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(8.) Multiply a2 + 12 + 02 - ab — ac — be by a +b + c. gained an advantage in getting off. This cannot always be Ans. a3 + b3 + c3 — 3abc.
helped, as some men are quicker than others in getting in From the principles explained in Articles 66 to 89 we derive motion; and, as we said in our last article, starting is a thing the following general rule for multiplication :
which an intending competitor will do well to practise before 90. RULE.-Multiply the letters and co-efficients of each term the race. in the multiplicand by the letters and co-efficients of each term in
The goal at which the men come in is usually a piece of tape the multiplier ; and prefix to each term of the product the sign stretched across the course at its extremity, if the competitors required by the principle, that like signs produce + , and unlike are only two or three, by being held in the hands of two of the signs —; lastly, unite such terms as are similar.
managing committee, one of whom is usually the judge; but if Otherwise.-Multiply every part of the multiplicand by every the racers are many, and the course is therefore wide, it is part of the multiplier, and collect the results as in addition. better to have the tape attached to a stake on one side, and EXERCISE 6.
held by the judge on the other. The first man who breasts the 1. 5ax x 3ay.
tape is the winner; and if two are so closely together that they 2. vn + 1 X - 1.
reach the tape simultaneously, the judge declares it a dead heat, 3. m + px - P.
and they have afterwards to run again to decide who shall be 4. 25 x 25.
victor. 5. xnxx
RUNNING OR WALKING IN HEATS. 6. Py3 x zby. 7. 23-3ay + 3xy2 x axy.
When the competitors are so numerous that the course is not 8, 1-2x + 3x - 43 x 1 + #.
wide enough for them all without danger of their coming into 9. 32 + 2ax + a? x 2 - 2ax + a2.
collision, they are divided into parties of equal number, who 10. - 2x x 2x - 32,
race among themselves at different times. Each of these races 11. Multiply a + 36 - 2 into 4a 6b - 4.
is one heat towards the final event, in which the victors in the 12. Multiply tab * * * 2 into 3my - 1+h.
different heats are put to race together. 13. Multiply (7ah - y) * 4 into 4x * 3 * 5 * d.
It is always better, when the sports take place on two suc14. Multiply (Gab - hd + 1) × 2 into (8 + 4x - 1) ~ d.
cessive days, that the final heat in races of this description 15. Multiply say + y - 4 + h into (8 + x) * (h + y).
should be deferred until the second day, when the competitors 16. Multiply bax -- (4h – d) into (b + 1) * (h + 1). 17. Required the continual product of a + b + 6, – a +b+c, a – omen are less fatigued, and probably a more interesting contest
will be fresh again. This ensures a better performance, as the + e, and a +b - c.
18. Find the product of 22 - ya + 20 - 22 x 22 + y2 - 2 - v2. to the spectators, while the men themselves are less likely to 19. Find the continual product of 2x - y, 2x + y, and t«? + yo. suffer injury from over-exertion. 20. Multiply & + b into a + b into a + b.
HANDICAP RACES. 21. Multiply x + y into a - y into x + y. 22. Multiply 4 (x + y) into 3a into 6b into 3.
This term is employed to characterise races where the com23. Multiply 3 (a + b + c + d) into xyz.
petitors do not all start on the same footing, some being allowed 24. Multiply ax + xy + yy into x - y.
a short distance in advance of the others. The object of handi25. Multiply aaa bbb into aaa + bbb.
cap races is to equalise, as far as possible, the chance of men of 26. Multiply aa - ax + xx into a + x,
unequal power of performance, so that a race may be interesting, 27. Multiply yyy - ayy + aay -- aaa into y + a.
and its issue uncertain, although a man known to be a good 28. Multiply 15a + 2066 into 3a - 4bb.
runner may be matched against an indifferent one. Thus, if a 29. Multiply Sa (x + y) x 4 into a + b. 30. Multiply aa + 2ab + bb into a + b into a + b.
race is got up in a school or college, and some of the intending 31. Find the product of a – 2x2 + 3x3 x 4a+ 5x6
competitors are so much older, stronger, or swifter than the 32. Find the product of 5yó – 7y4 - By: + 3y + y * 7y - 8.
rest as to be likely to carry all before them, the handicap is 33. Find the product of a3 - 2a + 3x a3 + 2a - 3.
generally adopted, and those who obviously possess superior 34. Find the product of v* – 4av8 + 6a?y? – 4a3y + at x 13 – 3ava + 3a2v advantages are then made to give an allowance in the start to
others who, it is equally plain, are their inferiors in athletic 35. Find the product of 23 - 04x + 203 x **- ax + 2a".
skill. By this means a highly interesting race is frequently got 36. Find the continual product of 2 - 1, « + 2,3 + 4, and x - 5.
up, where otherwise such a race would be devoid of attraction, 37. Multiply 1- & + ** - 23+ * - 5 by 1 +*+ *?.
from the previous certainty that Master or Mr. So-and-So would
carry off the prize. OUR HOLIDAY.
