ページの画像
PDF
ePub

9

1

1

EXAMPLE 8.-If the par of exchange, calculated from the per cent. of lead, which is sold at £18 per ton; how many dishes of comparison of the silver coinage of England and France, be 25 ore must be smelted to yield lead worth £150 ? francs, find the price of English standard silver.

16. A block of stone, containing 60 cub. ft., weighs 16. feet to the

ton; what is the value, at 5s. 6d. per cub. foot, of another block of the 1 kilogramme of French standard silver, is fine, is coined into 200 francs. same weight, which weighs 14 cub. ft. to the ton? English standard silver is A fine.

17. A merchant sells 400 yards, which cost 15s., at a gain of 10 per 1 oz. English standard silver.

cent. ; how much French wine could he purchase with the money, at 10 fr. 20 c. per gallon, exchange being 25 fr. 30 c. ?

18. What would paper cost, at 18, 30. per quire, recessary to print

500 copies of a work, in 12 volumes duodecimo, each volume contain. 37 oz. fine silver.

ing 230 pages ?

19. Find the number of grains of pure gold in a French napoleon

s fine, having given that 155 are coined out of 1 kilogramme (2-2 10 oz. French standard.

pounds avoirdupois).

20. If an imperial gallon contains 277-274 cubic inches, and 6 wine gallons are equal to 5 imperial gallons, and 59 ale gallons to 72

wine gallons, find how many cubic inches there are in an ale gallon. 480 grains.

21. In Bremen, 5 schwaren = 1 grote, 72 grotes = 1 rix-dollar; if the exchange is 6 dollars 13 grotes for £1, find the value of a dollar in

English money.
15432
1 kilogramme.

22. In China, 1 tael = 10 mace = 100 candareens = 1000 cash; a tael being 6s. 8d., find the equivalent of €15 7s, 6d. in Chinese currency.

23. In India, 5 tolas = 1 chittak, 16 chittak = 1 seer, 40 seers = 1 200 francs.

maund = 180 pounds Troy ; find in avoirdupois weight the equivalent of 2 maunds 25 seers 12 chittaks 3 tolas,

24. If 11.75 Dutch florips are given for 25 francs, 383 florins for

437 Hamburg marks, 68marks for 32 roubles, and 94 roubles for £15, 25 20 shillings.

find how many Dutch florins would be given for £1.

Answer.-58. 1 d. nearly. 25. Reduce 532 thalers 25 groschen to English currency, the exEXAMPLE 9.-Suppose the exchange between London and change being at 6th, 22} gros. (1 thaler = 30 gros.). Amsterdam to be 12 Aorins 15 cents. for £1; between Amster

26. Reduce £21 13s. 6d. to Prussian money, at the same rate. dam and Lisbon 8 florins for 3 mil-reis; between Lisbon and 20 cents, for £1.

27. Reduce £532 13s. 6d. to French money, at the rate of 25 francs Paris 18 reis for 1 franc. What is the arbitrated price between

28. Reduce £93 16s. to Austrian money, the exchange being 10 London and Paris ?

silver florins 2 kreutzers for £1. 1 pound sterling.

29. If Austrian silver is at 20 per cent. premium, find the equivalent of the same sum in Austrian paper.

[ocr errors]

30. If an American dollar weighs 412 grains % fine, and English 12.15 florins.

standard silver be is fine, find the par of exchange between London and America, English standard silver being 5s. 2d. an ounce.

31. 10 grammes of French standard gold fine are worth 31 francs.

Supposing an English sovereign, of which 1869 are coined out of a 8 3 mil-reis.

pound Troy, to be worth 25:17 francs, deduce the English weight corresponding to a kilogramme,

32. If English standard gold sells at 785. per ounce, and another 100 reis.

coinage is worth 72s., find the fineness of the latter.

33. Standard silver being at 58. 20. per ounce, and Spanish dollars being quoted at 58. 6d. per ounce, find the fineness of the latter.

34. 1 kilogramme of standard French gold & fine is coined into 155 18 1 franc.

napoleons. Into how many sovereigns could it be coined if it were Answer.—25 fr. 31 c. nearly. Hfine, each napoleon being 20 francs, and £1 being equivalent to EXERCISE 62.

25 francs ?

35. In Prussia, 14 thalers are coined from a Cologne mark of fine EXAMPLES TO BE WORKED BY THE CHAIN RULE.

silver, weighing 3609 grains ; find the par of exchange between London 1. A man spends £500 a year; how much does he spend a week ? avd Berlin, English standard silver being 5s. 2d. an ounce, 1 thaler = 2. Reduce £5 10s. 6 d. to farthings.

