the chain, as shown here, are hinged to one side, and thus fall allowed to descend by its own weight, the valve at the bottom flat when descending. The wheels A B may then be replaced by immediately closes, and the water is forced up the side pipe. ordinary flat sheaves.

When the piston again rises, the valve in this pipe closes, This pump can be made to work equally well if the tube be thereby preventing any reflux, and the cylinder fills as before. inclined instead of being vertical, and this adds to its usefulness, If two such pumps are fixed near together, the plungers being as it renders it more easily applied in many cases.

connected to opposite ends of a beam A strange modification of this is sometimes employed. Two turning on its centre, their weights wheels are fixed as before, but instead of an endless chain with will balance each other, and thus leave floats, a flat rope, loosely woven of wool or horse-hair, passes only the weight of the water to be overround them ; flannel is also sometimes used for the purpose. come by the power. In such a case

When this is driven rapidly it licks up, as it were, a large the pump may be worked by a man quantity of water which forms a layer on its surface half an walking from end to end of the beam; inch or more in thickness. When it reaches the upper wheel and as in this way his power is mainly this is thrown off by centrifugal force, but it may be removed employed in raising his own weight, a at any place by letting the rope pass between rollers. This large amount of work may be accompump has not come into general use, but a much larger amount plished, especially as, owing to the of water can be raised by means of it than would be supposed. simple construction of the machine, One of them might be seen in action a short time since at the there is little loss from friction. This London Polytechnic, where also are working models of several apparatus, then, though rude in conother hydraulic machines.

struction, is an economical mode of The only other machine of the first class which we shall ex-employing power, and answers its purplain now is the Lifting Pump. Care must be taken not to pose well. confound this with the common or suction-pump, the principle We will now consider the second on which it works being entirely different.

class of machines, or those which act The mouth of the tube in which the water is to be raised is by the pressure of the air, As we immersed some depth in the water, a valve opening upwards shall see when we come to treat of pneu

Fig. 35. being placed in it a little below the level of the water outside. matics, the air presses on all surfaces

A piston with a valve also opening with a pressure of about 15lbs. per square inch. This must at upwards is made to work the lower present be taken for granted, but will be fully explained shortly. part of this, and at each stroke forces By means of this pressure all the machines in this class work. some of the water up the tube, the Now of these the most important, because by far the most valve in which prevents its return. commonly used, is the ordinary suction-pump. The construction

Fig. 34 will make this more clear. and action of this will easily be understood by reference to A B represents the pipe in which the Fig. 36. F is the suction-pipe, which passes down into the water is to be raised, the valve being well from which the water is to be brought. This pipe is placed at c, a little below the sur- usually fitted with a grating, or else the end is closed, and a face. D is the piston with its valve; number of small openings bored near it, so that the water is and this is moved by the arrangement slightly strained, and stones and other bodies, which would inof pump-rods shown, the part B of the terfere with the action of the valves, are excluded. The barrel pipe being bent so as not to interfere D fits on to the end of the suction-pipe, a valve s opening upwith the motion of the rods. In the wards being inserted at the junction of the two. This valve figure the piston is supposed to be with its setting is known as the “lower box," and should be made rising; the water therefore opens the so that it can be taken out for repairs valve c and rises in B. When D has without disturbing the barrel. reached its highest point, c closes presents the plunger or upper box; this, from the weight of the water above too, is fitted with a flap valve, and is it, and while the piston descends, the fixed to the piston-rod, motion being pressure of the external water trying communicated to it by the handle,

to maintain its level opens the valve which is a bent lever of the first kind. Fig. 34,

in D and allows the tube again to When the pump is first set to work,

fill. Thus it will be seen that at all the parts are full of air, which has every stroke of the piston the quantity of water contained to be removed, and as the valves are between D when at its lowest point and c is raised in the pipe. not usually very accurately made, there In this pump there is obviously no limit to the height to which is sometimes a little difficulty in accomthe water can be raised other than the strength of the tube plishing this. A little water, however, and the power required. These of course increase with the poured into the barrel makes the valves height, for the power applied to the pump-handle has to support close more nearly air-tight. When the the weight of a column of water equal in area to the piston, and piston is raised, a partial vacuum is whose height is equal to that of the spout above the water in produced in F, the air pressin the well, and also that of the pump-rods.