But rightly to frame the handicap—that is, to allot to each of
the competitors such a position at the start as shall give him an ATHLETIC SPORTS.-II.
equal chance with the rest-requires no small degree both of In our last paper we gave advice and instructions to competitors knowledge and skill; and this task should be confided to some in walking and running contests. We will now explain the one who knows the men and their powers, and in whose judg. usages practised in the management of these competitions, and ment and impartiality they all have confidence. If the race be define the terms generally employed to describe their various a short one, he gives the less practised athletes a few yards phases.
only, placing them in various gradations according to his idea STARTING AND COMING IN.
or knowledge of their ability. But if it be a long race, he may When the course has been selected, and enclosed by a rope measure their allowance by minutes and seconds. The best man on either side, a straight line is drawn across one end of it by or men are stationed on the starting line, which is called scratch, chalk or otherwise, and this forms the starting point. All the while the others occupy their posts at the measured distances in competitors should be abreast on this line at the moment when advance; and from these various positions all start when the the signal is given, unless the race is a handicap (a term signal is given. A good and close race, in which perhaps inwe shall presently explain). In walking races the signal is ferior and superior performers come in almost together, is usually given by word of mouth, after a preparatory notice, the test of the judgment which has been shown in the handithus: “One, two, three-off!" If any of the competitors start capping. before the final word "off!” is pronounced, it is the duty of the The handicapper, if he is not well acquainted with the starter to call them all back, and to continue to do so until a previous performances
of competitors, should inquire into them, fair start is effected.
and ascertain by how great a distance, or by what time, such In running races the signal should be given by pistol, fired one is known to have beaten another over a certain course, and behind the men, and without preparatory notice, as soon as they be guided thereby in his allotment. It is not our purpose to are observed to be equally on the line. This prevents the give rules to handicappers, but, as some slight guide where it possible advantage of half a second that might be gained by one may be of service, we may say that in, for example
, a running or other of the competitors in anticipating
the final signal; and race for the distance of half a mile, an allowance of from fifty to in a "sprint” race (see previous paper) half a second is not to one hundred yards to the least promising candidates is not be despised. But if once the final word passes the lips of the excessive, there is much disproportion between them. The starter, or the pistol report is heard, the men are actually more able athletes can be placed within those limits, according started and cannot be recalled, although one or two may have to their relative skill.
plied for in a district where no other course is available, such This is a term frequently used in athletic meetings, but re- permission is rarely withheld. The competitors are started quiring explanation to the inexperienced. It is applied to a race towards the landmark, the first man who reaches it being the fixed at the end of the sports only for competitors who have winner. He who goes straightest over all intervening impedibeen unsuccessful in the previous contests; and the name is ments, as well as swiftest, stands the best chance; and the race derived from the fact that it gives the defeated the “consola- gives scope for boldness and resource, as well as athletic skill. tion" of one more chance of victory before the day is closed, Occasionally it is arranged that the last few hundred yards while to him who may be the victor this consolation is of course of a steeplechase shall be run in sight of the spectators at an still more complete. “Consolation” races are very useful features ordinary athletic meeting. in athletic meetings, whether small or great, as they generally Very good practice for steeplechasing is a game called bring them to a close with an interesting competition, in which
HARE AND HOUNDS, the best man is brought forward out of the second best rank.
which we will therefore describe in this place. One other term in common use remains to be explained, and
Hare and hounds is a race got up in imitation of the hunt this is the word laps, as relating to the course. Where the from which it takes its name. One of the party, usually the distance of a race in a public meeting is at all a long one, the swiftest, is the “hare ;" a second is “huntsman;" and a third course must necessarily be comprised within the limits of the is “whipper-in.” The rest, as many as like to join, are the ground available for the spectators; and therefore the com- hounds; and at the start the huntsman leads them, while the petitors, instead of running a mile or half-mile race on a course whipper-in brings up the rear. straight from end to end, have a circular or oval enclosure
The hare starts off some few minutes in advance of the marked out for them, and they run the round of this as many others, the time being regulated by the distance that it is undertimes as will be required to make up the full distance of the stood shall be traversed. He is provided with a bag filled with race. The completion of each circle is called
a lap, and some pieces of paper, or he may have his pockets full of such pieces, person should be stationed at the end of the circle to call out and these are termed the "scent." "As he runs he chooses his how many laps each man has completed when he passes this own track, over stile, ditch, etc., and drops the paper sparingly point.
