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" Que (k) votre majesté nous permette d'accompagner Malle. raconta au général do Lajolais tout ce que sa fille avait fait de Lajolais, demandèrent à la fois plusieurs officiers et aides- pour lui.12 de-camp de l'Empereur, que l'action pourtant bien naturelle de Oh! combien elle était heureuse cette jeune fille ! 13 combien Malle. de Lajolais avait remplis d'admiration.

ce moment compensait et bien au-delà, tout ce qu'elle avait *M. de Lavalette* me rendra ce service,''li dit l'impératrice, souffert jusqu'alors; souffert! avait-elle réellement souffert? souriant (1) gracieusement à l'un d'eux ; " ainsi que Monsieur Elle ne s'en souvenait (n) plus. Toutes ses souffrances s'étaient (désignant un aide-de-camp de service). Vous vous servirez (m) effacées () devant son père qui la serrait avec transport dans d'une de mes voitures ; 15 allez, Messieurs, je vous confie Malle. ses bras. Il faut avoir souffert soi-même, 16 il faut avoir été de Lajolais."

séparé des auteurs de ses jours (P), et avoir tremblé pour leur Bien qu'épuisée de fatigue, de besoin et d'émotion, Maria vie, pour comprendre tout ce que ce moment de réunion avait refusa de prendre et nourriture et repos.16 Elle voulut elle- de saint (1), de délicieux, d'ineffable. même voir atteler les chevaux, presser les gens, et ne se tint

E. MARCO DE SAINT-HILAIRE. en place (n) que lorsqu'elle et ses conducteurs furent installés

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE sur les coussins de la voiture 18

1. La voiture transporta-t-elle 8. Que fit-elle quand la porte fat COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

Maria rapidement ?

ouverte ?

2. Que faisait-elle pendant tout le 9. Que crut d'abord le général? 1. La jeune fille put-elle résister | 10. Quelle demande les officiers

trajet ?

10. Par qui fut-il détrompé ? à tant de joie ?

adressèrent-ils à l'impératrice ?

3. Où son regard se portait-il ? 11. Que lui dit-il alors M. de La 2. Où tomba la pauvre enfant ? 11. Que dit Joséphine en parlant 4. Entendait-elle ce qu'on lui valette ? 3. Que dit-elle aussitôt qu'elle put de M. de Lavalette ?

disait ?

12. Que lni raconta-t-il ensuite ? parler ?

12. Le général était-il allié à la 5. Que fit-elle quand la voiture 13. Que dit l'auteur, du bonheur 4. Que voulut-elle faire en se re famille de Joséphine ? (See foot s'arrêta ?

de la jeune fille ? levant ?

note.)

6. Entra-t-elle dans les corridors 14. Ses souffrances étaient-elles 5. Que lui dit une des dames ? 13. Par qui fut-il sauvé en 1815.

de la prison ?

présentes à son esprit ? 6. Que répondit-elle à cette dame? 14. Comment le sauva-t-elle ?

7. Ne lui fallut-il pas attendre à 15. Que faut-il pour comprendre 7. Que dit-elle alors à l'impéra- 15, De quelle voiture devait-on se

la porte du cachot ?

le plaisir d'une telle róunion? trice ?

servir ? 8. Que lui répondit la bonne Jo- 16. Maria prit-elle du repos

NOTES. séphine ?

alors ?
(a) Tenait, kopt.

(1) Longs, prolonged. 9. Qu'ajouta vivement Malle. do 17. Que fit-elle ?

(6) Parcourir, to perform.

() From croire. Lajolais ? 18. Quand se tint-elle en place ? (c) From trainer.

(k) Chercher, to take. (d) From pouvoir.

(1) Faire ses adieux, bid him adict. NOTES.

() Il fallut bien qu'elle attendit, (m) Vaincue, overcome; from rain. (a) Sans connaissance, senseless. (0) Soit, be it so.

she was obliged to wait. (6) Reprit bientôt connaissance, 0) Vivement, hastily.

V) Que, that.

(n) Sonvenait, from so souvenir. soon recovered ; from reprendre, (k) Que, will, literally, let.

(9) À peine, scarcely.

(0) s'étaient effacées, were forgot(c) From pouvoir. (1) From sourire.

(h) Cédé, been opened ; literally, ten; literally, obliterated. (a) Que je sois, let me be. (m) Vous vous servirez, you will use.

yielded, given way.

