40, 41, 45, and some others. We trust, after all that has been

LESSONS IN GREEK.-XVIII. said upon the method of drawing an object with the use of one

ADVERBS AND THEIR FORMATION. VP, the pupil will have no difficulty in first drawing the perspective of the block. The principal difficulty will be with the UNDER the name of adverbs we indicate those indeclinable arch, to draw which we shall have to repeat the same principles words which denote the relations of time and place, or the which were employed for the circle on the board (Problem XX., relations of way and manner; as ekel, there ; vuv, now; Kanws, Fig. 40, page 140); therefore, in order to get the necessary points well., through which the arch is to be drawn by hand, we must rabat Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives, by affixing the semicircle. From c as a centre draw the are fh g; draw ws to the pure stem of the adjective. As a practical rule, you dh e parallel to fg, and the semi-diagonals c d and ce may take thisthrough the points where these last lines intersect the arc : The termination -w of the Genitive Plural of the Adjective is draw lines parallel to f d to meet the front of the plan of the changed into ws; for example :building in i and k; visual rays must be drawn from g, k, c, i, f.

Adjective. Genitive Plural. Adverb. From the spring of the arch marked on the line of contact at m, make m n equal to fd; the visual ray from c the centre will

pilos, loving,

φιλων, Paws, lovingly. produce the points o and p; draw the semi-diagonals p r and

kalos, beautiful,

καλων, , Kalws, beautifully.

aalows, simple, ps; where these last lines intersect the visual rays from i and

απλών, , ánlâs, simply. k, will give the points through which the arch to u must be tras, all


παντων, TAVTws, altogether. drawn by hand. We have not entered into the other part owopwv, wise,

σωφρονων, owopovws, wisely. of the work, as we have no doubt that our pupils will be able Taxus, swift,

ταχεων, Taxews, swiftly.

μεγαλων, , to do it from the experience they have gained in the solution meyas, great,

deyalws, greatly. annons, true,

αληθων, of previous problems.

, annews, truly, PROBLEM XXV. (Fig. 48).—Give a perspective view of a

ournons, accustomed, συνηθων, συνηθως, according to

custom. door-frame, a six-panelled door, partly open the door-frame being parallel to the plane of the picture, and the line of sight two-thirds

The terminations -Dev, -Os, and -de form adverbs by being added of the height of the door. (From the Military Examination to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, to signify relations of place; thus Papers.)

Dev denotes from a place (whence); 01, at a place (where); and de, There are very few conditions given. The door is said to be to a place (whither): for example, oupavogev, from heaven ; oupavodi, partly open, therefore it may be placed at any angle at pleasure; in heaven ; oupavovde, to heaven. With pronouns de becomes de the wall and door-frame may be placed at any distance from thus allope, to some other place; so with ekel, there, as EKELTE, the pp, but they must be parallel to the PP; the proportions of thither. In the plural of the substantives in -as, -ode passes the door and 'frame are discretionary. This is one of those into -se, as Aonvace for Aonvarde; from Aonvai, -wv, the city problems which are frequently given at public examinations

Athens. with very few working conditions. It gives us an opportunity

Adverbs of place terminate in -w, as avw, above ; katw, below ; for advising all who may at any time have to compete in these eţw, without; cow, within. There are many adverbs which are examinations to use some definite scale in the construction; it obviously cases of nouns or pronouns, as etamlyns (so in Latin, will probably save a great deal of confusion and much un- derepente), suddenly; nov, somewhere ; ôtov, , where; autou, certainty. There will be much in the drawing of this subject on the spot, exactly here or exactly there; ovdanou, nowhere : these that has occurred before, all of which we shall pass over to adverbs are all genitives. avoid unnecessary repetition of former instructions. In the

Accusatives are also common, as apwny, at the dawn ; wakpav, plan it must be observed that the width of the door a b a long way; nepav, beyond a place, whence the country along must be made equal to a c the space within the frame. The

the east side of the Jordan had the name of Peræa, that is, the division of a b for the plans of the stiles and panels must be land beyond ; swpeav, gratis, gratuitously; onuepov, to-day (Lat. proportionally divided, and those proportions must be set off hodie); auplov, to-morrow (Lat. cras). on a d. (See Lessons in Geometry, Problem XVI., Vol. I.,