on the road. The hounds have to follow his path by the aid of HURDLE-RACING.
this "scent," and to overtake him if they can; but they are In hurdle races, the competitors in running have to jump over only allowed to take the path he has chosen, and if they come & certain number of hurdles placed at equal distances through. in sight of him, say a field or two off, they must not attempt out the course. These races are usually short, being contrived to reach him by a short cut, but still follow the scent only. as a test of skill in leaping rather than of speed in the race. If they lose the scent- that is, can no longer find the paper The distances commonly set are 120 and 200 yards, ten hurdles left on the ground—the huntsman gives the signal, “Lost;" being used in the former case and twelve in the latter.
the whipper-in then sticks into the ground a flag with which he Hurdle races should properly take place on short elastic turf, is provided, at the spot where the scent was last discovered ; which causes less concussion to the feet of the competitors in and the pack then run round this place in a circle, until the reaching the ground. The hurdles used are of the ordinary scent is thus regained. When they again find it, the cry is character, and should be 31 feet in height. In 120-yard races “ Tally-ho!" and off they start once more in pursuit. they are placed 10 yards apart, a space of 15 yards being left The hare must not cross his own track, as this would lead to at either end. In the race of 200 yards the distance between confusion and spoil the sport. If he is a good leaper, he will the hardles is increased in proportion.
take the hounds over a roughish course, and give them enough There are two ways of taking the hurdles, either of which is to do to catch him. When he is caught the sport is over, and allowed. The first is by a leap from both feet; and the second the victory is with the hounds; if he makes home uncaught, it by something like a flying step, which is known as "bucking." counts to himself. The latter way is preferable, as it is a continuance of the running Sometimes the hounds do not hunt the hare in a pack, but motion, while leaping necessitates a momentary pause before each does his best to catch the hare on his own account, or to each hurdle.
reach the end of the track first after him. This is properly a Before engaging in a hurdle race, the competitor should race among the hounds, which the first man wins, while the practise well over smaller objects, increasing their height as he others are placed in their order of coming in. gains in facility, until he can easily do the 3 feet 6 inches. In the race itself, he should take the hurdles with confidence, as nervousness or misgiving at the moment when he reaches the
READINGS IN FRENCH.–V. impediment will probably cause him to kick the top in jumping, and come to the ground. The hurdles must be fixed somewhat
MDLLE. DE LAJOLAIS. loosely in the earth, so that in case of a failure the hurdle itself
SECTION III. may topple over with the competitor, instead of offering a firm LE saisissement de la joie fut plus dangereux pour Malle. de resistance, and thus increasing the violence of his fall,
Lajolais que la douleur. La pauvre enfant tomba lourdement Good amateur performers have accomplished the 120 yards et sans connaissance (a) sur le marbre de la galerie.? with 10 flight of hurdles in 18 seconds, and the 200 yards, with
Grâce aux soins de l'impératrice, de la Princesse Hortense 12 hurdles, in 30 seconds.
et de leurs dames, Malle. de ajolais reprit bientôt connaisSTEEPLECHASING.
sance (6). "Mon père, mon père !” murmura-t-elle aussitôt This very much resembles hurdle-racing, as it consists chiefly qu'elle put (c) parler. “Oh! que je sois (d) la première à lui in leaping over various obstacles, such as hedges, etc., during annoncer sa grâce.”. the run. Steeplechases, although ranking among athletic Et se levant, elle voulut s'échapper des bras qui la retesports, are not usually witnessed in public competitions, as the naient;* mais trop faible pour tant d'émotions diverses, elle y nature of the ground whereon such events come off is not gene- retomba sans force. rally suited to this kind of race. In a steeplechase, what is “Rien ne presse maintenant, Mademoiselle," dit une des wanted is a long stretch of ground well varied with hedge, dames ; “prenez (e) un peu de repos et de nourriture ; vous ditch, and fence; and the more formidable these obstacles in irez (f) une heure plus tard.”5 their nature, the better is the ground adapted to the purpose. “Une heure plus tard !” se récria Maria ; " vous voulez que For any method of getting over an obstacle is allowed in a je retarde d'une heure l'annonce de la vie à un homme consteeplechase, and a competitor may even pass round it, the dis- damné à mort, surtout quand cet homme est mon père. Oh! advantage in that case being his own, as he loses time in the race. Madame," ajouta-t-elle, se tournant vers l'impératrice, "laissez
The ordinary plan in selecting a steeplechase course is to moi partir de grâce (); songez que c'est mon père : qu'il a sa choose some landmark at the distance of half a mile or a mile, grâce, et qu'il ne le sait (h) pas encore.” the intermediate space being such ground as we have described. "Soit (i), mon enfant,” lui répondit l'excellente Joséphine; Where suitable ground cannot be obtained on common land, it is “mais vous ne pouvez aller seule à sa prison,” of course necessary to get the permission of the landowners * Je suis bien venue seule à votre château,"9 répondit-elle for the scamper across their fields; and, when courteously ap- vivement (1).