(2) Auteurs de ses jours, parents, (e) From prendre. (n) Ne se tint en place, did not

(9) De saint, of holy. (1) From aller,

rest; literally, did not keep herself (g) De grâce, I beseech you.

in one place. (h) From savoir.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.

EXERCISE 105 (Vol. II., page 106).
SECTION IV.

1. Where were your relations last year? 2. They were in England. Alors la voiture partit au galop de six bons chevaux: elle 3. Where did the gentlemen remain who accompanied you this morning? franchit avec une rapidité incroyable la distance qui séparait 4. They remained with their partners. 5. What were your friends Saint-Cloud de la prison.' Pendant tout le trajet, Maria, droite reading when you left them? 6. They were reading the news which et raide, 2 tenait (a) les yeux fixés sur le chemin qu'elle avait they had just received. ?. What does your father say ? 8. He says

9. How old is that gentleman ? 10. He is nearly fifty encore à parcourir (); son regard semblait vouloir dévorer la nothing, distance ;) sa poitrine haletait, comme si c'était elle, au lieu des years old, and the youngest sis. 13. Have you asked that gentleman

years old.

11. How old are your children? 12. The eldest is ten chevaux, qui traînåt (c) le carosse, et elle était påle, si pâle, que for your gold chain?

14. I have asked him for it. 15. Have you deux ou trois fois ses compagnons lui adressèrent la parole, returned to the clerk the money which he had lent you? 16. I have mais inutilement, elle ne les entendait pas. Quand la voiture returned it to him. 17. Did you wish to send the locksmith your s'arrêta, elle s'élança par-dessus le marchepieds avant que M. keys ? 18. I had a wish to send them to him, for they are broken. de Lavalette eût eu le temps de lui offrir la main pour de- 19. Was it worth the while to send those bottles to the innkeeper? scendre, et ne pouvant (d) articuler que ce mot, “ Vite, vite !" 20. It was worth the while to send them to him, for he had none. 2.

Elle parcourait les longs corridors de la prison, précédant le Have you asked your father for napkins ? 22. I would not ask him geðlier et ses guides, et répétant toujours, “Vite, vite !" Arrivée

EXERCISE 106 (Vol. II., page 106). à la porte du cachot, il fallut bien qu'elle attendît (e) que () le geðlier en eût ouvert la serrure,7 et tiré deux énormes verrous ; 1. Que vous disait le serrurier ? 2. Il me disait qu'il avait apporté mais à peine (g) la porte eut-elle cédé (h), que, se précipitant dans ma clef. 3. Combien de lettres avez-vous portées à la poste? 4. J'en l'intérieur,

elle alla tomber dans les bras de son père, en criant, ai porté sept, trois pour vous, et quatre pour mon père. 5. Où est le “Papa, l'Empereur ... la vie . . . grâce." ... Elle ne put voulez-vous lui parler ? 7. Je voulais lui envoyer une lettre que j'ai

6. Il demeure chez mon père; achever : sa voix se perdait en longs (i) cris, chaque parole com- apportée d'Angleterre. 8. Avez-vous rendu à cet homme l'argent qu'il mencée finissait par un sanglot.

vous avait prêté ? 9. Je le lui ai rendu. 10. Aviez-vous envie d'enLe général de Lajolais crut (,) un instant qu'on venait le voyer à M. votre frère la clef de votre chambre ? 11. J'avais envie de chercher (k) pour le conduire à la mort, et que sa fille ayant la lui envoyer. 12. Valait-il la peine de donner ce livre à M. votre trompé la vigilance des gurdiens, avait tout bravé pour lui faire frère ? 13. Il valait la peine de le lui donner, car il en avait besoin. ses adieux (1).