water in the well forces it up into the This kind of pump is chiefly used where the depth from which tube to supply this. Thus at each the water has to be raised is too great to admit of the use of stroke some of the air is expelled, till the common or suction-pump. The main disadvantages attend at last the water rises so as to pass ing it, are the length, and therefore the weight, of the pump- through the valve into the barrel. The rods; and also the fact that the valves must be situated down pipe is then full of water, and remains the well, and below the surface of the water, and therefore are The valve, however, must not be difficult to get at when it is necessary to make any repairs or more than about thirty feet above the alterations.




on the


water in the well, or the water will not

F Sometimes this pump is constructed in a simpler way. A rise to it. When the water has thus large tube or cylinder is fixed vertically, and has at the bottom reached the lower box, it will at the

Fig. 36. a valve opening inwards through which the water enters. A next ascent of the piston rise and fill large and heavy planger hangs loosely in this cylinder ; at the the barrel of the pump; and as the collar, however, it is made to fit water-tight. The pipe in which piston is again depressed, the valve s will close, and the water the water is to be raised is also made to open into the lower will then open the valve in the plunger and rise above it. part of the cylinder, a valve being placed in it, as shown in Fig. This water is by the next rise of the piston brought to the 35, to prevent the return of the water. The plunger is sus- level of the spont, from which it issues, while at the same time pended by a chain, and when it is raised the water enters the a fresh supply of water rises into the barrel. Thus at each cylinder through the valve at the bottom. The piston is then stroke the quantity of water contained in the barrel between


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the two valves is raised and issues from the spout. It is clear the figure is supposed to be descending; the valve b at the upper that here, too, the weight of the whole column of water in the supply-pipe is therefore open, and the water is sucked up saction-pipe has to be supported by the power applied.

through it into the cylinder, at the same time the water under Pumps of this kind were employed long before it was known the piston is being driven up the lower on what principle they acted. The explanation then given was exit-pipe. When the motion of the that when the piston was raised a vacuum was created, and, piston is reversed, the other two valves since " Nature abhorred a vacuum,” the water rushed in to fill open, and the water enters by the lower it. This explanation satisfied people for some time, but one day supply-pipe, and escapes by the upper some men were fixing a pump in an unusually deep well, and exit. A constant flow is thus produced; found to their surprise that they could not raise the water above a further advantage of this is that the thirty or thirty-two feet. Having tried in vain to solve the pressure is the same on the piston-rod difficulty, they consulted Galileo, the most celebrated philosopher whichever way it is moving. of the day, who replied that "Nature only abhorred a vacuum The well-known fire-engine is merely to the height of thirty-two feet.” This explanation, however, a combination of two single-action did not satisfy one of his pupils, named Torricelli; so he, and force-pumps. These are made of a afterwards Pascal, tried various experiments with different large diameter, and force the water into liquids in the place of water, and at length hit on the correct a strong air-chamber, from which the explanation—that it was the pressure of the external air which hose to convey the water to the fire caused the liquid to rise in the pump, and that therefore it would issues. A lever is supported by its only rise till its pressure was such as to balance that of the air. centre point just above the machine, This height is found to vary between thirty and thirty-four feet. and the cross poles by which the fire

We see then that though this pump is generally used, it will men work the engine are fastened to not answer when the water has to be raised more than thirty the end of this, the piston-rods being