" Que (k) votre majesté nous permette d'accompagner Malle. raconta au général do Lajolais tout ce que sa fille avait fait de Lajolais, demandèrent à la fois plusieurs officiers et aides- pour lui.12 de-camp de l'Empereur, que l'action pourtant bien naturelle de Oh! combien elle était heureuse cette jeune fille ! 13 combien Malle. de Lajolais avait remplis d'admiration.
ce moment compensait et bien au-delà, tout ce qu'elle avait *M. de Lavalette* me rendra ce service,''li dit l'impératrice, souffert jusqu'alors; souffert! avait-elle réellement souffert? souriant (1) gracieusement à l'un d'eux ; " ainsi que Monsieur Elle ne s'en souvenait (n) plus. Toutes ses souffrances s'étaient (désignant un aide-de-camp de service). Vous vous servirez (m) effacées () devant son père qui la serrait avec transport dans d'une de mes voitures ; 15 allez, Messieurs, je vous confie Malle. ses bras. Il faut avoir souffert soi-même, 16 il faut avoir été de Lajolais."
séparé des auteurs de ses jours (P), et avoir tremblé pour leur Bien qu'épuisée de fatigue, de besoin et d'émotion, Maria vie, pour comprendre tout ce que ce moment de réunion avait refusa de prendre et nourriture et repos.16 Elle voulut elle- de saint (1), de délicieux, d'ineffable. même voir atteler les chevaux, presser les gens, et ne se tint
E. MARCO DE SAINT-HILAIRE. en place (n) que lorsqu'elle et ses conducteurs furent installés
COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE sur les coussins de la voiture 18
1. La voiture transporta-t-elle 8. Que fit-elle quand la porte fat COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.
Maria rapidement ?
2. Que faisait-elle pendant tout le 9. Que crut d'abord le général? 1. La jeune fille put-elle résister | 10. Quelle demande les officiers
10. Par qui fut-il détrompé ? à tant de joie ?
adressèrent-ils à l'impératrice ?
3. Où son regard se portait-il ? 11. Que lui dit-il alors M. de La 2. Où tomba la pauvre enfant ? 11. Que dit Joséphine en parlant 4. Entendait-elle ce qu'on lui valette ? 3. Que dit-elle aussitôt qu'elle put de M. de Lavalette ?
12. Que lni raconta-t-il ensuite ? parler ?
12. Le général était-il allié à la 5. Que fit-elle quand la voiture 13. Que dit l'auteur, du bonheur 4. Que voulut-elle faire en se re famille de Joséphine ? (See foot s'arrêta ?
de la jeune fille ? levant ?
6. Entra-t-elle dans les corridors 14. Ses souffrances étaient-elles 5. Que lui dit une des dames ? 13. Par qui fut-il sauvé en 1815.
de la prison ?
présentes à son esprit ? 6. Que répondit-elle à cette dame? 14. Comment le sauva-t-elle ?
7. Ne lui fallut-il pas attendre à 15. Que faut-il pour comprendre 7. Que dit-elle alors à l'impéra- 15, De quelle voiture devait-on se
la porte du cachot ?
le plaisir d'une telle róunion? trice ?
servir ? 8. Que lui répondit la bonne Jo- 16. Maria prit-elle du repos
NOTES. séphine ?
(1) Longs, prolonged. 9. Qu'ajouta vivement Malle. do 17. Que fit-elle ?
(6) Parcourir, to perform.
() From croire. Lajolais ? 18. Quand se tint-elle en place ? (c) From trainer.
(k) Chercher, to take. (d) From pouvoir.