30 groschen, and 66 shillings being coined from a pound Troy of 8. The value of 83 bushels, at £1 49. a quarter.

standard silver. 4. A man travels a certain distance in 15 days, at the rate of 27 miles 36. If 20 Austrian florins are coined from a Cologne mark of fine a day; how long will he be in doing the journey if he travel 45 miles a silver, find the par of exchange, English standard silver being 58. 20.

5. A dealer barters tea, at 3s. 4d. a pound, for 3 cwt. 2 qrs. of sugar, 37. If 244 florins are coined from the Cologne mark of fine silver, at 7d. a pound; how much tea does he give?

calculate the par of exchange at the same rate for English silver. 6. A bar of gold, weighing 210 oz., sells for £3 168. an ounce; what 38. If 27 thalers are equal in value to 100 francs, and exchange is the value of 14 ingots, each weighing 4 lb. 7 oz. ?

between London and Berlin is 6 thalers 18 groschen, find the arbitrated 7. 14 yards cost 2 guineas; what must 176 yards be sold for to gain rate between London and Paris. 1.. 6d. per ell ?

39. 34 Hamburg marks (specie) are coined from the Cologne mark of 8. What is the value of a bill on St. Petersburg for 1836 roubles 10 fine silver ; calculate the par of exchange between London and Hamcopecks, exchange at 10d. per rouble? (1 rouble = 100 copecks.) burg. (1 mark = 16 schillings, 1 schilling = 12 pfennings.)

2. Find the relation between the French mètre and the Rhenish 40. Calculate the fæed numbers in each of the five preceding foot; the French mètre being 39.718 inches, and 37 English feet being questions. equal to 36 Rhenish feet.

41. If the exchange between London and Berlin be 6 thalers 221 10. How much sugar, at 8d. per lb., must be given for 20 cwt. of groschen for £1 sterling ; between Berlin and Paris 5 thalers 8 groschen tobacco, at £3 a cwt. ?

for 20 francs, what is the arbitrated rate between London and Paris ? 11. A ton of coals costs a guinea ; how many chaldrons (27) ewt.) 42. If the exchange between London and Paris be 25 francs 20 cents. can be bought for £50 ?

for £1 sterling ; between Paris and Amsterdam, 57 florins 20 cents, for 12. I shipped for America 70 hhds. whisky, and 22 cases Irish 120 francs; between Amsterdam and Lisbon, 3 mil-reis for 8 florins; find linen, each case containing 44 pieces; the whisky sold for 2} dollars the arbitrated rate between London and Lisbon. (100 reis = 1 mil-reis.) per gal., and the linen 41 dollars per piece; how many barrels of 43. When the exchange on Paris is 25.50 francs ; between Paris and flour, at 44 dollars per barrel, ought I to have received in return? Amsterdam, 45florins for 100 francs; and between Amsterdam and

13. A merchant sells in Bordeaux 2500 yards English printed goods, Lisbon, 320 reis for a florin; what is the arbitrated rate between London at the rate of 4 francs for 1yards; how many yards of French silk, and Lisbon ? at 6. 33. per yard, ought he to receive in exchange, exchange being at 44. Given the following quotations of exchange :Str. 50 c. for £11

London on Amsterdam 9 florins 98 cents. for £1 sterling. 14. 80 hhds, of porter are sent to India, and sold for 50 sicca rupees

Madrid. 47d. for 1 dollar. per hhd.; how much sagar, at £1 158. per cwt., can be bought with

Paris

25 francs 40 cents. for £1 sterling. the proceeds, supposing a rupee to be equal to 28. 6d. ?

Amsterdam on London 9 florins 90 cents, for £1 sterling. 15. A dish of lead ore weighs 60 lbs., and yields, when smelted, 80

Paris

7 florins 75 cents, for 20 francs.

an ounce.

[ocr errors]

5.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

1 này

mow

Amsterdam on Madrid. 1 florin 90 cents, for 1 dollar. spelling, followed by a comma (,) to separate it from the next word,
Paris on London, 25 francs 20 cents. for £1 sterling. as in the first line of Exercise 8.

Madrid. 5 francs 5 cents. for 1 dollar.
Amsterdam 7 florins 70 cents. for 20 francs.

EXERCISE 7.
Madrid on London. 4s, for 1 dollar.
Amsterdam . 1 florin 80 cents. for 1 dollar.

1.

hi Paris. 5 francs for 1 dollar. If London has a sum to receive in Madrid, find which of the follow.

2. V ing methods will be most advantageous : 1. Let London draw on Amsterdam, Amsterdam on Paris, and let Madrid remit to Paris.

3. 2. Let London draw on Paris, directing Paris to draw on

Amsterdam, and Madrid to remit to Amsterdam. 3. Let London draw on Madrid, and remit the bill to Paris to

4. be negotiated; and let the returns be made in a bill on

Amsterdam. 4. Let London draw on Amsterdam, Amsterdam on Paris, and

Paris on Madrid. 5. Let Madrid remit to Paris, Paris to Amsterdam, and Amsterdam to London.