Fig. 38. feet, nor will it raise it above its own level. In cases, therefore, attached about the middle of each arm. where these are required, a different kind, known as the Force Hence, since several men work at each Pamp, is employed (Fig. 37). This machine is usually placed some side, and there is a gain from the leverdistance above the level of the water, which is first raised in it on age, the water is driven with great force, and can be thrown to

the principle of the ordinary pump, and a considerable height. The air-chamber is made very strong,
then forced to the required elevation and of large dimensions, so that the stream of water flows at
The annexed illustration will explain a constant rate ; and though the pumps are only single-action,
its construction. The suction-pipe and yet as one piston is rising while the other is falling the motion
barrel are constructed in exactly the is nearly uniform.
same way as in the common pump; the In mining operations pumps have to be employed on a very
plunger, however, instead of having a large scale. The water finds its way through the cracks and
valve in it, is made solid; and, instead crevices, and would soon entirely food the mine were not large
of the spout for the water to issue from, and powerful pumps erected. In some
a pipe leads from the lower part of the cases the weight of water raised is as
barrel to a reservoir or air-chamber, c. much as twenty times that of the coal.
A valve, B, oloses the opening of this, The depth, too, is usually very great, and
and another pipe, D, passes into the thus it is quite impracticable to raise the
reservoir, its mouth being rather below water at one lift, for the pressure on the
the middle ; up this pipe the water is pipes would be so great as to burst them.
forced. We will suppose the barrel to A number of small cisterns are therefore

be full of water, and the piston just placed at about equal distances above Fig. 37.

beginning to descend. The valve a one another. From each of these the
closes at once, and the water, having water is raised by a force-pump with a
no other escape, passes through the solid plunger to the one above. All

valve B into the reservoir c. The air these plungers are fixed to one pumpwhich fills the part of this above the mouth of the pipe acts as a rod, which passes from the top to the spring, and checks the flow, but.by its reaction forces the water bottom of the mine, usually in a part of up the pipe D. When the piston again rises, B closes, and a the shaft separated for the purpose. A fresh supply of water enters through A, and the same process is powerful engine at the top lifts this rod repeated at each stroke.

with all the plungers, and they fall by

B This pump is very similar in construction to the lifting pump their own weight. The plans pursued before described, only it is placed above the water, thereby are, however, very various, and depend saving the weight of the rods, and it acts partly by suction. very much upon the nature of the mine When made in this way, the greatest strain—if the water has and the special peculiarities of the case. to be raised to any great height—is when the handle is being Sometimes, when the mine is sunk on the raised. This is rather a disadvantage, and to remedy it the side of a hill, the water can be discharged top of the barrel is sometimes closed, the pump-rod being made by a side channel some way below the to work through a collar, which is packed to prevent the escape mouth, and where there is a stream of of the water. A valve is then placed in the piston, and the water at the mouth of the pit this is pipe leading to the air-chamber proceeds from the upper instead made to pass down a pipe to the level of from the lower part of the barrel. The water in this way of the side channel, and there by its rises above the piston, and when the latter is raised, is forced pressure to raise the water from the into the chamber, and thus up the pipe D.

bottom. The action of this apparatus In either of these modes of construction the water is only is very ingenious, but it can rarely be raised while the piston is moving in one direction. A reference applied, and need not, therefore, be exto the figure will show that when the piston is rising it draws plained here. up the water into the barrel, and when it descends it forces it There is one other apparatus, known

Fig. 39. into the reservoir. A plan has, however, been devised by which' as Hero's Fountain, which raises water both these processes may be carried on simultaneously, and by the compression of the air. This is represented in Fig. 39. thus a constant stream of water be produced. A branch of the The tray at the top is filled with water, which rushes down the supply-pipe, A (Fig. 38), enters the lower part of the cylinder at a, pipe B, and thus compresses the air in the lower vessel, N; this and another branch enters the upper part at b; in the same way compressed air escapes by the pipe a, and pressing on the liquid branches of the exit-pipe, B, communicate with the upper and in the upper reservoir, m, causes it to issue from the jet. This lower parts of the cylinder at c and d. These openings are closed apparatus ceases to act as soon as the lower reservoir is filled, by valves which all open to the right. The piston is solid, and in and the water must then be drawn off by the tap seen under n.




LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-V. in words, but are, nevertheless, not diphthongs; as, for example,

coagulare (ko-ah-goo-láh-rai), to coagulate; coerente (ko-ai-rén. IV.-THE DIPHTHONGS. I HAVE now to speak of the diphthongs; but before entering tai), coherent; caos (káh-os), chaos;

coincidere (ko-in-tchée-dai-rai), into details I may remark that these letters differ materially em-pecai-rai), to satisfy, fill; reale (rai-áh-lai), royal, real

, loyal


coincide ; raunare (rah-oo-náh-rai), to assemble ; dempiere (ahfrom the English, inasmuch as the two vowels forming a diph- riunire (ree-oo-née-rai), to reunite ; viola (vée-o-lah), he violates ; thong do not entirely merge into one sound, but are in Italian viottolo (vee-ot-to-lo), narrow passage or way, roundabout way; more or less distinctly heard, though only pronounced by one Dione (dee-6-nai), Dion ; Tiziano

(tee-tsee-áh-no), Titian ; Teodoro opening of the mouth, and with one emission of the air or voice, which gives them the value of one sound. This broad and (tai-o-do-ro), Theodore ; riesco (rée-ê-sko), I succeed ; reato (raigeneral characteristic, however, prevails among all Italian diph- áh-to), guilt or sin ; paese (pah-ái-zai), country ; reina


. thongs, that there must be a ruling sound, requiring a greater nah), queen; leone (lai-6-nai), lion ; mansueto (mahn-soo-e-to), stress of the voice and more distinctness of utterance, which

tame, gentle, mild. ruling sound is at one time on the first, at another on the second

The reader will have remarked that I have, in the above er. of the two vowels. In those diphthongs where the second of the amples, separated the two vowels which come together

into syltwo vowels is the ruling sound, the voice glides more rapidly lables, thereby showing that they are not diphthongs,

though from the first vowel to the second, and is

, as it were, absorbed they may appear to be such. Indeed, if those sounds se e diph. by it. The second is on that account heard with greater dis- thongs, it is obvious that they could not be used as separate tinctness, and such diphthongs present more of a united sound; syllables, as they must in Italian spelling, though the poets, by while in those diphthongs where the first of the two vowels is the their special licence, generally use them as one

syllable. ruling sound, the second is somewhat more distinctly heard tion of three and sometimes four vowels in the Italian language,

Some grammarians are of opinion that in cases of the coalithan the first vowel of those diphthongs, which approach to a those vowels form one syllable uttered with one and the same united sound, though shortly and quickly trailed along, as it emission of the voice ; and they term the coalition of three were, by the first.

The second kind or class may be termed, on this account, the vowels a triphthong, and the coalition of four a quadriphthong, if separated diphthongs; the first class the united diphthongs-though I may so express it

. They have been, perhaps, led into that I must caution the reader not to understand these words

in their belief by the example of the poets, who in the middle of a verse strictly literal sense ; because, as stated before, in all Italian use the triphthongs like one syllable. It is certainly allowable diphthongs the two vowels are more or less distinctly heard.

for Italian poets to count two or three syllables, being mere United diphthongs are, for example :

vowels, as one ; but it would be strange to found grammar on ia, as in fiato (feeáh-to), breath ; biada (beekh-dah), corn ; grammatical rule. The following examples, generally cited as

poetical licences, which are, strictly speaking, exceptions to piano (peeáh-no), even, slow. ie, as in lieto (leeê-to), cheerful ; bieco (bee8-ko), squinting; have already observed, the poets use them in the middle of a

triphthongs, are spelt like words of two syllables, though, as I priego (precê-go), request, prayer.

verse like words of one syllable; and this is reason enough why io, as in fiore (feeó-rai), flower ; piove (peeô-vai), it rains; they should not be considered triphthongs, i.e., coalitions of

brioso (bree-6-so), lively; chioma (kee8-mah), head of three vowels forming one sound and one syllable; as, miei hair.

