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READINGS IN FRENCH.—VI.

garçons et une fille ; ces enfants faisaient leur joie, leur bon

heur. Auguste avait (d) huit ans, Fanny sept, et le plus jeune, LE VIEUX ARBRE ET LE JARDINIER.

le petit Alfred, en avait quatre à peine. Tous les trois s'aimUn jardinier dans son jardin

aient entre eux avec une tendresse égale ; tout était commun, Avait un vieux arbre stérile;

peines, plaisirs. C'était un grand poirier qui jadis fut fertile ;

Lear promenade favorite était un petit vallon 10 situé à quelMais il avait vieilli ; (a) tel est notre destin !

ques pas de la maison de leur père. Là, un châtaignier d'une Le jardinier ingrat veut l'abattre un matin.3

grosseur prodigieuse étalait (e) son épais feuillage, et ils pouLe voilà qui prend (b) sa cognée ;

vaient, à l'ombre que projetaient ses rameaux, se livrer à leurs Au premier coup l'arbre lui dit:

jeux, sans avoir à redouter les rayons d'un soleil trop ardent. “Respecte mon grand âge, et souviens-toi (c) du fruit Un jour, qu'assis (s) au pied du châtaignier, Auguste et Fanny Que je t'ai donné chaque année.

tressaient, pour leur petit frère, des pattes avec des brins de La mort va me saisir, je n'ai plus qu'un instant ;

joncs qu'il allait cueillir tout joyeux, leurs oreilles furent tout à N'assassine pas un mourant

coup frappées par des hurlements plaintifs 13 qui paraissaient (9) Qui fut ton bienfaiteur." "Je te coupe avec peine," venir de la forêt. Bientôt après, en effet, ils aperçurent un Répond le jardinier; “mais j'ai besoin de bois.” 5

magnifique chien de Terre-Neuvel qui se dirigeait (h) vers eux Alors, gazouillant à la fois,

en se traînant avec peine. Chaque fois qu'il posait à terre une De rossignols une centaine

de ses pattes de devant, il poussait un cri de douleur. 15 Led S'écrie: "Épargne-le, nous n'avons plus que lui; enfants coururent (i) vers lui; le pauvre animal s'arrêta à leur Lorsque ta femme vient s'asseoir sous son ombrage, approche, les regarda d'un air piteux et caressant.16 Puis Nous la réjouissons par notre doux ramage ;?

tendant vers eux sa patte ensanglantée il semblait leur dire : Elle est seule souvent, nous charmons son ennui." (d) “Secourez-moi." 17 Le jardinier les chasse, et rit (e) de leur requête ; &

Les enfants le comprirent (). Fanny l'attira doucement au Il frappe un second coup. D'abeilles un essaim (7)

pied du châtaignier, 15 Auguste courut puiser de l'eau à la fonSort, aussitôt du tronc, ie en lui disant: "Arrête;

taine, 19 tandis qu'Alfred, tenant (k) à la main un roseau, chassait Ecoute-nous, homme inhumain : 11

les moustiques 20 qui venaient pour s'attacher à la plaie du Si tu nous laisses cet asile,

blessé. Une fois tous ces préparatifs achevés, Fanny soulera Chaque jour nous te donnerons

doucement la patte du chien, examina son mal et aperçut une Un miel délieieux dont tu peux (g) à la ville

grosse épine qui s'était enfoncée (1) entre les griffes.
Porter et vendre les rayons (h);
Cela te touche-t-il ?” “J'en pleure de tendresse, 12"

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.
Répond l'avare.jardinier :

1. À quelle époque cette histoire, 11. Quel arbre y trouvait-on ? "Eh! que ne dois-je () pas à ce pauvre poirier 13

commence-t-elle ?

12. Que faisaient un jour, Auguste Qui m'a nourri dans ma jeunesse ?

2. Qu'avaient fait plusieurs fa et Fanny au pied du châ

milles françaises ? Ma femme quelquefois vient () ouïr ces oiseaux 14

taignier?

3. Où un ancien négociant s'était- 13. Qu'entendirent-ils tout à coup? C'en est assez pour moi ; qu'ils (k) chantent en repos.

il établi?

14. Qu'aperçurent-ils ensuite ? Et vous qui daignerez angmenter mon aisance,

4. Que lui avait-on concédé ? 15. Que faisait le chien en posant Je veux pour vous de fleurs semer tout ce canton,” 15 5. Que possédait-il ?

à terre une de ses pattes de Cela dit, il s'en (1) va 16 sûr de sa récompense,

6. Quelle avait été la récompense devant ? Et laisse vivre le vieux tronc.

de l'industrie de M. Déram- 16. Que fit le chien à leur apComptez (m) sur la reconnaissance 17

bert?

proche ? Quand l'intérêt vous en répond. FLORIAN.