14. Valait-il la peine d'envoyer ces bouteilles à l'apothicaire ? 15. Mais M. de Lavalette le détrompa bientôt;10 voyant que

valait la peine de les lui envoyer. 16. Où est l'aubergiste? 17. 11 Maria vaincue (m) par l'émotion ne pouvait articuler un son, il est

en Angleterre. 18. Combien d'enfants a le serrurier ? 19. Item prit la parole:

20. Combien de livres a le médecin ? 21. n . cinq cents " L'Empereur vous accorde votre grâce, général,” lui dit-il, oublié de la lui donner.

volumes. 22. Avez-vous donné cette lettre au monsieur? 23. J'ai "et vous la devez au courage et à la tendresse de votre fille."11 Puis avec une émotion dont il ne pouvait se défendre, il

EXERCISE 107 (Vol. II., page 107). 1. How long has Mr. L. lived in Paris? 2. He has been living there

ten years. 3. Has he not lived in Lons? 4. He lived there for* Le général Lavalette avait épousé une nièce de l'impératrice. merly. 5. Can you tell me where the captain's son is? 6. He has Condamné à mort en 1815, il fut sauvé par le généreux dévouement de been in England one year. 7. Do you know where Mr. B. lives ? & sa femme, qui s'introduisit dans sa prison, et changea de vêtements He lived formerly in Rouen; I do not know where he lives now. 9. avec lui,

Have you been here long?' 10. We have been here more than two

for any.

months. 11, How long have you had this orchard? 12. We have SECTION LXXIII.-ONAGRACEÆ, OR ONAGRADS. had it a year,

13. Do you know how far it is from Paris to Vienna ? 14. It is three hundred and six leagues from Paris to Vievna, and two the divisions of the calyx; contorted in æstivation ; stamens

Characteristics : Calyx adherent; petals equal in number to hundred leagues from Vienna to Copenhagen. 15. Has the company been here long? 16. It has been here more than two hours. 17. Is it equal in number to the petals, or double; ovary inferior, plurilong since you read this bill? 18. It is more than three hours ago locular; ovules reflexed; fruit capsular or bacciform, two or that I read it. 19. Has not your sister been reading more than half three-celled; seeds having a chalaza winged, interrupted, or filaan hour? 20. She has been reading so long, that she is tired of it. mentary; seed dicotyledonous, exalbuminous. The chalaza, it 21. Have you been waiting long for this piece of music? 22. I have should be said, is the part of the seed usually swollen or disbeen waiting for it more than a year,

coloured, where the nutritious juices collect, and are communiEXERCISE 108 (Vol. II., page 107).

cated to the young plant. 1. Ne savez-vous pas où demeure mon père ? 2. Je sais où il de- stipules ; flowers sometimes axillary and solitary, sometimes in

The members of this natural order possess leaves without meare, mais je n'ai pas le temps d'aller chez lui aujourd'hui. 3. Combien de temps y a-t-il que le médecin demeure à Paris? 4. 11'y a dix the form of a corymb or spike. They are chiefly extra-tropical, ans qu'il y demeure. 5. Combien de temps a-t-il demeuré en Angleterre? and belong for the most part to the northern temperate zone. 6. Il a demeuré en Angleterre six ans et demi. 7. Pouvez-vous me Two species, Epilobium, or willow herb, and Circæa, or enchanter's dire où demeure le serrurier ? 8. Il demeure chez mon frère. 9. Y nightshade, are mucilaginous. The ancients believed that the B-t-il long-temps que vous attendez ce livre? 10. Il y a plus d'un an aqueous infusion of Epilobium angustifolium had the property que je l'attends. 11. Combien de temps y a-t-il que M. votre fils ap- of taming wild animals, and that its vinous tincture was exhilaprend le grec? 12. Il y a deux ans qu'il l'apprend. 13. Combien de rent when administered to human beings. Enothera biennis, temps y a-t-il que M. votre frère a ce verger ? 14. Il y a plus de six or biennial evening primrose, and Enothera suavolens, or mois qu'il l'a. 15. Combien y a-t-il de Paris à Lyon ? 16. Il y a cent seize lieues de Paris à Lyon. 17. Y a-t-il plus loin de Lyon å sweet-scented evening primrose, originally natives of North Gendre que de Lyon à Turin ? 18. 11 y a plus loin de Lyon à Turin America, but now cultivated, like many of their congeners, in que de Lyon à Genève. 19. Combien de temps votre père a-t-il de- our gardens, possess a saccharine root, which is sometimes used meuré en Allemagne ? 20. Il a demeuré deux ans en Allemagne, et six as an article of food. Fuchsias are elegant shrubs, indigenous mois en Angleterre. 21. Combien de temps avez-vous demeuré à to New Zealand and North America, now common enough in our Bome? 22. Nous y avons demeuré plus d'un an. 23. Y a-t-il plus gardens. They are remarkable for the beauty of their foliage, dan an que vous apprenez l'Allemand ? 24. Il y a plus de quatre ans their petaloid

calyx, and their convolute corolla. The berries

of que je l'apprends.

certain New Zealand species yield an agreeable perfume. EXERCISE 109 (Vol. II., page 138).