(meee-ee), my (pl.); tuoi (tooô-ee), thy (pl.); suoi (s009-ee), his iu, as in piu (peeoo), more ; fiume (feeóo-mai), a river ; (pl.); guai (gwáh-ee), wailings; buoi (bobô-ee), oxen; vuoi (vood-ee), schiuma (skeeóo-mah), foam, scum.

thou wilt ; puoi (pooô-ee), thou canst; oppiuolo (ahp-pee-008-lo), ua, as in guasto (gwáh-sto), destraction ; quà (kwah), here, a kind of apple tree; cedriuolo (tchai-uree-ooô-lo), a cucumber ; hither; quale (kwah-lai), who. mariuolo (mah-ree-ooô-lo), a sharper ; vetriulo (vai-tree-ooô-lo)

, . ue, as in guerra (gwêrr-rah), war; Guelfo (gwêl-fo), a vitriol.

Guelph; questo (kwái-sto), this. ui, as in guisa (gwée-zah), guise, manner; Guido (gwée-do), commented on as they occur.

Examples of the so-called quadriphthongs will be given and Gay; qui (kwee), here. uo, as in cuore (kooð-rai), heart; suono (sooð-no), sound;

THIRD PRONOUNCING TABLE. uomo (ood-mo), man.

Showing Words with Vowels in Coalition. Separated diphthongs are, for example :-

1. Words the same with regard to their letters, but different ae, as in aere (áhai-rai), air, gas; aerimante (ahai-ree-máhn- with regard to their syllables :tai), one who predicts by the air, or by aeromancy,


English, ai, as in laido (láhee-do), ugly; maisi (mahee-sée), yes, in Balia




Power, dominion ao, as in Paolo (páho-lo), Paul.


A tutor, foster father. au, as in aura (áhoo-rah), a soft breeze ; lauro (láhoo-ro),


Bailiff, steward, president.

Bacio laurel ; fraude (fráhoo-dai), deceit; fauno (fáhoo-no),


A kiss, I kiss. fawn; causa (káhoo-zah), a cause (at law), affair.


A northern aspect. Bugia

bóo-jah I have classed au as a separated diphthong where the first

He bores a hole, he lies, Bugia boo-jée-ah

A lie. vowel is the ruling sound. There are, however, words contain Empia


Impious. ing that diphthong, in which u, the second, is the ruling sound : Empia (for empiva) em-pée-ah

He filled. thus, paura (pahóo-rah), fear; baule (bahóo-lai), portmanteau ; Liscia

lee shee-ah

A polished stone. Sauble (sahóo-lai), Saul. But ever in this class of words a and Liscia


Smootb, sleek. u must be distinctly heard; a, as the first of the vowels, cannot


Violet. be glided over rapidly and absorbed by the u, as would be the


He violates. case if a united diphthong. The diphthong au must, therefore, 2. Words nearly the same as respects letters, but different always be classed among the separated diphthongs.

with regard to syllables :eo, as in Eolo (@o-lo), Eolus.


He blows. eu, as in Europa (aioo-rô-pah), Europe ; feudo (fêoo-do), a Sofia


Sophia, a woman's name. feud or feoff ; Seleuco (sai-lêoo-ko), Seleucus.


The vowel i before any other vowel, and the vowel u before


mahl-vah-gée-ah Malmsey wine.

Primizia 0, as they occur in the united diphthongs, make in the pronuncia

pree-inée-tsee-ah Firstlings of fruit or

• animals in sacrifice. tion of Italian precisely the same impression as a grave or dia Primaria

pree-mah-tsée-ah Primacy. tonic note in music, slightly but distinctly touched, to glide Erbaria

er-bah-rée-ah Vegetable market. over to the second ruling vowel. They are very easy transitions, Erbario


Herbal, and carry with them a particular charm, giving to the sound a certain roundness and fulness, thus contributing greatly, by the frequency of the diphthongs in which they occur, to the pate the use of some combinations

I have not yet ex lained, but which

For the sake of adhering to system, I am obliged here to antici musical character of the Italian tongue. It must be noted that there are vowels which come together scia, etc.

will be fully explained in the next lesson; as, for example, cio, gia,




3. General exercises in diphthongs :


Air, gas.