7. Quels changements remarquait-17. Que semblait-il lear dire ?

on dans ces terres naguère 18. Que fit alors Fanny? COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

sauvages ?

19. Où Auguste courut-il? 1. Qu'est-ce que le jardinier avait 10. Qu'arriva-t-il aussitôt ? 8. Combien d'enfants M. Déram. 20. Et Alfred, que faisait-il ? dans son jardin ? 11. Que dirent les abeilles au jar.

bert avait-il ?

21. Que vit (m) Fanny en exami2. Quelle espèce d'arbre était-ee? dinier?

9. Quel était leur âge?

nunt la patte du chien? 3. Quo voulait faire le jardinier?

12. Que

leur répondit notre 10. Quelle était leur promenade 4. Que lui dit l'arbre au premier homme?

favorite? coup de cognée ?

13. Qu'ajouta-t-il à l'égard du 5. Que lui répondit le jardinier! poirier? 6. Que lui dirent les rossignols? 14. Parla-t-il encore des oiseaux ?

(a) From faire.

| (9) From paraître. 7. Qu'ajoutèrent-ils en parlant de 15. Que promit-il aux abeilles ?

(b) Concédé, granted.

(h) Se dirigeait, came. sa femme ? 16. Que fit-il ensuite ? (c) From couvrir,

(i) From courir. 8. Le jardinier se laissa-t-il per- 17. Comment notre ami Florian (d) Avait huit ans, was eight years 0) From comprendre. suaier par les rossignols?

old. termine-t-il sa fable?

(le) From tenir. 9. Que fait-il encoro?

(e) Etalait, displayed.

(1) S'était enfoncée, had penetrated. (f) Assis, seated.

(m) From voir. (a) Vieilli, grown old.

(9) From pouvoir. b) Le voilà qui prend, he seizes ; (h) Rayons, combs.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. from prendre, (i) From devoir.

EXERCISE 110 (Vol. II., page 138). (c) From se souvenir. () From venir.

1. Pourquoi ne changez-vous pas d'habit? 2. Pour une très-bonne (d) Ennui, tediousness, woariness. (k) Qu'ils, let them. (6) From rire.

raison, parceque je n'en ai pas d'autre. 3. Votre père a-t-il change de (1) Va, from aller. D'abeilles un essaim. (This (m) From compter, to count, to demain. 5. Cet enfant a-t-il changé de conduite ? 6. Il a changé de

maison? 4. Non, Monsieur, mais nous avons intention de le faire is a poetical inversion.)

rely upon.

vie, il est très-bon maintenant. 7. Votre frère n'avait-il pas pour,

n'a-t-il pas changé de visage? 8. Il a changé de visage, mais il n'avait UN BIENFAIT N'EST JAMAIS PERDU.

pas peur. 9. N'avez-vous pas changé de chambre? 10. Je n'ai pas SECTION I.

changé de chambre, ma chambre est très-bonne. 11. Ne vous tarde Tandis que la Louisiane faisait (a) encore partie des colonies t-il pas d'être en France? 12. Il me tarde d'y être. 13. Mme, votre

mère ne tarde-t-elle trop ? 14. Elle tarde bien à venir. 15. Ayex. de la France, plusieurs familles françaises fondèrent des éta- vous changé la pièce de quarante francs ? 16. Je ne l'ai pas encore blissements dans ce beau pays. Sur la lisière d'une vaste changée. 17. Pourquoi ne l'avez-vous pas changée? 18. Parcequo forêt,» traversée par un des fleuves nombreux qui arrosent cette votre père n'a pas de monnaie. 19. Avez-vous la monnaie d'une guinée ! région, était allé s'établir un ancien négociant à qui on avait 20. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai que douze schellings. concédé (6) un vaste territoire à défricher. Possesseur de

EXERCISE 111 (Vol. II., page 138). moyens assez considérables, actif, laborieux, M. Dérambert s'était bientôt vu à la tête d'un domaine fort étendu. Ces

1. Is it necessary to have a passport to travel in France ? 2. It is terrains, naguère encore incultes et sauvages, se couvraient (c) passports to travel in England! 4. A passport is not needed in

necessary to have one. 3. Do the English provide themselves with maintenant de riches moissons de riz, de mais et de froment?

England. 5. Do you like travelling on railroads! 6. I would rather M. Dérambert avait une femme et trois jolis enfants, deux travel on railroads than on common roads. 7. Have you brought

NOTES.

NOTES.

12.

your master-keys? 8. I have no master-keys, I have only common

HYDROSTATICS.–VII. keys. 9. Did your brother come in a steamboat? 10. He came in a sailing-boat. 11. Have you a four-horse carriage ? 12. No, Sir, we LIFTING WHEEL-CHAIN PUMP-LIFTING PUMP-COMMON bare only a one-horse gig. 13. Has your brother built a steam-mill?