(1) Faire ses adieux, bid him adict. NOTES.
() Il fallut bien qu'elle attendit, (m) Vaincue, overcome; from rain. (a) Sans connaissance, senseless. (0) Soit, be it so.
she was obliged to wait. (6) Reprit bientôt connaissance, 0) Vivement, hastily.
V) Que, that.
(n) Sonvenait, from so souvenir. soon recovered ; from reprendre, (k) Que, will, literally, let.
(9) À peine, scarcely.
(0) s'étaient effacées, were forgot(c) From pouvoir. (1) From sourire.
(h) Cédé, been opened ; literally, ten; literally, obliterated. (a) Que je sois, let me be. (m) Vous vous servirez, you will use.
yielded, given way.
(2) Auteurs de ses jours, parents, (e) From prendre. (n) Ne se tint en place, did not
(9) De saint, of holy. (1) From aller,
rest; literally, did not keep herself (g) De grâce, I beseech you.
in one place. (h) From savoir.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.
EXERCISE 105 (Vol. II., page 106).
1. Where were your relations last year? 2. They were in England. Alors la voiture partit au galop de six bons chevaux: elle 3. Where did the gentlemen remain who accompanied you this morning? franchit avec une rapidité incroyable la distance qui séparait 4. They remained with their partners. 5. What were your friends Saint-Cloud de la prison.' Pendant tout le trajet, Maria, droite reading when you left them? 6. They were reading the news which et raide, 2 tenait (a) les yeux fixés sur le chemin qu'elle avait they had just received. ?. What does your father say ? 8. He says
9. How old is that gentleman ? 10. He is nearly fifty encore à parcourir (); son regard semblait vouloir dévorer la nothing, distance ;) sa poitrine haletait, comme si c'était elle, au lieu des years old, and the youngest sis. 13. Have you asked that gentleman
11. How old are your children? 12. The eldest is ten chevaux, qui traînåt (c) le carosse, et elle était påle, si pâle, que for your gold chain?
14. I have asked him for it. 15. Have you deux ou trois fois ses compagnons lui adressèrent la parole, returned to the clerk the money which he had lent you? 16. I have mais inutilement, elle ne les entendait pas. Quand la voiture returned it to him. 17. Did you wish to send the locksmith your s'arrêta, elle s'élança par-dessus le marchepieds avant que M. keys ? 18. I had a wish to send them to him, for they are broken. de Lavalette eût eu le temps de lui offrir la main pour de- 19. Was it worth the while to send those bottles to the innkeeper? scendre, et ne pouvant (d) articuler que ce mot, “ Vite, vite !" 20. It was worth the while to send them to him, for he had none. 2.
Elle parcourait les longs corridors de la prison, précédant le Have you asked your father for napkins ? 22. I would not ask him geðlier et ses guides, et répétant toujours, “Vite, vite !" Arrivée
EXERCISE 106 (Vol. II., page 106). à la porte du cachot, il fallut bien qu'elle attendît (e) que () le geðlier en eût ouvert la serrure,7 et tiré deux énormes verrous ; 1. Que vous disait le serrurier ? 2. Il me disait qu'il avait apporté mais à peine (g) la porte eut-elle cédé (h), que, se précipitant dans ma clef. 3. Combien de lettres avez-vous portées à la poste? 4. J'en l'intérieur,
elle alla tomber dans les bras de son père, en criant, ai porté sept, trois pour vous, et quatre pour mon père. 5. Où est le “Papa, l'Empereur ... la vie . . . grâce." ... Elle ne put voulez-vous lui parler ? 7. Je voulais lui envoyer une lettre que j'ai
6. Il demeure chez mon père; achever : sa voix se perdait en longs (i) cris, chaque parole com- apportée d'Angleterre. 8. Avez-vous rendu à cet homme l'argent qu'il mencée finissait par un sanglot.
vous avait prêté ? 9. Je le lui ai rendu. 10. Aviez-vous envie d'enLe général de Lajolais crut (,) un instant qu'on venait le voyer à M. votre frère la clef de votre chambre ? 11. J'avais envie de chercher (k) pour le conduire à la mort, et que sa fille ayant la lui envoyer. 12. Valait-il la peine de donner ce livre à M. votre trompé la vigilance des gurdiens, avait tout bravé pour lui faire frère ? 13. Il valait la peine de le lui donner, car il en avait besoin. ses adieux (1).