6. 45. When in Paris standard gold is at 1 per mille premium, and the exchange on London is 25-30 francs, if standard gold in London be

7.

A reckoned at the Mint price of £3 178. 10$d. per ounce, find how much dearer pure gold is in Paris than in London.

8. LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-IV.

9. The pupil has now learned all the consonants of the phonographic alphabet, and the long vowels, and is prepared to write easy words,

10. such as are given in the three following Exercises. Let him read Exercise 6 throaghout, before writing it, pronouncing the shorthand letters of each word aloud. Then let him write the words in his Copy Book in horizontal lines, giving the words plenty of room, as in shorthand without assistance. Let the shorthand form be followed

The pupil should now be able to write the following simple words here displayed.

by the longhand spelling of the word, as in the first line. Pay no EXERCISE 6.

attention to letters that are not sounded; thus write "gnaw ” with toe Ttoo 1 the two letters n, aw; for "wrote” write the upward r, oh, t; etc.

EXERCISE 8.
2 tea
1.
may

1.
1. l-toe

, I too, .I eat, ). sce,)- so, ). say, I do. 3

2. alms, aunt, bath, calf, calve, lath, laugh, palm, path.
gnaw
know Y Y

3. ape, air, bale, bait, cage, eighth (€, 1, ), fade, gauge, gaol (j, e, .

4. knave, laid, late, made, name, page, rake, shame, tare, rail, lake. 4 low

lay
law

5. bee, cheap, deal, feed, geese, heap (upward h), jeer (downward r).

6. lead, meek, kneel (downward 1), pea, read, sea, tease (circle s). oat -1 ought

7. awl, aught, baulk (b, w, k), caw, fall, fought, gall, laud, nought. 8. ought, pall, Paul, raw, shawl (upward sh and upward 7), ball

. 6 ).

9. bore, boat, choke, coach, door, foam, goat, joke, load, mote. )

10. note, ope, poach, rote, shore, toll, tore, tome, vote, Pope, coat.

11. boot, chew, coo, food, loo (or lieu), sous (s, u), too (or two). 7 team

take
talk

12. show, shoe, foe, may, mow, nay, no, gnaw, lay, law, meal, deep.

13. reap, rope, wrote, keep, cape, mean, name, known, nose, feel. 8 meet

14. teem, take, tame, talk, meet, mate, moat, caught, coat, Kate

. moat mate

15. meek, make, came, cane, keen, comb, mere, mare, mole, coal.

16. peel, pale, pair, poor, peer, pole, pool, fear, feel, leaf, fame. 9 Kate

coat
keep
17. feet, fate, pate, peat, fought, cheek, choke, coach, teach, cheat.

SHORT VOWELS. 10 keel

call
coal

27. Besides the six long vowels already explained, there are in the

English language six short vowels, as heard in the words 11 meal

male
mole

pat, pet, pit ; not, nut, foot.

In producing these sounds the positions of the vocal organs are nearly 12 mcek make

the same as in uttering the long vowels in

palm, pate, peat; nought, note, food; 13 peel

pails
pool

the chief difference being, that the former vowels are mere rapidly
pronounced. The short vowels are represented by dots and strokes

written in the same places as for the long ones, but made lighter, to 14 feel

fail
fame
indicate their brief character ; thus,

3

5 8 peer poor

( ).

me

[ocr errors]

:5 eat

:

[ocr errors]

see

saw

SO

[ocr errors]

3.1.1

[ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors][merged small]

ă, ě, î;

o, ů,

1 . .. 1 -
rope
root A

as in am,
ell, ill,

on, up,

foot. In the following Exercise, the pupil is to decipher the shorthand Phonotypes: Aa, Ee, Ii,

Oo, WV, Uu. without the aid of a key. Let him pronounce the shorthand letters consecutively, and he will find that they make the sound of the word;

Aa, Ee, Ii, thus, in the first line “t, eh, k," take ; “t, eh, m," tame; 28. These short vowels should not be called-No. 1, "short eh;" t, ee, m,” teem. Write the shorthand form, and then the longhand | No. 2, “short ee;" No. 3, "short i, (eye),” etc.; bnt—No. 1,

15 pore

co;

16 reap

00,

WO,

U 1.

3

5

6

foot.