PUMP-FORCE PUMP-FIRE-ENGINE. 14. He has had two mills built, a wind-mill and a water-mill. 15. THE next machine for raising water which we shall notice is Has your companion engaged a fencing-master? 16. No, Sir, he has already a drawing-master and a dancing-master. 17. How many bed- the Lifting Wheel. This is an ordinary breast-wheel with the rooms have you? 18. We have two. 19. Have you a bottle of wine? floats inclined backwards; but instead of deriving motion from 90. No, Sir, but I have a wine bottle. 21. Do you see the owls? 22. the water, it is turned by machinery in the opposite direction, No, but I see the bats.

and thus raises the water into the channel above. It is, in EXERCISE 112 (Vol. II., page 139).

fact, a breast-wheel with the action reversed. In comparing

the merits of these different machines, we must consider which 1. M. votre père est-il en Angleterre? 2. Non, Monsieur, il est en of them causes least wasteful expenditure of power, and also France avec mon frère. 3. Ont-ils pris des passe-ports ? 4. Oui, which is the simplest and least liable to get out of order. As Monsieur, ils en ont pris deux. 5. Faut-il avoir un passe-port pour voyager en Amérique? 6. Non, Monsieur, mais il faut en avoir un a rule, too, the more complicated the machine, the greater is pour voyager en Italie. 7. Y a-t-il un bateau à vapeur de Calais à the loss from friction of the water against the sides, and from Douvres ? 8. Il y en a plusieurs. 9. Y a-t-il un chemin de fer de opposing currents. Now, in the lifting wheel just mentioned, Paris à Bruxelles ? 10. Il y en a un de Paris à Bruxelles, et un de there is a loss by leakage of the water between the floats and Paris à Tours. 11. M. votre frère a-t-il acheté un moulin à vent? the sides, and if a stone or piece of wood get in, there is a 12. Non, Monsieur, mais il a fait bâtir un moulin à vapeur. 13. Y danger of its injuring the wheel; still the machine is simple 3-t-beaucoup de moulins à vent en Amérique ? 14. Non, Monsieur, in construction, and where the water has not to be raised to any mais il y a beaucoup de moulins à eau et à vapeur. 15. Votre cousin great height, may be used with advantage. apprend-il le dessin ? 16. Il ne l'apprend pas, il ne peut trouver un maitre de dessin. 17. Le maître d'armes est-il dans la salle à manger ?

Another way of making this machine is to use an over-shot 18. Non, Monsieur, il est dans le salon. 19. Votre cousin est-il dans wheel instead of a breast-wheel. Openings are then made in 2 chambre à coucher? 20. Non, Monsieur, il est sorti. 21. Combien de

the inside of the cylinder, and chambres y a-t-il dans votre maison? 22. Cinq; une cuisine, une

troughs placed so that the salle à manger, un salon et deux chambres à coucher. 23. Y a-t-il des

buckets, when they are tilted chats-huants ici ? 24. Oui, Monsieur, et des chauves-souris aussi.

by the revolutions of the wheel, EXERCISE 113 (Vol. II., page 172).

empty their contents through

these openings. There are 1. Will you lead your children to school? 2. I will take them to school and to church.

usually two of these troughs, 3. Will the gardener bring vegetables to market? 4. He will bring some there. 5. Where will you take that

one above the other, for some horse ? 6. I will take it to the stable. 7. Will you feed it ? 8. I

of the water is emptied as soon will give it hay and oats. 9. Will you give it water? 10. I will

as the buckets are slightly intake it to the watering-place. 11. Will you pay what you owe ?

clined, and this flows into the Will you not walk? 13. I will take a walk this afternoon. 14. Will

lower one, while, if the buckets you take a walk or a ride? 15. I will take a ride, and my sister will

are well shaped, the greater take a drive. 16. Will you walk much in your journey to Paris ? 17.

portion remains in them till We will not walk at all. 18. Will you not call the pedlar? 19. I

they reach nearly the highest shall not call him. 20. Will you not buy that villa ? 21. We will buy it if we can. 22. Will it not freeze this night? 23. I do not

part of the wheel, where the believe it, it is too warm. 24. Will you not sow all the wheat which

second trough is placed. you harvest ? 25. I shall only sow a part of it, I shall sell the re

In digging out foundations mainder. 26. I will seal my letters and take them to the post-office.

for buildings, or in making EXERCISE 114 (Vol. II., page 172).

embankments to keep out 1. Le monsieur n'appellera-t-il pas ses enfants ?

water, it is frequently neces2. Il appellera ses enfants et ceux de sa soeur. 3. N'amènerez-vous pas vos enfants ? 4.

sary to employ a pump of Je ne puis les amener.

the 5. Ne voulez-vous pas vous promener à cheval

some kind to remove cette après-midi ? 6. Nous nous promènerons en voiture demain. 7.