14. Valait-il la peine d'envoyer ces bouteilles à l'apothicaire ? 15. Mais M. de Lavalette le détrompa bientôt;10 voyant que
valait la peine de les lui envoyer. 16. Où est l'aubergiste? 17. 11 Maria vaincue (m) par l'émotion ne pouvait articuler un son, il est
en Angleterre. 18. Combien d'enfants a le serrurier ? 19. Item prit la parole:
20. Combien de livres a le médecin ? 21. n . cinq cents " L'Empereur vous accorde votre grâce, général,” lui dit-il, oublié de la lui donner.
volumes. 22. Avez-vous donné cette lettre au monsieur? 23. J'ai "et vous la devez au courage et à la tendresse de votre fille."11 Puis avec une émotion dont il ne pouvait se défendre, il
EXERCISE 107 (Vol. II., page 107). 1. How long has Mr. L. lived in Paris? 2. He has been living there
ten years. 3. Has he not lived in Lons? 4. He lived there for* Le général Lavalette avait épousé une nièce de l'impératrice. merly. 5. Can you tell me where the captain's son is? 6. He has Condamné à mort en 1815, il fut sauvé par le généreux dévouement de been in England one year. 7. Do you know where Mr. B. lives ? & sa femme, qui s'introduisit dans sa prison, et changea de vêtements He lived formerly in Rouen; I do not know where he lives now. 9. avec lui,
Have you been here long?' 10. We have been here more than two
months. 11, How long have you had this orchard? 12. We have SECTION LXXIII.-ONAGRACEÆ, OR ONAGRADS. had it a year,
13. Do you know how far it is from Paris to Vienna ? 14. It is three hundred and six leagues from Paris to Vievna, and two the divisions of the calyx; contorted in æstivation ; stamens
Characteristics : Calyx adherent; petals equal in number to hundred leagues from Vienna to Copenhagen. 15. Has the company been here long? 16. It has been here more than two hours. 17. Is it equal in number to the petals, or double; ovary inferior, plurilong since you read this bill? 18. It is more than three hours ago locular; ovules reflexed; fruit capsular or bacciform, two or that I read it. 19. Has not your sister been reading more than half three-celled; seeds having a chalaza winged, interrupted, or filaan hour? 20. She has been reading so long, that she is tired of it. mentary; seed dicotyledonous, exalbuminous. The chalaza, it 21. Have you been waiting long for this piece of music? 22. I have should be said, is the part of the seed usually swollen or disbeen waiting for it more than a year,
coloured, where the nutritious juices collect, and are communiEXERCISE 108 (Vol. II., page 107).
cated to the young plant. 1. Ne savez-vous pas où demeure mon père ? 2. Je sais où il de- stipules ; flowers sometimes axillary and solitary, sometimes in
The members of this natural order possess leaves without meare, mais je n'ai pas le temps d'aller chez lui aujourd'hui. 3. Combien de temps y a-t-il que le médecin demeure à Paris? 4. 11'y a dix the form of a corymb or spike. They are chiefly extra-tropical, ans qu'il y demeure. 5. Combien de temps a-t-il demeuré en Angleterre? and belong for the most part to the northern temperate zone. 6. Il a demeuré en Angleterre six ans et demi. 7. Pouvez-vous me Two species, Epilobium, or willow herb, and Circæa, or enchanter's dire où demeure le serrurier ? 8. Il demeure chez mon frère. 9. Y nightshade, are mucilaginous. The ancients believed that the B-t-il long-temps que vous attendez ce livre? 10. Il y a plus d'un an aqueous infusion of Epilobium angustifolium had the property que je l'attends. 11. Combien de temps y a-t-il que M. votre fils ap- of taming wild animals, and that its vinous tincture was exhilaprend le grec? 12. Il y a deux ans qu'il l'apprend. 13. Combien de rent when administered to human beings. Enothera biennis, temps y a-t-il que M. votre frère a ce verger ? 14. Il y a plus de six or biennial evening primrose, and Enothera suavolens, or mois qu'il l'a. 15. Combien y a-t-il de Paris à Lyon ? 16. Il y a cent seize lieues de Paris à Lyon. 17. Y a-t-il plus loin de Lyon å sweet-scented evening primrose, originally natives of North Gendre que de Lyon à Turin ? 18. 11 y a plus loin de Lyon à Turin America, but now cultivated, like many of their congeners, in que de Lyon à Genève. 19. Combien de temps votre père a-t-il de- our gardens, possess a saccharine root, which is sometimes used meuré en Allemagne ? 20. Il a demeuré deux ans en Allemagne, et six as an article of food. Fuchsias are elegant shrubs, indigenous mois en Angleterre. 21. Combien de temps avez-vous demeuré à to New Zealand and North America, now common enough in our Bome? 22. Nous y avons demeuré plus d'un an. 23. Y a-t-il plus gardens. They are remarkable for the beauty of their foliage, dan an que vous apprenez l'Allemand ? 24. Il y a plus de quatre ans their petaloid
calyx, and their convolute corolla. The berries
of que je l'apprends.
certain New Zealand species yield an agreeable perfume. EXERCISE 109 (Vol. II., page 138).