E)
} } ) <3

(y

S

]]

[ocr errors]

9

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

"short ak;No. 2, “short eh;" No. 3, "short ee," etc. But it These signs, like these for the simple vowels, are written heavy for is more convenient to affix the letter t to each of these short vowels, long vowels, and light for short ones. Yoo or ü, the most frequent and call them severally at, et, it, ot, pt, ut (read õõt). When placed in the y series of double letters, as mentioned above, is represented to a horizontal consonant the short vowels would be represented thus : in phonotypy by a single type, whether it be initial, medial, or final,

in a word ; thus "U n," as in “Urop, tồn, valy.” 1 2

31. The light forms of these letters may be joined to a consonant Y Iů 'oo.

to express w or y alone; thusas in at, et, on, up,

1 weed, 21 woke, é Wilson, 7 wail; 1 yet, youth. EXERCISE 9.

In the fourth example, > w, slightly varied, is joined to the upward I. Write into your Copy Book, as before

32. By prefixing w to the diphthong 7, the treble sound wī is heard, 1. 1 า 4:7 27

as in twice. It is represented by a small right angle, thus, 4 wi,

which may be written in Any place, with respect to a consonant; 2. . 7 7 7

thus, wife, k twice. 3. . 727 L

33. The shorthand signs for the diphthongs, and double and treble letters of the w and y series, are always written in the same direction;

that is, they do not accommodate themselves to the consonant to which 4.1 A A 1.

they may be written, as do the signs for the simple vowels aw, 0, 00. 5. \ 7 A AL

EXERCISE 12.

Write in the Phonographic Copy Book-6.

qualm, " wait, cl weed, 2 walk, 2 woke, I wooed. EXERCISE 10.

wag,

wind,

. Write in phonography, and in longhand, as in previous Exercises :

of Yates, I yet, year, - yawn, - yoke, ( youth. 1st light dot: cat, mat, fat, pat, rat, rag, tack, pack. 2nd met, net, bell, fell, get, pet, bet, let.

Write in shorthand and longhand3rd pit, fit, it, mit, krit, bit, mill, fill.

Quail, queen, quest (k, circle s, t, and put c under k, second 1st light dash: not, cot, got, rot, lot, rob, rock, lock.

place), inquest, request, wind, windy, window, want, wake, wakeful, 2nd cut, nut, rut, rub, sun, fun, but, bun.

walker, wound, yon, young, youngster. 3rd pull, full, foot, push, bush.

The full-sized consonant forms for w, y, and h, should be preferred DIPHTHONGS.

in the writing of words that contain no other consonant than w, y, 29. The double vowels heard in the words ice, owl, ay, boy, are or h; thus, we, ye, 9. hay. represented by small angular marks, thus

THE ASPIRATE, OR BREATHING, H. I, ice; ow, ^ owl; v, ay; 01,

34. The aspirate occurs in English only when preceding a vowel, Inow, and u are close diphthongs, accented on the second element;

or w, y, which are modifications of vowels. It is generally exand ai (yes), oi, are open diphthongs, accented on the first element: pressed by a small dot prefixed to the vowel sign; thus, Each is pronounced as one syllable. U, as in “due, tune,” is one of

o hail,

Y hole, *4 white. a series of diphthongs commencing with i or y, which will be introduced presently. They are phonotypically represented thus," #j, Fi,” When a consonant form for this letter is more convenient, it wee; "88, 88,"owl; “Uų, U4," due ; "ai," ay ; "oi,” boy. is written either 9 downward, or o upward, whichever will.

The signs for i, ou, may be written in any place, with respect to most easily join with the following letter ; asa consonant: ai and oi are written in the FIRST place.

? hay, & hoe, 2. hymn, ou honey, of holy. EXERCISE 11. Transcribe the following words, writing the longhand after the When the stroke h is written medially, that is, between two other shorthand :

consonants, it must be so joined that the upward h cannot be read as

sr, nor the downward h as sch; thus, inherit. L

T A al v
T

6

u, nl A1,

[ocr errors]

boy.

EXERCISE 13. hv ~) .) P r V

Write with the dot I

Had, half, handy, hang, hanged, happy, height, Hibernian, hide, Write in shorthand

hope, hung, hunger, hungry. 1. light, night, bite, side (circle s), aside (stroke s), allied, ride, tidy. Write with the downward h2. row, avow, vowed, cow, pound, round, allow, tower (downward r). 3. few, view, suit (circle s), sue (stroke s), revew, sinew, value, muse.

Ha! hay, hoe, high, hue, hack, ham, hatch, hawk, hock, hog, 4. boy, noise, annoy, alloy, void, avoid, soil, foil.

hook, hyssop.

Write with the upward hDOUBLE LETTERS OF THE W AND Y SERIES. 30. The letters w and y are unlike any other consonants. They are, the left, at the end of the upward h), hiss, harass (upward r), heap,

Habit, hall, halo (upward 1), hollow, house (tarn the circle s on in fact, consonants made from vowels ; w being a modification of oo, harp, hasp, hasty, heed, head, heady, hazy (stroke :)

, Hebe (h, 1, 0, 1), and y a modification of ee; as may be heard in pronouncing heinous, heinousness, herb, hero (upward r), hinge, hip, horizon, wah, weh, wee; waw, woh, woo

horrid.
yah, yeh, yee;

yar,
yoh, yoo.