water that accumulates, and Y'achèterez-vous pas les chevaux de mon père ? 8. Je ne les achèterai

thus keep the work dry; and pas, je n'ai pas d'argent. 9. N'appellerez-vous pas le colporteur ?

as toere is often a large 20. Je ne veux pas l'appeler, je ne veux rien acheter. 11. Paierez

amount of muddy water to be vous le tailleur ? 12. Je lui paierai mon habit. 13. Ne gèlera-t-il pas

removed, and many stones are demain ? 14. Il gèlera demain; il fait très-froid. 15. Ne sèmerez

present, it is desirable to have vous pas de l'avoine dans ce champ? 16. Je ne sèmerai pas d'avoine ;

a machine made without valves, j'y semerai du blé. 17. Mènerez-vous votre sour à l'école ? 18. Je

Fig. 33. l'y mènerai cette après-midi. 19. Ne mènerez-vous pas votre fils au

so as not to be liable to get marché ? 20. Je ne l'y mènerai pas. 21. Le jardinier ne mènera-t-il

out of repair; it should also pas son cheval à l'abreuvoir ? 22. I l'y mènera. 23. Donnerez- be capable of being easily moved, and set up again at a fresh vous de l'avoine à votre cheval ? 24.

Je lui donnerai du foin. 25. place. Now these requisites are best obtained by means of the Amènerez-vous votre fils ? 26. Je l'amènerai demain. 27. Amènera common chain pump, which is represented in the annexed t-il son cheval? 28. Il amènera son cheval et sa voiture. 29. Pour figure (Fig. 33). qnci portez-vous ce petit enfant ? 30. Il est trop malade pour marcher. Two wheels with arms radiating like spokes are procured. 31. M. votre frère vendra-t-il ses propriétés ? 32. Il n'en vendra One of these, B, is fixed beneath the surface of the water ; the qu'une partie. EXERCISE 115 (Vol. II., page 173).

other, A, is placed above the level to which it has to be pumped.

This latter is turned by an engine or any other motive power 1. Will you not come to see us tomorrow? 2. I shall go to see that is available. Round these wheels passes an endless chain, you, if the weather permits. 3. Will you not send for the physician, composed of bars of iron jointed together; to the middle of each tired, I will walk more slowly. 6. When you know his dwelling, of these joints of the chain a float-board is fixed. These are all shall you go to see him ? 7. I shall go and see him as soon as I made of the same size, so as to fit a vertical tube, which is know where he lives. 8. Shall you not see him to-day? 9. I shall placed with its lower end below the surface of the water, while see him this afternoon, 10. Will you be able to accompany us? at the upper end a spout is fixed, from which the water is conI shall do it with much pleasure. 12. Will you not send them straw. veyed away. berries? 18. I will send them some, when mine are ripe. 14. Will The wheel A is turned so that the floats ascend in the tube, it not be necessary to write to them soon ? 15. When we have heard and it will easily be seen that as each successive board enters from their relation, it will be necessary to write to them. 16. What it raises the quantity of water contained between it and the shall we do to-morrow? 17. We will go hunting. 18. Will you not board above. There is, of course, a considerable loss by leakage go to your father's? 19. We will certainly go. guitar is arrived, will you lend it? 21. I shall not be able to lend it. between the floats and the side of the tube, but practically this 2. At what hour shall you leave to-morrow? 23. I shall leave at is of little importance, and it diminishes with the speed at which five in the morning. 24. Will you not go out this evening ? 25. I the pump is worked. shall not go out, and I shall go to bed early.

Frequently the floats, instead of being fixed to the joints of

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11.