SECTION LXXIV.-ANACARDIACEÆ, OR TEREBINTHS. 1. Has not that man altered his conduct ? 2. He has altered his conduct. 3. Has not that large house changed proprietors ? 4. It has
Characteristics : Flowers ordinarily diæcious by abortion ; changed proprietors, Captain G. has just bought it. 5. You are wet; why calyx free, or rarely adherent to the ovary ; petals inserted upon do you not change your cloak? 6. Because I have no other. 7. Does a perigynous disc, or else upon a short stipes, equal in number not your cousin often change her opinion ? 8. She very often changes to the divisions of the calyx; sometimes absent; imbricated in it. 9. During the combat, did not that young soldier change coun- æstivation; stamens equal in number to the petals, and altertenance ? 10. He did not change countenance. 11. Should not that nate with them, or in double or multiple number; carpels ordipatient change air ? 12. The physician recommends him to go to narily reduced to one ; unilocular or four to five distinct, one another country. 13. Where is your grey horse ?. 14. I have it no alone being fertile ; ovule single, ascending, ordinarily free, longer, 1 exchanged it for a white one. 15. With whom have you curved or half-reflexed ; fruit drupaceous or dry; seed dicotyleexchanged it? 16. I exchanged it with the young man who lived here last month. 17. Can the merchant change me this forty-franc piece? donous, exalbuminous, curved ; stem woody; juice gummy or 18. He cannot change it for you, he has no change. 19. Have you milky; leaves alternate and without stipules. the change for a guinea ?
The Anacardiaceæ owe their properties to a resinous juice which in certain species resembles pine turpentine; in the
greater number of species, however, this resinous principle is LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXX. mixed with certain acrid matters, which, on contact with the SECTION LXXII.—-GROSSULARIACEÆ, OR CURRANT-WORTS. air, become black, and impart to the secretion very stimulating,
sometimes venomous, properties. The bitter and astringent Characteristics : Calyx coloured, tubular, adherent, prolonged principles which some individuals of this natural order contain to a varying extent below the ovary; petals inserted upon the in their bark and wood modify the action of the stimulating throat of the calyx, equal in number to the divisions of the matter. The fruit of certain species is fleshy, abundant in latter; æstivation imbricated; stamens equal in number to the sugar and free acids ; sometimes edible. The seeds contain a petals and alternate with the latter; ovaries inferior and one fixed oil. celled; placentæ usually two, parietal or attached to the valves; The Pistacia lentiscus, or mastic tree (Fig. 228), a plant cultiovules horizontal, reflexed; berry pulpy; seeds angular, dicotyle- vated in the Grecian Archipelago, and the Pistacia Atlantica, a donous ; embryo straight in the base of an almost corneous native of the Mauritius, are valuable for their product-mastic. albuchen,
This substance, employed by ourselves as the basis of several Members of this natural order are usually armed with spines varnishes, is largely used by Orientals as a masticatory, whence situated below the leaf; the leaves are alternate or fasciculated; its name. By these persons it is believed to purify the breath. limb palmi-lobed ; petiole dilated. The flowers are disposed in The Pistacia terebinthus, or turpentine tree, grows sponanillary racemes in the species which are deprived of spines ; taneously in the whole Mediterranean region. From its inward they are solitary or few in number in the pine-bearing species. trunk flows a limpid adhesive juice, yellowish-blue in colour, The berry is surrounded by the persistent limb of the calyx. and of a penetrating odour, something between that of citron The seeds have a gelatinous testa, in which a long raphé, or and fennel. Its taste is balsamic, exempt from bitterness and cord running between the outer and inner coverings of the seed, acridity. This substance, known as Scio turpentine, is rarely ramifies. The endopleura is adherent to the albumen.