By reading phonetic shorthand reading books, and by the exercise It has been found expedient to represent these letters (in addition to of a little thought as to the best shorthand combinations, the pupil the consonantal forms in the Phonographie Alphabet), in connection will insensibly acquire a knowledge of the best way to write a word with the succeeding vowel, by a single sign, having a vowel charac. containing h, whether with the dot (which, as it may be left out in ter; thus-

reportiug, is therefore generally employed in common words), or with wah cwaw yahun yaw

the downward or upward consonant sign. Couvenience in joining, weh c> woh yehun yoh

combined with lineality, must be the pupil's guide with respect to the wee cl> woo

| use of the upward and downward strokes for k.

yee u

- 100

READINGS IN FRENCH.—VI.

garçons et une fille ; ces enfants faisaient leur joie, leur bon

heur. Auguste avait (d) huit ans, Fanny sept, et le plus jeune, LE VIEUX ARBRE ET LE JARDINIER.

le petit Alfred, en avait quatre à peine. Tous les trois s'aimUn jardinier dans son jardin

aient entre eux avec une tendresse égale ; tout était commun, Avait un vieux arbre stérile;

peines, plaisirs. C'était un grand poirier qui jadis fut fertile ;

Lear promenade favorite était un petit vallon 10 situé à quelMais il avait vieilli ; (a) tel est notre destin !

ques pas de la maison de leur père. Là, un châtaignier d'une Le jardinier ingrat veut l'abattre un matin.3

grosseur prodigieuse étalait (e) son épais feuillage, et ils pouLe voilà qui prend (b) sa cognée ;

vaient, à l'ombre que projetaient ses rameaux, se livrer à leurs Au premier coup l'arbre lui dit:

jeux, sans avoir à redouter les rayons d'un soleil trop ardent. “Respecte mon grand âge, et souviens-toi (c) du fruit Un jour, qu'assis (s) au pied du châtaignier, Auguste et Fanny Que je t'ai donné chaque année.

tressaient, pour leur petit frère, des pattes avec des brins de La mort va me saisir, je n'ai plus qu'un instant ;

joncs qu'il allait cueillir tout joyeux, leurs oreilles furent tout à N'assassine pas un mourant

coup frappées par des hurlements plaintifs 13 qui paraissaient (9) Qui fut ton bienfaiteur." "Je te coupe avec peine," venir de la forêt. Bientôt après, en effet, ils aperçurent un Répond le jardinier; “mais j'ai besoin de bois.” 5

magnifique chien de Terre-Neuvel qui se dirigeait (h) vers eux Alors, gazouillant à la fois,

en se traînant avec peine. Chaque fois qu'il posait à terre une De rossignols une centaine

de ses pattes de devant, il poussait un cri de douleur. 15 Led S'écrie: "Épargne-le, nous n'avons plus que lui; enfants coururent (i) vers lui; le pauvre animal s'arrêta à leur Lorsque ta femme vient s'asseoir sous son ombrage, approche, les regarda d'un air piteux et caressant.16 Puis Nous la réjouissons par notre doux ramage ;?

tendant vers eux sa patte ensanglantée il semblait leur dire : Elle est seule souvent, nous charmons son ennui." (d) “Secourez-moi." 17 Le jardinier les chasse, et rit (e) de leur requête ; &

Les enfants le comprirent (). Fanny l'attira doucement au Il frappe un second coup. D'abeilles un essaim (7)

pied du châtaignier, 15 Auguste courut puiser de l'eau à la fonSort, aussitôt du tronc, ie en lui disant: "Arrête;

taine, 19 tandis qu'Alfred, tenant (k) à la main un roseau, chassait Ecoute-nous, homme inhumain : 11

les moustiques 20 qui venaient pour s'attacher à la plaie du Si tu nous laisses cet asile,

blessé. Une fois tous ces préparatifs achevés, Fanny soulera Chaque jour nous te donnerons

doucement la patte du chien, examina son mal et aperçut une Un miel délieieux dont tu peux (g) à la ville

grosse épine qui s'était enfoncée (1) entre les griffes.
Porter et vendre les rayons (h);
Cela te touche-t-il ?” “J'en pleure de tendresse, 12"

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.
Répond l'avare.jardinier :

1. À quelle époque cette histoire, 11. Quel arbre y trouvait-on ? "Eh! que ne dois-je () pas à ce pauvre poirier 13

commence-t-elle ?