the chain, as shown here, are hinged to one side, and thus fall flat when descending. The wheels A B may then be replaced by ordinary flat sheaves. This pump can be made to work equally well if the tube be inclined instead of being vertical, and this adds to its usefulness, as it renders it more easily applied in many cases. A strange modification of this is sometimes employed. Two wheels are fixed as before, but instead of an endless chain with floats, a flat rope, loosely woven of wool or horse-hair, passes round them; flannel is also sometimes used for the purpose. When this is driven rapidly it licks up, as it were, a large quantity of water which forms a layer on its surface half an inch or more in thickness. When it reaches the upper wheel this is thrown off by centrifugal force, but it may be removed at any place by letting the rope pass between rollers. This pump has not come into general use, but a much larger amount of water can be raised by means of it than would be supposed. One of them might be seen in action a short time since at the London Polytechnic, where also are working models of several other hydraulic machines. The only other machine of the first class which we shall explain now is the Lifting Pump. Care must be taken not to confound this with the common or suction-pump, the principle on which it works being entirely different. The mouth of the tube in which the water is to be raised is immersed some depth in the water, a valve opening upwards being placed in it a little below the level of the water outside. A piston with a valve also opening upwards is made to work the lower part of this, and at each stroke forces some of the water up the tube, the valve in which prevents its return. Fig. 34 will make this more clear. A B represents the pipe in which the water is to be raised, the valve being placed at C, a little below the surface. D is the piston with its valve; and this is moved by the arrangement of pump-rods shown, the part B of the pipe being bent so as not to interfere with the motion of the rods. In the figure the piston is supposed to be rising ; the water therefore opens the valve c and rises in B. When D has reached its highest point, c closes from the weight of the water above it, and while the piston descends, the pressure of the external water trying to maintain its level opens the valve in D and allows the tube again to fill. Thus it will be seen that at every stroke of the piston the quantity of water contained between D when at its lowest point and c is raised in the pipe. In this pump there is obviously no limit to the height to which the water can be raised other than the strength of the tube and the power required. These of course increase with the height, for the power applied to the pump-handle has to support the weight of a column of water equal in area to the piston, and whose height is equal to that of the spout above the water in the well, and also that of the pump-rods. This kind of pump is chiefly used where the depth from which the water has to be raised is too great to admit of the use of the common or suction-pump. The main disadvantages attending it, are the length, and therefore the weight, of the pumprods; and also the fact that the valves must be situated down the well, and below the surface of the water, and therefore are difficult to get at when it is necessary to make any repairs or alterations. Sometimes this pump is constructed in a simpler way. A large tube or cylinder is fixed vertically, and has at the bottom a valve opening inwards through which the water enters. A large and heavy plunger hangs loosely in this cylinder; at the collar, however, it is made to fit water-tight. The pipe in which the water is to be raised is also made to open into the lower part of the cylinder, a valve being placed in it, as shown in Fig. 35, to prevent the return of the water. The plunger is suspended by a chain, and when it is raised the water enters the cylinder through the valve at the bottom. The piston is then

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Fig. 34.

allowed to descend by its own weight, the valve at the bottom immediately closes, and the water is forced up the side pipe. When the piston again rises, the valve in this pipe closes, thereby preventing any reflux, and the cylinder fills as before. If two such pumps are fixed near together, the plungers being connected to opposite ends of a beam turning on its centre, their weights will balance each other, and thus leave only the weight of the water to be overcome by the power. In such a case the pump may be worked by a man walking from end to end of the beam; and as in this way his power is mainly employed in raising his own weight, a large amount of work may be accomplished, especially as, owing to the simple construction of the machine, there is little loss from friction. This apparatus, then, though rude in construction, is an economical mode of employing power, and answers its purpose well. We will now consider the second class of machines, or those which act by the pressure of the air. As we shall see when we come to treat of pneumatics, the air presses on all surfaces with a pressure of about 15lbs. per square inch. This must at present be taken for granted, but will be fully explained shortly. By means of this pressure all the machines in this class work. Now of these the most important, because by far the most commonly used, is the ordinary suction-pump. The construction and action of this will easily be understood by reference to Fig. 36. F is the suction-pipe, which passes down into the well from which the water is to be brought. This pipe is usually fitted with a grating, or else the end is closed, and a number of small openings bored near it, so that the water is slightly strained, and stones and other bodies, which would in: terfere with the action of the valves, are excluded. The barrel D fits on to the end of the suction-pipe, a valve s opening upwards being inserted at the junction of the two. This valve with its setting is known as the “lower box,” and should be made so that it can be taken out for repairs without disturbing the barrel. P re- o presents the plunger or upper box; this, too, is fitted with a flap valve, and is fixed to the piston-rod, motion being communicated to it by the handle, which is a bent lever of the first kind. When the pump is first set to work, all the parts are full of air, which has to be removed, and as the valves are r not usually very accurately made, there is sometimes a little difficulty in accomplishing this. A little water, however, poured into the barrel makes the valves close more nearly air-tight. When the piston is raised, a partial vacuum is produced in F, the air pressing on the water in the well forces it up into the tube to supply this. Thus at each stroke some of the air is expelled, till at last the water rises so as to pass through the valve into the barrel. The pipe is then full of water, and remains so. The valve, however, must not be more than about thirty feet above the water in the well, or the water will not rise to it. When the water has thus reached the lower box, it will at the next ascent of the piston rise and fill the barrel of the pump ; and as the piston is again depressed, the valve s will close, and the wate will then open the valve in the plunger and rise above it This water is by the next rise of the piston brought to th level of the spout, from which it issues, while at the same tim a fresh supply of water rises into the barrel. Thus at eac stroke the quantity of water contained in the barrel betwee

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the two valves is raised and issues from the spout. It is clear the figure is supposed to be descending; the valve b at the upper that here, too, the weight of the whole column of water in the supply-pipe is therefore open, and the water is sucked up saction-pipe has to be supported by the power applied.