PROBLEM XXIV. (Fig. 45).-Draw the perspective view of a

flight of three steps, each 4 feet long, 1 foot wide, and 9 inches Caine kah-ée-no Cain.

high; their front making an angle of 40° with the picture plane, Traino tráhee-no

The trot of borses. The distance of the eye of the observer from the picture plane is Traino trah-ée-no Sledge.

6 feet, from the plane to the nearest point of the object 1 foot. Linea lée-nai-ah A line.

The height of the eye 4.5 feet. Scale at pleasure. Idea ee-de-ah

Idea. Idee

From a in the picture plane, draw the line a b, at 40° with ee-de-ai


From c, 1 foot within the PP, make e b equal to the length

of the steps, and c d equal to the width of the three steps Omsi 0-me-ee Woes, sorrows.

divided in e and f. The heights to be marked presently on the Leone lai-ó-nai Lion.

line of contact. There will be no difficulty in drawing the rest Euro éco-ro East wind.

of the plan. Place the station point sp, draw the base of Creusa krui-óo-zah Creusa, a woman's name.

the picture, and the il three feet and a half above the base, Biada beeáh-dah Corn.

and find the vanishing point. Bring down visual rays from Diana dee-áh-nal

Diana. Cielo tohe-lo

Heaven, horizon, the air. the ends of the steps at both extremities of the plan. Produce lee-e-to Cheerful.

dc to h, and gb to k for points of contact, and bring them Paolo páho-lo Paul.

down perpendicularly for lines of contact. From the base i on Faunio fáhoo-no Fawn.

ih mark the heights of the three steps one above the other, Paura pah-oo-rah Fear.

and also from m, on m k, numbered on both lines 1, 2, 3, and I have stated that au is, strictly speaking, a diphthong; but from each of these divisions draw retiring lines to the VP, principally in those words where the accent of tone falls on the which, being cut by the visual rays, will give the respective second of the vowels that compose it. It makes in its pro- points upon which to draw the ends of the steps, marked again minciation the impression as if it were no diphthong at all, C, e, f, and d; their fronts and edges extend between the corbecanse each of the vowels is distinctly separated in pronuncia- responding visual rays drawn from the g b end of the plan. tion. On that account, I have ventured to place it amongst

PROBLEM. XXV. (Fig. 46).-A rectangular block of masonry these words, with vowels in coalition, that are not diphthongs. 24 feet long, 20 feet high, and 16 feet broad, is pierced by an arch Gioce jo-vai Jové, Jupiter.

springing at a height of 10 feet, and of semi-circular form, with a Dio déeGod.

span of 12 feet. Let the point of view be on one side of its centre. Giuda jóo-dah Judas.

Distance within the picture plane 2 feet. Height of eye 8 feet. Lixto lee-oo-to Lute.

Station point from the picture plane 26 feet. Scale 5 feet to the be Oee-bô Fie!

inch. Anni ahn-no-ee Thou annoyest.

We will first draw the perspective view of the arch when kwáh-zee Almost, as it were.

the front is parallel with the picture plane. If the pupil has Duale doo-ah-lai

Quiet, calm.

not a scale of inches divided into fifths, he can easily construct Duello doo-el-lo Duel, fray.

one in this manner :-Draw a line, say 6 inches long, to Fluido flooee-do Fluid.

represent 30 feet, and divide it into three equal parts; divide Luigi 100-ée-jee Lewis.

the first division into ten parts, which will represent single Luogo loo-6-go

Space, spot, locality. feet, and the main divisions will represent tens of feet. FOURTH PRONOUNCING TABLE.

Number it similarly to the scales given in Lesson I., Vol. II., For Additional Exercise in the Vowels,

Draw the PP, and two feet beyond, and parallel with it, draw 1. Words that contain a, e, i, o, or repeated u:

the line a b equal to 24 feet; a c 6 feet, and c d 12 feet. Italian. Pronounced.