pure, and chemistry is unequal to detect the fraud. Its seeds, The Grossulariaceæ are for the most part inhabitants of the formerly employed in passive hæmorrhages and dysentery, are temperate and cool regions of the northern hemisphere. The at present held in but little repate. The Pistacia vera, or genus Ribes constitutes nearly all the family to which it imparts true pistachia tree, originally a native of Persia and Syria, is the distinctive name. Its species contain in their herbaceous now grown in the whole Mediterranean region; its oily seeds, portion a resinous aromatic principle. Their fruit is filled with under the name of green almonds, are very agreeable in taste, a saccharine mucilage in combination with malic and citric acids, and are employed by druggists in France as the basis of certain and occasionally astringent matters. The white currant (Ribes emulsions. album), an illustration of which is given in Fig. 227, affords a The mango (Mangifera Indica) is a tree originally of Asia, good example of the Ribes family.
but it is now cultivated in many tropical regions for the sake Gooseberry and currant trees are so well known that any pro- of its fruit. This is very agreeable in taste, but it must longed description of them would be useless. They are amongst be sparingly partaken of, or much constitutional disorder the most delicious of cultivated fruit, and furnish no bad sub-results. stitute for the vine as a wine-making material.
In exchange for the mango which America has received from
Asia, the latter continent and Africa have derived from America | black when exposed to the air, and which, after being disthe cashew-tree (Anacardium occidentale, Fig. 229). It is indi. solved in a drying oil, constitutes the celebrated black Japanese genous to Central America and the West India Islands; its nut, varnish. The Rhus radicans and Rhus toxicodendron are both small and reniform, termed the cashew, grows at the summit of natives of North America, and but slightly distinguishable from a fleshy panicle, like a large pear in
each other. When the period of general appearance. The pericarp
flowering arrives, both these plants contains a caustic oil; the seed is 227
secrete an abundant quantity of milky almond-tasted; the peduncle, named
juice, which turns black in contact the cashew apple, is acidulous, saccha
with the air. This juice is so exceedrine, and a little acrid, but neverthe
ingly acrid, that if a person sits in the less agreeable. From the epicarp a
shade of one of the poison sumachs, blistering ointment is sometimes pre
his skin becomes violently inflamed, pared, and the entire fruit is useful in
reddens, swells, and is covered with certain diseases. Cashew gum exudes
pustules. The leaves of this sumach from the trunk of the tree, but it is
are recommended in paralysis, darapplied to no useful purpose.
trous affections of the skin, and even The Anacardium Indicum is a native
consumption. of the East Indies. Its immature seeds
There are certain species of Schinus yield a glutinous matter resembling
which emit noxious effluvia. The birdlime, from which the celebrated
Schinus molle furnishes a mastic Chinese varnish is prepared.
which is slightly purgative. Its bark
227. THE WHITE CURRANT (RIBES ALBUM).
228. THE MASTIC TREE (PISTACIA LENTISCUS).
229. THE CASHEW-NUT TREE (ANACARDIUM OC
CIDENTALE). 230. THE FUSTIC SUMACH (RHUS COTINUS).
The sumachs possess various prcperties.
and leaves are aromatic, and its drupe is Fastic sumach (Rhus cotinus, Fig. 230) is
saccharine. The Duvara dependens is s indigenous in eastern Europe ; its bark,
little tree, a native of Chili, the infusion slightly aromatic and very astringent, is
of the seeds of which are stomachic, considered by some as a good substitute
diuretic, and anti-hysteric; moreover, an for that of Cinchona ; its leaves are also
intoxicating drink named chicha is preemployed in medicine, and from its wood
pared from them. The decoction of its a yellow dye-stuff is extracted. The Cur.
bark and the gum secreted by the tree rier's sumach (Rhus coriaria) is a native
are balsamic and healing when applied of the Mediterranean region. Its acid
to wounds. The species of the genus fruits are used by the Turks as a condi
Spondias are not without interest. The ment; its leaves and young shoots are
Spondias purpurea, or purple-fruited employed by curriers and dyers. The
hog-plum, of the West Indies, has drupes fruit and flowers of the Rhus typhina, Rhus glabra, and Rhus of an acidulated saccharine taste, very agreeable as food. The elegans, all natives of North America, are employed as condi- drupes of Spondias lutea, or yellow-fruited hog-plum, are ments.' The Jamaica sumach (Rhus metopii) secretes a purga- smaller, but more useful, being employed as a medicine. The tive gum resin from its bark. The Rhus vernix, or varnish congener of the two spreading species is cultivated in the sumach, is a Japanese shrub, from the stem of which is ob- Friendly and Society Islands. Its fruit is very agreeable and tained, by incision, a milky juice, which thickens and turns wholesome, almost rivalling in delicacy the pine-apple.