through it into the cylinder, at the same time the water under Pumps of this kind were employed long before it was known the piston is being driven up the lower on what principle they acted. The explanation then given was exit-pipe. When the motion of the that when the piston was raised a vacuum was created, and, piston is reversed, the other two valves since " Nature abhorred a vacuum,” the water rushed in to fill open, and the water enters by the lower it. This explanation satisfied people for some time, but one day supply-pipe, and escapes by the upper some men were fixing a pump in an unusually deep well, and exit. A constant flow is thus produced; found to their surprise that they could not raise the water above a further advantage of this is that the thirty or thirty-two feet. Having tried in vain to solve the pressure is the same on the piston-rod difficulty, they consulted Galileo, the most celebrated philosopher whichever way it is moving. of the day, who replied that "Nature only abhorred a vacuum The well-known fire-engine is merely to the height of thirty-two feet.” This explanation, however, a combination of two single-action did not satisfy one of his pupils, named Torricelli; so he, and force-pumps. These are made of a afterwards Pascal, tried various experiments with different large diameter, and force the water into liquids in the place of water, and at length hit on the correct a strong air-chamber, from which the explanation—that it was the pressure of the external air which hose to convey the water to the fire caused the liquid to rise in the pump, and that therefore it would issues. A lever is supported by its only rise till its pressure was such as to balance that of the air. centre point just above the machine, This height is found to vary between thirty and thirty-four feet. and the cross poles by which the fire

We see then that though this pump is generally used, it will men work the engine are fastened to not answer when the water has to be raised more than thirty the end of this, the piston-rods being

Fig. 38. feet, nor will it raise it above its own level. In cases, therefore, attached about the middle of each arm. where these are required, a different kind, known as the Force Hence, since several men work at each Pamp, is employed (Fig. 37). This machine is usually placed some side, and there is a gain from the leverdistance above the level of the water, which is first raised in it on age, the water is driven with great force, and can be thrown to

the principle of the ordinary pump, and a considerable height. The air-chamber is made very strong,
then forced to the required elevation and of large dimensions, so that the stream of water flows at
The annexed illustration will explain a constant rate ; and though the pumps are only single-action,
its construction. The suction-pipe and yet as one piston is rising while the other is falling the motion
barrel are constructed in exactly the is nearly uniform.
same way as in the common pump; the In mining operations pumps have to be employed on a very
plunger, however, instead of having a large scale. The water finds its way through the cracks and
valve in it, is made solid; and, instead crevices, and would soon entirely food the mine were not large
of the spout for the water to issue from, and powerful pumps erected. In some
a pipe leads from the lower part of the cases the weight of water raised is as
barrel to a reservoir or air-chamber, c. much as twenty times that of the coal.
A valve, B, oloses the opening of this, The depth, too, is usually very great, and
and another pipe, D, passes into the thus it is quite impracticable to raise the
reservoir, its mouth being rather below water at one lift, for the pressure on the
the middle ; up this pipe the water is pipes would be so great as to burst them.
forced. We will suppose the barrel to A number of small cisterns are therefore

be full of water, and the piston just placed at about equal distances above Fig. 37.

beginning to descend. The valve a one another. From each of these the
closes at once, and the water, having water is raised by a force-pump with a
no other escape, passes through the solid plunger to the one above. All

valve B into the reservoir c. The air these plungers are fixed to one pumpwhich fills the part of this above the mouth of the pipe acts as a rod, which passes from the top to the spring, and checks the flow, but.by its reaction forces the water bottom of the mine, usually in a part of up the pipe D. When the piston again rises, B closes, and a the shaft separated for the purpose. A fresh supply of water enters through A, and the same process is powerful engine at the top lifts this rod repeated at each stroke.

with all the plungers, and they fall by

B This pump is very similar in construction to the lifting pump their own weight. The plans pursued before described, only it is placed above the water, thereby are, however, very various, and depend saving the weight of the rods, and it acts partly by suction. very much upon the nature of the mine When made in this way, the greatest strain—if the water has and the special peculiarities of the case. to be raised to any great height—is when the handle is being Sometimes, when the mine is sunk on the raised. This is rather a disadvantage, and to remedy it the side of a hill, the water can be discharged top of the barrel is sometimes closed, the pump-rod being made by a side channel some way below the to work through a collar, which is packed to prevent the escape mouth, and where there is a stream of of the water. A valve is then placed in the piston, and the water at the mouth of the pit this is pipe leading to the air-chamber proceeds from the upper instead made to pass down a pipe to the level of from the lower part of the barrel. The water in this way of the side channel, and there by its rises above the piston, and when the latter is raised, is forced pressure to raise the water from the into the chamber, and thus up the pipe D.