12. Que faisaient un jour, Auguste Qui m'a nourri dans ma jeunesse ?

2. Qu'avaient fait plusieurs fa et Fanny au pied du châ

milles françaises ? Ma femme quelquefois vient () ouïr ces oiseaux 14

taignier?

3. Où un ancien négociant s'était- 13. Qu'entendirent-ils tout à coup? C'en est assez pour moi ; qu'ils (k) chantent en repos.

il établi?

14. Qu'aperçurent-ils ensuite ? Et vous qui daignerez angmenter mon aisance,

4. Que lui avait-on concédé ? 15. Que faisait le chien en posant Je veux pour vous de fleurs semer tout ce canton,” 15 5. Que possédait-il ?

à terre une de ses pattes de Cela dit, il s'en (1) va 16 sûr de sa récompense,

6. Quelle avait été la récompense devant ? Et laisse vivre le vieux tronc.

de l'industrie de M. Déram- 16. Que fit le chien à leur apComptez (m) sur la reconnaissance 17

bert?

proche ? Quand l'intérêt vous en répond. FLORIAN.

7. Quels changements remarquait-17. Que semblait-il lear dire ?

on dans ces terres naguère 18. Que fit alors Fanny? COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

sauvages ?

19. Où Auguste courut-il? 1. Qu'est-ce que le jardinier avait 10. Qu'arriva-t-il aussitôt ? 8. Combien d'enfants M. Déram. 20. Et Alfred, que faisait-il ? dans son jardin ? 11. Que dirent les abeilles au jar.

bert avait-il ?

21. Que vit (m) Fanny en exami2. Quelle espèce d'arbre était-ee? dinier?

9. Quel était leur âge?

nunt la patte du chien? 3. Quo voulait faire le jardinier?

12. Que

leur répondit notre 10. Quelle était leur promenade 4. Que lui dit l'arbre au premier homme?

favorite? coup de cognée ?

13. Qu'ajouta-t-il à l'égard du 5. Que lui répondit le jardinier! poirier? 6. Que lui dirent les rossignols? 14. Parla-t-il encore des oiseaux ?

(a) From faire.

| (9) From paraître. 7. Qu'ajoutèrent-ils en parlant de 15. Que promit-il aux abeilles ?

(b) Concédé, granted.

(h) Se dirigeait, came. sa femme ? 16. Que fit-il ensuite ? (c) From couvrir,

(i) From courir. 8. Le jardinier se laissa-t-il per- 17. Comment notre ami Florian (d) Avait huit ans, was eight years 0) From comprendre. suaier par les rossignols?

old. termine-t-il sa fable?

(le) From tenir. 9. Que fait-il encoro?

(e) Etalait, displayed.

(1) S'était enfoncée, had penetrated. (f) Assis, seated.

(m) From voir. (a) Vieilli, grown old.

(9) From pouvoir. b) Le voilà qui prend, he seizes ; (h) Rayons, combs.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. from prendre, (i) From devoir.

EXERCISE 110 (Vol. II., page 138). (c) From se souvenir. () From venir.

1. Pourquoi ne changez-vous pas d'habit? 2. Pour une très-bonne (d) Ennui, tediousness, woariness. (k) Qu'ils, let them. (6) From rire.

raison, parceque je n'en ai pas d'autre. 3. Votre père a-t-il change de (1) Va, from aller. D'abeilles un essaim. (This (m) From compter, to count, to demain. 5. Cet enfant a-t-il changé de conduite ? 6. Il a changé de

maison? 4. Non, Monsieur, mais nous avons intention de le faire is a poetical inversion.)

rely upon.

vie, il est très-bon maintenant. 7. Votre frère n'avait-il pas pour,

n'a-t-il pas changé de visage? 8. Il a changé de visage, mais il n'avait UN BIENFAIT N'EST JAMAIS PERDU.

pas peur. 9. N'avez-vous pas changé de chambre? 10. Je n'ai pas SECTION I.

changé de chambre, ma chambre est très-bonne. 11. Ne vous tarde Tandis que la Louisiane faisait (a) encore partie des colonies t-il pas d'être en France? 12. Il me tarde d'y être. 13. Mme, votre

mère ne tarde-t-elle trop ? 14. Elle tarde bien à venir. 15. Ayex. de la France, plusieurs familles françaises fondèrent des éta- vous changé la pièce de quarante francs ? 16. Je ne l'ai pas encore blissements dans ce beau pays. Sur la lisière d'une vaste changée. 17. Pourquoi ne l'avez-vous pas changée? 18. Parcequo forêt,» traversée par un des fleuves nombreux qui arrosent cette votre père n'a pas de monnaie. 19. Avez-vous la monnaie d'une guinée ! région, était allé s'établir un ancien négociant à qui on avait 20. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai que douze schellings. concédé (6) un vaste territoire à défricher. Possesseur de

EXERCISE 111 (Vol. II., page 138). moyens assez considérables, actif, laborieux, M. Dérambert s'était bientôt vu à la tête d'un domaine fort étendu. Ces

1. Is it necessary to have a passport to travel in France ? 2. It is terrains, naguère encore incultes et sauvages, se couvraient (c) passports to travel in England! 4. A passport is not needed in

necessary to have one. 3. Do the English provide themselves with maintenant de riches moissons de riz, de mais et de froment?