SECTION LXXIV.-ANACARDIACEÆ, OR TEREBINTHS. 1. Has not that man altered his conduct ? 2. He has altered his conduct. 3. Has not that large house changed proprietors ? 4. It has

Characteristics : Flowers ordinarily diæcious by abortion ; changed proprietors, Captain G. has just bought it. 5. You are wet; why calyx free, or rarely adherent to the ovary ; petals inserted upon do you not change your cloak? 6. Because I have no other. 7. Does a perigynous disc, or else upon a short stipes, equal in number not your cousin often change her opinion ? 8. She very often changes to the divisions of the calyx; sometimes absent; imbricated in it. 9. During the combat, did not that young soldier change coun- æstivation; stamens equal in number to the petals, and altertenance ? 10. He did not change countenance. 11. Should not that nate with them, or in double or multiple number; carpels ordipatient change air ? 12. The physician recommends him to go to narily reduced to one ; unilocular or four to five distinct, one another country. 13. Where is your grey horse ?. 14. I have it no alone being fertile ; ovule single, ascending, ordinarily free, longer, 1 exchanged it for a white one. 15. With whom have you curved or half-reflexed ; fruit drupaceous or dry; seed dicotyleexchanged it? 16. I exchanged it with the young man who lived here last month. 17. Can the merchant change me this forty-franc piece? donous, exalbuminous, curved ; stem woody; juice gummy or 18. He cannot change it for you, he has no change. 19. Have you milky; leaves alternate and without stipules. the change for a guinea ?

The Anacardiaceæ owe their properties to a resinous juice which in certain species resembles pine turpentine; in the

greater number of species, however, this resinous principle is LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXX. mixed with certain acrid matters, which, on contact with the SECTION LXXII.—-GROSSULARIACEÆ, OR CURRANT-WORTS. air, become black, and impart to the secretion very stimulating,

sometimes venomous, properties. The bitter and astringent Characteristics : Calyx coloured, tubular, adherent, prolonged principles which some individuals of this natural order contain to a varying extent below the ovary; petals inserted upon the in their bark and wood modify the action of the stimulating throat of the calyx, equal in number to the divisions of the matter. The fruit of certain species is fleshy, abundant in latter; æstivation imbricated; stamens equal in number to the sugar and free acids ; sometimes edible. The seeds contain a petals and alternate with the latter; ovaries inferior and one fixed oil. celled; placentæ usually two, parietal or attached to the valves; The Pistacia lentiscus, or mastic tree (Fig. 228), a plant cultiovules horizontal, reflexed; berry pulpy; seeds angular, dicotyle- vated in the Grecian Archipelago, and the Pistacia Atlantica, a donous ; embryo straight in the base of an almost corneous native of the Mauritius, are valuable for their product-mastic. albuchen,

This substance, employed by ourselves as the basis of several Members of this natural order are usually armed with spines varnishes, is largely used by Orientals as a masticatory, whence situated below the leaf; the leaves are alternate or fasciculated; its name. By these persons it is believed to purify the breath. limb palmi-lobed ; petiole dilated. The flowers are disposed in The Pistacia terebinthus, or turpentine tree, grows sponanillary racemes in the species which are deprived of spines ; taneously in the whole Mediterranean region. From its inward they are solitary or few in number in the pine-bearing species. trunk flows a limpid adhesive juice, yellowish-blue in colour, The berry is surrounded by the persistent limb of the calyx. and of a penetrating odour, something between that of citron The seeds have a gelatinous testa, in which a long raphé, or and fennel. Its taste is balsamic, exempt from bitterness and cord running between the outer and inner coverings of the seed, acridity. This substance, known as Scio turpentine, is rarely ramifies. The endopleura is adherent to the albumen.