bottom. The action of this apparatus In either of these modes of construction the water is only is very ingenious, but it can rarely be raised while the piston is moving in one direction. A reference applied, and need not, therefore, be exto the figure will show that when the piston is rising it draws plained here. up the water into the barrel, and when it descends it forces it There is one other apparatus, known

Fig. 39. into the reservoir. A plan has, however, been devised by which' as Hero's Fountain, which raises water both these processes may be carried on simultaneously, and by the compression of the air. This is represented in Fig. 39. thus a constant stream of water be produced. A branch of the The tray at the top is filled with water, which rushes down the supply-pipe, A (Fig. 38), enters the lower part of the cylinder at a, pipe B, and thus compresses the air in the lower vessel, N; this and another branch enters the upper part at b; in the same way compressed air escapes by the pipe a, and pressing on the liquid branches of the exit-pipe, B, communicate with the upper and in the upper reservoir, m, causes it to issue from the jet. This lower parts of the cylinder at c and d. These openings are closed apparatus ceases to act as soon as the lower reservoir is filled, by valves which all open to the right. The piston is solid, and in and the water must then be drawn off by the tap seen under n.

[graphic]
[graphic]

M

А

LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-V. in words, but are, nevertheless, not diphthongs; as, for example,

coagulare (ko-ah-goo-láh-rai), to coagulate; coerente (ko-ai-rén. IV.-THE DIPHTHONGS. I HAVE now to speak of the diphthongs; but before entering tai), coherent; caos (káh-os), chaos;

coincidere (ko-in-tchée-dai-rai), into details I may remark that these letters differ materially em-pecai-rai), to satisfy, fill; reale (rai-áh-lai), royal, real

, loyal

;

coincide ; raunare (rah-oo-náh-rai), to assemble ; dempiere (ahfrom the English, inasmuch as the two vowels forming a diph- riunire (ree-oo-née-rai), to reunite ; viola (vée-o-lah), he violates ; thong do not entirely merge into one sound, but are in Italian viottolo (vee-ot-to-lo), narrow passage or way, roundabout way; more or less distinctly heard, though only pronounced by one Dione (dee-6-nai), Dion ; Tiziano

(tee-tsee-áh-no), Titian ; Teodoro opening of the mouth, and with one emission of the air or voice, which gives them the value of one sound. This broad and (tai-o-do-ro), Theodore ; riesco (rée-ê-sko), I succeed ; reato (raigeneral characteristic, however, prevails among all Italian diph- áh-to), guilt or sin ; paese (pah-ái-zai), country ; reina

(rai-ée

. thongs, that there must be a ruling sound, requiring a greater nah), queen; leone (lai-6-nai), lion ; mansueto (mahn-soo-e-to), stress of the voice and more distinctness of utterance, which

tame, gentle, mild. ruling sound is at one time on the first, at another on the second

The reader will have remarked that I have, in the above er. of the two vowels. In those diphthongs where the second of the amples, separated the two vowels which come together

into syltwo vowels is the ruling sound, the voice glides more rapidly lables, thereby showing that they are not diphthongs,

though from the first vowel to the second, and is

, as it were, absorbed they may appear to be such. Indeed, if those sounds se e diph. by it. The second is on that account heard with greater dis- thongs, it is obvious that they could not be used as separate tinctness, and such diphthongs present more of a united sound; syllables, as they must in Italian spelling, though the poets, by while in those diphthongs where the first of the two vowels is the their special licence, generally use them as one

syllable. ruling sound, the second is somewhat more distinctly heard tion of three and sometimes four vowels in the Italian language,

Some grammarians are of opinion that in cases of the coalithan the first vowel of those diphthongs, which approach to a those vowels form one syllable uttered with one and the same united sound, though shortly and quickly trailed along, as it emission of the voice ; and they term the coalition of three were, by the first.

The second kind or class may be termed, on this account, the vowels a triphthong, and the coalition of four a quadriphthong, if separated diphthongs; the first class the united diphthongs-though I may so express it

. They have been, perhaps, led into that I must caution the reader not to understand these words

in their belief by the example of the poets, who in the middle of a verse strictly literal sense ; because, as stated before, in all Italian use the triphthongs like one syllable. It is certainly allowable diphthongs the two vowels are more or less distinctly heard.

for Italian poets to count two or three syllables, being mere United diphthongs are, for example :

vowels, as one ; but it would be strange to found grammar on ia, as in fiato (feeáh-to), breath ; biada (beekh-dah), corn ; grammatical rule. The following examples, generally cited as

poetical licences, which are, strictly speaking, exceptions to piano (peeáh-no), even, slow. ie, as in lieto (leeê-to), cheerful ; bieco (bee8-ko), squinting; have already observed, the poets use them in the middle of a

triphthongs, are spelt like words of two syllables, though, as I priego (precê-go), request, prayer.

verse like words of one syllable; and this is reason enough why io, as in fiore (feeó-rai), flower ; piove (peeô-vai), it rains; they should not be considered triphthongs, i.e., coalitions of

brioso (bree-6-so), lively; chioma (kee8-mah), head of three vowels forming one sound and one syllable; as, miei hair.