England. 5. Do you like travelling on railroads! 6. I would rather M. Dérambert avait une femme et trois jolis enfants, deux travel on railroads than on common roads. 7. Have you brought

NOTES.

NOTES.

12.

your master-keys? 8. I have no master-keys, I have only common

HYDROSTATICS.–VII. keys. 9. Did your brother come in a steamboat? 10. He came in a sailing-boat. 11. Have you a four-horse carriage ? 12. No, Sir, we LIFTING WHEEL-CHAIN PUMP-LIFTING PUMP-COMMON bare only a one-horse gig. 13. Has your brother built a steam-mill?

PUMP-FORCE PUMP-FIRE-ENGINE. 14. He has had two mills built, a wind-mill and a water-mill. 15. THE next machine for raising water which we shall notice is Has your companion engaged a fencing-master? 16. No, Sir, he has already a drawing-master and a dancing-master. 17. How many bed- the Lifting Wheel. This is an ordinary breast-wheel with the rooms have you? 18. We have two. 19. Have you a bottle of wine? floats inclined backwards; but instead of deriving motion from 90. No, Sir, but I have a wine bottle. 21. Do you see the owls? 22. the water, it is turned by machinery in the opposite direction, No, but I see the bats.

and thus raises the water into the channel above. It is, in EXERCISE 112 (Vol. II., page 139).

fact, a breast-wheel with the action reversed. In comparing

the merits of these different machines, we must consider which 1. M. votre père est-il en Angleterre? 2. Non, Monsieur, il est en of them causes least wasteful expenditure of power, and also France avec mon frère. 3. Ont-ils pris des passe-ports ? 4. Oui, which is the simplest and least liable to get out of order. As Monsieur, ils en ont pris deux. 5. Faut-il avoir un passe-port pour voyager en Amérique? 6. Non, Monsieur, mais il faut en avoir un a rule, too, the more complicated the machine, the greater is pour voyager en Italie. 7. Y a-t-il un bateau à vapeur de Calais à the loss from friction of the water against the sides, and from Douvres ? 8. Il y en a plusieurs. 9. Y a-t-il un chemin de fer de opposing currents. Now, in the lifting wheel just mentioned, Paris à Bruxelles ? 10. Il y en a un de Paris à Bruxelles, et un de there is a loss by leakage of the water between the floats and Paris à Tours. 11. M. votre frère a-t-il acheté un moulin à vent? the sides, and if a stone or piece of wood get in, there is a 12. Non, Monsieur, mais il a fait bâtir un moulin à vapeur. 13. Y danger of its injuring the wheel; still the machine is simple 3-t-beaucoup de moulins à vent en Amérique ? 14. Non, Monsieur, in construction, and where the water has not to be raised to any mais il y a beaucoup de moulins à eau et à vapeur. 15. Votre cousin great height, may be used with advantage. apprend-il le dessin ? 16. Il ne l'apprend pas, il ne peut trouver un maitre de dessin. 17. Le maître d'armes est-il dans la salle à manger ?

Another way of making this machine is to use an over-shot 18. Non, Monsieur, il est dans le salon. 19. Votre cousin est-il dans wheel instead of a breast-wheel. Openings are then made in 2 chambre à coucher? 20. Non, Monsieur, il est sorti. 21. Combien de

the inside of the cylinder, and chambres y a-t-il dans votre maison? 22. Cinq; une cuisine, une

troughs placed so that the salle à manger, un salon et deux chambres à coucher. 23. Y a-t-il des

buckets, when they are tilted chats-huants ici ? 24. Oui, Monsieur, et des chauves-souris aussi.

by the revolutions of the wheel, EXERCISE 113 (Vol. II., page 172).

empty their contents through

these openings. There are 1. Will you lead your children to school? 2. I will take them to school and to church.

usually two of these troughs, 3. Will the gardener bring vegetables to market? 4. He will bring some there. 5. Where will you take that

one above the other, for some horse ? 6. I will take it to the stable. 7. Will you feed it ? 8. I

of the water is emptied as soon will give it hay and oats. 9. Will you give it water? 10. I will

as the buckets are slightly intake it to the watering-place. 11. Will you pay what you owe ?

