and the well defined and generally adopted. Whilst it was attaining its Greek cross—whichever might be most convenient in planning full development, there arose those magnificent cathedrals, min. a particular edifice-was usually employed in a building de- sters, and abbeys, of which our own land, as well as France and signed for Christian

Germany, possesses worship. We shall

so many noble exfind these forms

amples. The wealth in the most elabo

lavished on their rate structures

construction, the of which Christian

grandeur of their architecture

design, with the paboast.

tient skill bestowed As time wore on,

on all parts of the the exterior of these

workmanship, cruciform churches

well as its enduring became adornedwith

character, are strika dome, a tower, or

ing proofs of the a steeple, at the

spirit of reverential point where the lines

piety which existed of the cross inter

in what is now consect each other. The

sidered & compadome, however, was

ratively barbarous the characteristic of

age. the architecture of

The term Gothic, Eastern Europe,

as applied to the which acquired the

architecture of the name Byzantine

Middle Ages, was from its having been

first used as one of carried to great per

reproach or fection in Byzan.



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tempt, synonymous tium (or Constanti

with barbarous, by nople), the capital

the architects who, of the Eastern Em

in the sixteenth pire. The church of

century, commenced St. Sophia, which

a revival (known as was built in its pre

the Renaissance) of sent form early in

the classical styles, the sixth century,

and their adaptaand converted into

tion to modern uses. a mosque after the

But it has long lost capture of Constan

this signification, tinople by the Turks, was and is the most

ing criticism having perfect example of



a more discriminat

produced a better

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