pure, and chemistry is unequal to detect the fraud. Its seeds, The Grossulariaceæ are for the most part inhabitants of the formerly employed in passive hæmorrhages and dysentery, are temperate and cool regions of the northern hemisphere. The at present held in but little repate. The Pistacia vera, or genus Ribes constitutes nearly all the family to which it imparts true pistachia tree, originally a native of Persia and Syria, is the distinctive name. Its species contain in their herbaceous now grown in the whole Mediterranean region; its oily seeds, portion a resinous aromatic principle. Their fruit is filled with under the name of green almonds, are very agreeable in taste, a saccharine mucilage in combination with malic and citric acids, and are employed by druggists in France as the basis of certain and occasionally astringent matters. The white currant (Ribes emulsions. album), an illustration of which is given in Fig. 227, affords a The mango (Mangifera Indica) is a tree originally of Asia, good example of the Ribes family.

but it is now cultivated in many tropical regions for the sake Gooseberry and currant trees are so well known that any pro- of its fruit. This is very agreeable in taste, but it must longed description of them would be useless. They are amongst be sparingly partaken of, or much constitutional disorder the most delicious of cultivated fruit, and furnish no bad sub-results. stitute for the vine as a wine-making material.

In exchange for the mango which America has received from

Asia, the latter continent and Africa have derived from America | black when exposed to the air, and which, after being disthe cashew-tree (Anacardium occidentale, Fig. 229). It is indi. solved in a drying oil, constitutes the celebrated black Japanese genous to Central America and the West India Islands; its nut, varnish. The Rhus radicans and Rhus toxicodendron are both small and reniform, termed the cashew, grows at the summit of natives of North America, and but slightly distinguishable from a fleshy panicle, like a large pear in

each other. When the period of general appearance. The pericarp

flowering arrives, both these plants contains a caustic oil; the seed is 227

secrete an abundant quantity of milky almond-tasted; the peduncle, named

juice, which turns black in contact the cashew apple, is acidulous, saccha

with the air. This juice is so exceedrine, and a little acrid, but neverthe

ingly acrid, that if a person sits in the less agreeable. From the epicarp a

shade of one of the poison sumachs, blistering ointment is sometimes pre

his skin becomes violently inflamed, pared, and the entire fruit is useful in

reddens, swells, and is covered with certain diseases. Cashew gum exudes

pustules. The leaves of this sumach from the trunk of the tree, but it is

are recommended in paralysis, darapplied to no useful purpose.

trous affections of the skin, and even The Anacardium Indicum is a native

consumption. of the East Indies. Its immature seeds

There are certain species of Schinus yield a glutinous matter resembling

which emit noxious effluvia. The birdlime, from which the celebrated

Schinus molle furnishes a mastic Chinese varnish is prepared.

which is slightly purgative. Its bark

[graphic]

227. THE WHITE CURRANT (RIBES ALBUM).

228. THE MASTIC TREE (PISTACIA LENTISCUS).

229. THE CASHEW-NUT TREE (ANACARDIUM OC

CIDENTALE). 230. THE FUSTIC SUMACH (RHUS COTINUS).

The sumachs possess various prcperties.

and leaves are aromatic, and its drupe is Fastic sumach (Rhus cotinus, Fig. 230) is

saccharine. The Duvara dependens is s indigenous in eastern Europe ; its bark,

little tree, a native of Chili, the infusion slightly aromatic and very astringent, is

of the seeds of which are stomachic, considered by some as a good substitute

diuretic, and anti-hysteric; moreover, an for that of Cinchona ; its leaves are also

intoxicating drink named chicha is preemployed in medicine, and from its wood

pared from them. The decoction of its a yellow dye-stuff is extracted. The Cur.

bark and the gum secreted by the tree rier's sumach (Rhus coriaria) is a native

are balsamic and healing when applied of the Mediterranean region. Its acid

to wounds. The species of the genus fruits are used by the Turks as a condi

Spondias are not without interest. The ment; its leaves and young shoots are

Spondias purpurea, or purple-fruited employed by curriers and dyers. The

hog-plum, of the West Indies, has drupes fruit and flowers of the Rhus typhina, Rhus glabra, and Rhus of an acidulated saccharine taste, very agreeable as food. The elegans, all natives of North America, are employed as condi- drupes of Spondias lutea, or yellow-fruited hog-plum, are ments.' The Jamaica sumach (Rhus metopii) secretes a purga- smaller, but more useful, being employed as a medicine. The tive gum resin from its bark. The Rhus vernix, or varnish congener of the two spreading species is cultivated in the sumach, is a Japanese shrub, from the stem of which is ob- Friendly and Society Islands. Its fruit is very agreeable and tained, by incision, a milky juice, which thickens and turns wholesome, almost rivalling in delicacy the pine-apple.