clined, and this flows into the Will you not walk? 13. I will take a walk this afternoon. 14. Will

lower one, while, if the buckets you take a walk or a ride? 15. I will take a ride, and my sister will

are well shaped, the greater take a drive. 16. Will you walk much in your journey to Paris ? 17.

portion remains in them till We will not walk at all. 18. Will you not call the pedlar? 19. I

they reach nearly the highest shall not call him. 20. Will you not buy that villa ? 21. We will buy it if we can. 22. Will it not freeze this night? 23. I do not

part of the wheel, where the believe it, it is too warm. 24. Will you not sow all the wheat which

second trough is placed. you harvest ? 25. I shall only sow a part of it, I shall sell the re

In digging out foundations mainder. 26. I will seal my letters and take them to the post-office.

for buildings, or in making EXERCISE 114 (Vol. II., page 172).

embankments to keep out 1. Le monsieur n'appellera-t-il pas ses enfants ?

water, it is frequently neces2. Il appellera ses enfants et ceux de sa soeur. 3. N'amènerez-vous pas vos enfants ? 4.

sary to employ a pump of Je ne puis les amener.

the 5. Ne voulez-vous pas vous promener à cheval

some kind to remove cette après-midi ? 6. Nous nous promènerons en voiture demain. 7.

water that accumulates, and Y'achèterez-vous pas les chevaux de mon père ? 8. Je ne les achèterai

thus keep the work dry; and pas, je n'ai pas d'argent. 9. N'appellerez-vous pas le colporteur ?

as toere is often a large 20. Je ne veux pas l'appeler, je ne veux rien acheter. 11. Paierez

amount of muddy water to be vous le tailleur ? 12. Je lui paierai mon habit. 13. Ne gèlera-t-il pas

removed, and many stones are demain ? 14. Il gèlera demain; il fait très-froid. 15. Ne sèmerez

present, it is desirable to have vous pas de l'avoine dans ce champ? 16. Je ne sèmerai pas d'avoine ;

a machine made without valves, j'y semerai du blé. 17. Mènerez-vous votre sour à l'école ? 18. Je

Fig. 33. l'y mènerai cette après-midi. 19. Ne mènerez-vous pas votre fils au

so as not to be liable to get marché ? 20. Je ne l'y mènerai pas. 21. Le jardinier ne mènera-t-il

out of repair; it should also pas son cheval à l'abreuvoir ? 22. I l'y mènera. 23. Donnerez- be capable of being easily moved, and set up again at a fresh vous de l'avoine à votre cheval ? 24.

Je lui donnerai du foin. 25. place. Now these requisites are best obtained by means of the Amènerez-vous votre fils ? 26. Je l'amènerai demain. 27. Amènera common chain pump, which is represented in the annexed t-il son cheval? 28. Il amènera son cheval et sa voiture. 29. Pour figure (Fig. 33). qnci portez-vous ce petit enfant ? 30. Il est trop malade pour marcher. Two wheels with arms radiating like spokes are procured. 31. M. votre frère vendra-t-il ses propriétés ? 32. Il n'en vendra One of these, B, is fixed beneath the surface of the water ; the qu'une partie. EXERCISE 115 (Vol. II., page 173).

other, A, is placed above the level to which it has to be pumped.

This latter is turned by an engine or any other motive power 1. Will you not come to see us tomorrow? 2. I shall go to see that is available. Round these wheels passes an endless chain, you, if the weather permits. 3. Will you not send for the physician, composed of bars of iron jointed together; to the middle of each tired, I will walk more slowly. 6. When you know his dwelling, of these joints of the chain a float-board is fixed. These are all shall you go to see him ? 7. I shall go and see him as soon as I made of the same size, so as to fit a vertical tube, which is know where he lives. 8. Shall you not see him to-day? 9. I shall placed with its lower end below the surface of the water, while see him this afternoon, 10. Will you be able to accompany us? at the upper end a spout is fixed, from which the water is conI shall do it with much pleasure. 12. Will you not send them straw. veyed away. berries? 18. I will send them some, when mine are ripe. 14. Will The wheel A is turned so that the floats ascend in the tube, it not be necessary to write to them soon ? 15. When we have heard and it will easily be seen that as each successive board enters from their relation, it will be necessary to write to them. 16. What it raises the quantity of water contained between it and the shall we do to-morrow? 17. We will go hunting. 18. Will you not board above. There is, of course, a considerable loss by leakage go to your father's? 19. We will certainly go. guitar is arrived, will you lend it? 21. I shall not be able to lend it. between the floats and the side of the tube, but practically this 2. At what hour shall you leave to-morrow? 23. I shall leave at is of little importance, and it diminishes with the speed at which five in the morning. 24. Will you not go out this evening ? 25. I the pump is worked. shall not go out, and I shall go to bed early.

Frequently the floats, instead of being fixed to the joints of

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

11.

« 前へ次へ »