(meee-ee), my (pl.); tuoi (tooô-ee), thy (pl.); suoi (s009-ee), his iu, as in piu (peeoo), more ; fiume (feeóo-mai), a river ; (pl.); guai (gwáh-ee), wailings; buoi (bobô-ee), oxen; vuoi (vood-ee), schiuma (skeeóo-mah), foam, scum.

thou wilt ; puoi (pooô-ee), thou canst; oppiuolo (ahp-pee-008-lo), ua, as in guasto (gwáh-sto), destraction ; quà (kwah), here, a kind of apple tree; cedriuolo (tchai-uree-ooô-lo), a cucumber ; hither; quale (kwah-lai), who. mariuolo (mah-ree-ooô-lo), a sharper ; vetriulo (vai-tree-ooô-lo)

, . ue, as in guerra (gwêrr-rah), war; Guelfo (gwêl-fo), a vitriol.

Guelph; questo (kwái-sto), this. ui, as in guisa (gwée-zah), guise, manner; Guido (gwée-do), commented on as they occur.

Examples of the so-called quadriphthongs will be given and Gay; qui (kwee), here. uo, as in cuore (kooð-rai), heart; suono (sooð-no), sound;

THIRD PRONOUNCING TABLE. uomo (ood-mo), man.

Showing Words with Vowels in Coalition. Separated diphthongs are, for example :-

1. Words the same with regard to their letters, but different ae, as in aere (áhai-rai), air, gas; aerimante (ahai-ree-máhn- with regard to their syllables :tai), one who predicts by the air, or by aeromancy,

Italian.
Pronounced

English, ai, as in laido (láhee-do), ugly; maisi (mahee-sée), yes, in Balia

báh-leeah

Nurse.
deed.

Balia
bah-lée-ah

Power, dominion ao, as in Paolo (páho-lo), Paul.

Balio
báh-leeo

A tutor, foster father. au, as in aura (áhoo-rah), a soft breeze ; lauro (láhoo-ro),

Balio
bah-lée-o

Bailiff, steward, president.

Bacio laurel ; fraude (fráhoo-dai), deceit; fauno (fáhoo-no),

báh-tcho*

A kiss, I kiss. fawn; causa (káhoo-zah), a cause (at law), affair.

bah-tchée-o

A northern aspect. Bugia

bóo-jah I have classed au as a separated diphthong where the first

He bores a hole, he lies, Bugia boo-jée-ah

A lie. vowel is the ruling sound. There are, however, words contain Empia

em-peeah

Impious. ing that diphthong, in which u, the second, is the ruling sound : Empia (for empiva) em-pée-ah

He filled. thus, paura (pahóo-rah), fear; baule (bahóo-lai), portmanteau ; Liscia

lee shee-ah

A polished stone. Sauble (sahóo-lai), Saul. But ever in this class of words a and Liscia

lée-shah

Smootb, sleek. u must be distinctly heard; a, as the first of the vowels, cannot

Viola
veeô-lah

Violet. be glided over rapidly and absorbed by the u, as would be the

Viola
vée-o-lah

He violates. case if a united diphthong. The diphthong au must, therefore, 2. Words nearly the same as respects letters, but different always be classed among the separated diphthongs.

with regard to syllables :eo, as in Eolo (@o-lo), Eolus.

Sofia
sóf-feeah

He blows. eu, as in Europa (aioo-rô-pah), Europe ; feudo (fêoo-do), a Sofia

so-fée-ah

Sophia, a woman's name. feud or feoff ; Seleuco (sai-lêoo-ko), Seleucus.

Malvagio
mahl-váh-jo

Wicked.
The vowel i before any other vowel, and the vowel u before

Malvagia

mahl-vah-gée-ah Malmsey wine.

Primizia 0, as they occur in the united diphthongs, make in the pronuncia

pree-inée-tsee-ah Firstlings of fruit or

• animals in sacrifice. tion of Italian precisely the same impression as a grave or dia Primaria

pree-mah-tsée-ah Primacy. tonic note in music, slightly but distinctly touched, to glide Erbaria

er-bah-rée-ah Vegetable market. over to the second ruling vowel. They are very easy transitions, Erbario

er-báh-reeo

Herbal, and carry with them a particular charm, giving to the sound a certain roundness and fulness, thus contributing greatly, by the frequency of the diphthongs in which they occur, to the pate the use of some combinations

I have not yet ex lained, but which

For the sake of adhering to system, I am obliged here to antici musical character of the Italian tongue. It must be noted that there are vowels which come together scia, etc.

will be fully explained in the next lesson; as, for example, cio, gia,

Bacio

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