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-Y.

their distance from each other. The weight of any body is, in

fact, the force with which the earth attracts that body to itself. THE ACTION OF THE OCEAN.

The celestial bodies are all chained together by this force of The waters of the ocean are never tranquil; their surface is attraction. The sun and the moon both exert an attractive insubject to the action of the winds, and is therefore in constant fluence on the earth, inducing our planet to approach to them; motion; the tidal wave affects the lowest depths; whilst per- this attraction being counterbalanced by the centrifugal force, manent currents traverse almost every sea.

we describe a curve, which is the resultant of these two forces. Action of waves.-Every one who has stood on the sea-shore But the surface of the earth consists of fluid and solid; the and watched the breakers roll in and dash themselves to spray former, owing to its mobility, exhibits a greater tendency to against the cliffs, must have felt that the wearing action of obey the attractive influence, and therefore rises to meet the water on the coast must be considerable. On shores which sun or the moon. are bounded by chalk cliffs, the sea margin is rendered milky The sun, on account of his enormous bulk, exercises a much by particles of the chalk which the waves have separated from greater attractive force on the earth than the moon, but the the rocks. This destroying action of the waves is visible on solar tide is much less than the lunar tide, for this reason that every coast. Where the sea-barrier is a hard and resisting the moon, being nearer the earth, attracts the surface of the sea rock, frequently cliffs stand out of the water some distance far more than its solid bed, and therefore the water rises in a from the shore, indicating the place to which the mainland for- heap underneath the satellite. The sun, on the other hand, merly stretched. Examples of this are of frequent occurrence being so distant, exerts nearly as much force on the surface as along the Scottish coast and the west coast of England. If the on the ocean-bed beneath, and therefore lifts up the water but ze2-board be of a soft species of deposit, the action is of course very little. The identically same effect is produced on that part much more rapid. Thus on the coast of Yorkshire, from Brid of the earth most distant from the sun or moon, only in this lington to Spurn, some thirty-six miles, the waves erode 24 yards case the ocean-bed is drawn towards those bodies more rapidly annually, so that the sea has encroached two milos since the than the water, which is, in fact, left behind. time of the Romans. Many old maps of Yorkshire indicate that When the sun and moon are either in conjunction or oppovillages stood where now the waves hold undisputed possession, sition--that is, when the line joining them passes in the neighand ports mentioned in bygone history are no longer to be bourhood of, or directly through, the earth--then their attracfound.

tive forces being united, the tidal wave will be at a maximum, The same destruction is taking place on the coasts of Norfolk forming “spring tides." If they be in “ quadrature”--that is, and Suffolk. The seaport towns are being driven back by the if the lines drawn from their centres to the earth's centre form encroaching waters. The sites they occupied years ago now form a right angle--then the tides will be at a minimum, or "neap their harbours. Between Cromer and Mundesloy, according to tide” will result. It will be evident, then, that if the earth the Ordnance Survey of 1838, the cliff has receded at the rate were a world of waters, each tidal wave would pass comof fourteen feet a year,

pletely round the earth in twenty-four hours. The existence of On the same coast, as in Yorkshire, many villages are only continents materially modifies its transit, and it is driven from kistorical remembrances. The church tower of Eccles is still its course, and consequently retarded. seen rising out of the sea-sand, but all other remnants of the The great tidal wave takes its rise in the deep Antarctic village have long since succumbed to the action of the waves, Ocean. As it traverses the ocean the water is not raised above or have been covered with the sand-hills which move along that a few feet; but when it enters a shallow sea, or an estuary, where coast. Dunwich, on the Suffolk coast, offers another remarkable the tide finds itself in a sort of funnel, then the rise is someinstance of the destruction of the sea. What is now a small times as much as seventy feet, as is the case in the Bay of village was once a large and flourishing seaport; records of the Fundy. The wave is not a wave of transmission, but one of town are preserved even from Domesday-book, from which we motion, and if the particles of water were destitute of all cogather that the sea must have encroached on the land to the hesion or friction among themselves, they would only rise and distance of several miles.