Draw a e equal to 16 feet, and complete the rest of the plan as Calafatata kah-lah-fah-táhtah Calked.

shown in the figure. Place the point f a little to the right of Abbacinata ahb-bah-tchee-náh-tah Dazzled.

the centre, and draw the line f SP, making 9 SP equal to 26 Accanalata ahk-kah-nah-láb-tah Channelled (column). feet. Draw the line BP (base of the picture) anywhere below Salamandra sah-lah-máhn-drah Salamander.

the PP, allowing sufficient room for the elevation between the Abbraciara ahb-brah-tcháh-vah I kindled.

base of the picture and the plan above, also the horizontal line Caualcara knh-vahl-káh-vah I rode. Persevererete

8 feet from BP. Draw visual rays from a, c, d, b, h, i, and per-sai-vai-rai-rai-tai You will persevere.

bring them down perpendicularly from the PP. Draw a k perDependentemente dai-pen-den-tai-mén-tai Dependently. Pretenderete prai-ten-dai-rai-tai You will pretend.

pendicularly to the Pp, for the line of contact or measuring line Eccellentemento et-tchel-len-tai-mén-tni Excellently.

for the heights; mark the Ps (point of sight) and draw km from k Insipidissimi in-see-pee-dis-see-mee Most insipid.

towards Ps, stopping at the ve from a. Draw m n parallel Vicinissimi vee-tchee-nís-see-mee Very near or vicinal. to BP, which will be the perspective front of the base of the Inimiciasimi ee-nee-mee-tchís-see-mee Very hostile or inimical. building. The visual rays from c and d will determine the Mirifici mee-rée-fee-tchee Wonderful, miraculous. width of the arch o p. Make the distance k r for the height Distintissimi dee-stin-tís-see-mee Very clenr or distinct.

equal to 20 feet. Draw rs from r as was done from k, and draw Difficilissimi dif-fee-tchee-lis-see-mee Very difficult.

st for the top of the building. At u, ten feet from k, draw Odoroso 0-do-ro-so

Fragraut, odorous. Doloroso do-lo-ró-so

Painful, dolorous.

u y towards the Ps, and also y v w; bisect v w; from * as a Pomocologno* po-mo-ko-tón-nyo Quince.

centre being brought down from 9, draw the semicircle v w; Tumultuo too-móol-too-o

I excite a tumult. the front of the building will then be completed. For the Usufruttuo 00-200-froot-too-o I have temporary use of. other end of the arch which spans h i of the plan, draw lines 2. Words comprising five vowels :

vl, w z, from v and w to Ps, meeting the visual rays from h Affettuosi ahf-fet-too-ó-si

Kind, affectionate.

and i in l and %; join 1 and %, and either bisect it, or draw a Communicare kom-moo-nec-káh-rai To communicate.

line from * to Ps, which, cutting 1%, will give the centre point Delicatuzzo dai-lee-kah-tóo-tso Orer-refined, delicate. from which the interior or further end of the arch must be Entusiasmo en-too-zee-áh-zmo Enthusiasm.

drawn with a radius from the centre to l or %. For the base Felmiratore fool-mee-nah-tó-rai Ouo who fulminates. of the interior of the archway draw lines from and P, Lasingheranno loo-zip-gai-ráhn-no They will flatter.

towards Ps, cutting the visual rays from h and i ; join theso Procuratrice pro-koo-rah-trée-tchai A solicitor's wife.

points by a line parallel to BP; this will complete the perRepublicano rai-poo-blee-káh-no Republican. Salaberrimo sah-loo-bêrr-ree-mo Very whc'esome.

spective elevation. Speculatori spai-koo-lah-tó-roo Thinkors, 5n9c:latcrs.

Fig. 47.-We will now draw the same subject at an angle with Sabortirara 800-bor-doc-náh-rai To subordinate.

our position. Let the angle of the front of the building be 24° Experia yo £00-per-lah-téc-vo H ghost, s merlativo. with thạ PP. The other conditions as before.

Draw a b at an angle of 24° with PP, and complete the plan The sound of the gn will be explained in another lesson. upon a b, as in the last figure. We will use one vp, as in Figs.

page 161.

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