fall into the same place after the attraction had passed. A The Goodwin Sands are from three to seven miles distant from wave of this nature is illustrated by throwing a stone into a the Kentish coast, nearly opposite Ramsgate. Tradition relates pond; the wavelets expand from the point of disturbance, but that they were once the estates of the Earl Godwin. This is so do not carry to the shore anything which floats on the surface far confirmed, that when in 1817 the Trinity Board proposed to of the water, such bodies only rising as it were to allow the erect a lighthouse on the sands, and for that purpose made wave to pass beneath them; this proves that the water had several borings, they found that the shoals were not all com- only an upward and downward movement as it formed the posed of sand, but after a few feet of sand blue clay was We shall allude to this wave of motion in speaking of reached, and finally chalk. If this be the case—and there is no earthquakes. In mid-ocean the water under tidal influence reason for doubting the tradition-some idea may be had of moves only about twelve miles, but when the wave from the eroding power of the waves. The same record of devas- a deep sea acts on the water of a shallow sea, or an estuary, tation may be written of all the south coast, and for a detailed then the tides are high. Local causes have great effect on the description the reader is referred to chapter xx. of “ Lyell's tides, so that at two seaports not many miles distant a difference Principles of Geology," and to the local histories of towns which of many feet is found in the high-water mark. For example, at are built along these shores. All coast lines are thus acted the extremity of the Wash, between Norfolk and Lincolnshire, upon, the destructive operations being carried on with more the tide rises twenty-four feet, at Lowestoft only seven or or less activity, accordingly as the coast is low, the sea-cliffs of eight, at Cromer sixteen. soft material, or of hard rock. We are not now considering the The rapidity of the flow is sometimes very great. It is said gains of the sea, or we might allude to the many terrible inun- that in the Solway Frith the rising tide can overtake a man on dations which the histories of Holland and the adjacent low- horseback. As these tidal waves beat against the shores of lying countries chronicle, of vast tracts of land suddenly swept every continent and island in the world, except those which over by tře sea, to the destruction of hundreds of villages, their bound inland seas, twice in each day, the wearing action on the inhabitants, and their cattle. It is true the persevering industry shores must be immense; the ebb tide carries out the eroded of the Dutch has raised dykes against their great enemy, and by matter, which is either deposited in the deep sea or swept away enclosing many of the meers with such walls, and then pumping by currents, to subside at a distance. out their water, they have reclaimed from the devastator much Currents. It is impossible to draw the limit which bounds the of his prey. This is not our object. We only mention the effect that ocean currents have in the re-distribution of the action of the waves as they erode the shores they wash ; the material of the earth's surface. We cannot conceive that vast particles of matter they thus mix with their waters are swept volumes of water traverse the oceans without taking a very away by currents, and in tranquil spots, or along the path of active part in geological work. Of their direct action on the the current, the sediment reaches the bottom, and there forms a bed of the seas through which they pass, we know little or zow deposit.

nothing; at present they are chiefly looked upon as means of of the various oceanic currents we shall first speak of transportation.

The tides.-All bodies attract each other; the power of the The system of ocean currents may be thus described :-The force exerted depending upon the weight of the bodies and trade winds, as is known, are caused by the heated air rising VOL. III.

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wave.

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in the equatorial regions, and the cold and more dense air flow We have thus rapidly reviewed the part which water plays in ing in from the poles to supply its place. As this sweeps the the degrading of existing land and the re-distribution of material surface of the Antarctic Ocean it sets the water in motion, in upon the ocean-bed. The power thus employed is never-ceasing, the direction of the wind, producing what is called a drift and it is universal, and is capable of producing any alteration in current; but when once a large body of fluid is set in motion it the shape of continents and islands if sufficient time be allowed exhibits little disposition to return to its tranquil state, and if it for its action. When we remember that our records of actual be acted upon by encouraging causes, a permanent current is facts, sufficiently surprising in themselves, only extend back produced. When the great Antarctic drift current, which is few hundred years, what may we not ascribe to aqueous action about 1,400 miles broad, abuts upon the west coast of South in time not measured by years, but by ages ? America, its waters are divided : one branch bends southwards, and sweeps round Cape Horn; the other flows northwards along the coast, until the projecting shoulder of Peru gives it a LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.- XLII. westerly direction, and it leaves the land and traverses the

THE CHAIN RULE (continued). Pacific along the equator as the equatorial current ; finally, it is lost among the East India islands.

EXAMPLE 5.--20000 copies of a pertny paper weigh a quarter of A drift current appears off the west coast of Australia, going a ton, and a reduction in the price of paper increases the profil northwards, until it reaches a latitude of 15 degrees south, by 4: per cent. What is the reduction per pound on paper ? when it turns at right angles across the Indian Ocean. It is

1 lb. paper. separated by the island of Madagascar: one branch takes a northerly direction, washing the coasts of Africa, Arabia, and India ; the other branch, passing round the Cape of Good Hope,

1 cwt. sets in northward as the Atlantic current ; like the other two, near the equator it takes a westerly bend, crossing the Atlantic Ocean ; striking against the angle of South America, one stream

20000 copies. follows the coast of Brazil, the other sweeps round the Gulf of Mexico, passes the south of Florida, follows the coast line of the United States, re-crosses the Atlantic at 40 degrees north

id. latitude, and pours its warm waters on the coasts of the British Islands and Norway. Besides these main systems of currents, there are several smaller and less important branches. Yet we have said enough to show that the waters of the ocean are in

4} profit. continual circulation, carrying the material eroded on one

112 X 5 X 100 20000 4. coast to distant areas of deposition. A remarkable proof of the

Answer.-110, per pound. capability of the gulf-stream to transport material is related by General Sabine. In 1822 he was on the coast of Africa, near

N.B.-Notice that evidently factors which are common to Cape Lopez, when a vessel was wrecked; the following year he both columns may be cancelled. visited Hammerfest, in Norway, near the North Cape, and while

EXAMPLE 6.-A Bavarian gulden is equivalent to 60 kreutzers. he was there casks belonging to the same vessel were cast on When the exchange in London is 25 francs 20 cents, what shall shore. They must have crossed the Atlantic south of the I gain or lose per cent. by taking French gold instead of English equator, navigated the Gulf of Mexico, passed through the West to Bavaria, the exchange there being 11 gulden 40 kreutzers for Indies, rounded Cape Sable, re-crossed the Atlantic, the North an English sovereign, and 9 gulden 20 kreutzers for a French Sea, and finally landed on the very north of Europe !

napoleon ? The great banks which exist and are carefully mapped are

£100. due to the accumulation of drifted matter; they are formed in tranquil places where the burden carried by the waters can be deposited. Of the Northumberland coast is the Dogger bank,

25.20 francs. which is 200 miles long, and sometimes sixty broad..

In many areas the trawling-nets of the fishermen bring up broken shells and other similar débris, which have been brought

9 gulden. together by some current. There can be little doubt but these materials arrange themselves according to certain circumstances, and when a storm disturbs the bank and eauses a new order of

1134 £1. deposition, an arrangement of strata would result, which, if

Answer.-£108, which is 8 per cent. gain. consolidated, would bear a great resemblance to a class of rocks EXAMPLE 7.-- 1 kilogramme (15432 grains) of French standard called the Norfolk and Suffolk Crags.

gold, fine, is coined into 155 napoleons. Find the par of Between the coasts of Suffolk and the Netherlands oysters exchange between London and Paris, by comparing the gold have been dragged up which were adhering to the bones of coinage of the two countries. extinct elephants; and if these had been borne so far from the

1 English sovereign. land by the water, specimens of existing animals must also be embedded in the strata in process of formation far out at sea. Our knowledge of the depositions going on at the bottom of the seas is necessarily very limited. All we can be sure of is, that

40 lbs. Troy. the matter with which the waters of the sea becomes charged is deposited somewhere, and the deposition must be more or less homogeneous—that is, particles of the same specific gravity, and

11 lbs. fine gold. of much the same size, will reach the bottom about the same time. It has often been proved that near the shore the bottom of a sex not swept by a current is covered with gravel or

10 lbs. French standard gold. shingle ; further out the deposit gradually becomes finer; and at last, in deep water, the sounding leads bring up fine mud. Matter in a state of great sub-division, we know, requires a long

5760 graine. time before it sinks to the bottom; for instance, barium sulphate is one of the heaviest of minerals, and yet when it is precipitated from a solution of baryta, some hours are required

15432

1 kilogramme. before the water is perfectly free from particles of the salt, so that the very fine particles may not reach the ocean-bed until they have been carried a great distance from the place where

3100 francs. they entered the water.

Answer: ---25 fr. 22 c. for £1.

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