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. page 209.) There are three lines of contact; the first is from cb produced to the PP. Upon this line of contact all the

Adverbs of manner have commonly no peculiar adverbial perpendicular measurements of the stiles and panels are termination, but employ in the comparative the neuter singular, arranged. The second line of contact is from the back of the and in the superlative the neuter plural, of the corresponding door produced to the pp. This is for the purpose of arriving the neuter singular of comparatives may be used adverbially,

adjectives. The same fact may be stated thus, namely, that at the perspective thickness of the door ; therefore from the bases of these two lines of contact at e retiring lines are drawn that is, with an adverbial signification, and that the neuter to the VP; these retiring lines cutting visual rays drawn from plural of superlatives may be used with an adverbial signification, the end of the door a in the plan, will give the perspective

for example :thickness of the door. The principal retiring lines are those of


Comparative. Superlative. the top and bottom of the door, and the horizontal edges of opws (copos), wisely, σοφώτερον, , σοφωτατα. . the panels, all drawn from the perpendicular measurements rapws (raons), clearly, σαφεστερον, , σαφεστατα. . above stated. The third line of contact is g h; f g being xaplertws (xapieus), charmingly, Xapıeotepov, χαριεστατα. made parallel to do for the sake of the advantage of the same ευδαιμονως (ευδαιμων), happily, ευδαιμονεστερον, ευδαιμονεστατα. VP; a line drawn from the base of g h towards the VP, cutting alo xpws


xpos), shamefully, awo yiov, αισχιστα. . a ve from f, gives the position of the base of the frame i kondews (hous), pleasantly, ήδιον,

ήδιστα. . The width of the frame across the top is obtained thus : ταχεως (Taxus), swiftly, θάττον, , ταχιστα. . 10 being the height of the opening of the door, a line must be drawn from n to m at an angle of 135o with n o; con parative and superlative.

Adverbs of place in -w retain that termination in the com. requently, after mr is drawn, m n will be found to bisect the right angle r mi; therefore, the visual rays from the plan of


Superlative. the frame at c cutting the line m n will produce the points in avw, above,

ανωτερω, ,

ανω-κατω. ti n from which to draw the mouldings both horizontally and ratw, below,

κατω-τερω, perpendicularly ; Ps will be the vp for the interior edge of the frame, as shown in the line drawn from 0. The great advan

The comparative and superlative of most other adverbs of

place end in -, astage of using several lines of contact will be seen when


Superlative, working the details. We allude to this for the purpose of observing that it is advisable to draw these lines of contact repa, beyond,

περαιτέρω, ,

(none). from produced lines of the plan all parallel with each other,

Todov, at a distance,


τηλοτατω. .

ekas, at a distance, so that one vanishing point may be used for all ; otherwise, if


έκαστατω. . they are not parallel, other vanishing points will have to be synus, near,

εγγύτερω, ,

εγγυτατω. . foond, because every retiring line must have its own vanishing Some adverbs have a reciprocal relation to each other. The point.

simple forms stand as relatives. By prefixing a to the relativ-


ποτε, when P
που, where?
πως, how ?

ως, 48,

you make direct interrogatives. Put & before the , and you 14. Ανδρ. παντ, σοφωτ. etc. The superlative governs a convert the direct into indirect interrogatives, and indirect genitive; thus we say in English, "the fairest of women." relatives. Prefix instead of , and then you obtain demon 15. Φυσικως, naturally, by natural impulse ; λειος, -α, -ον, soft, stratives; as

mild, sweet και χρηστικος, -η, -ον, useful. Simple Rel.

, Direct Interrog. Indirect I, and R. Demonstratives. 18. Eποιησας (from ποιειν), thou hast done; προειπων, τη foreή, whither, πη, whither ?

όπη, τη, there, thither. telling (that). ηνικα, when, πηνικα, at what time ? οπηνικα, τηνικα, at that time.

19. Τους αλισκ, the captives ; αλισκειν, to take, capture ; δθεν, whence, ποθεν, whence ? οποθεν, τοθεν, thence. κλεπτειν, to rot; τιμωρεομαι, I punish. oi, whither, ποι, whither ? οποι.

20. Εσται, it will be, future of ειναι. οτε, when,

οποτε, τότε,
then. .

21. Τιμωη, could he honour ? τιμαω, I honour. ου, where,


22. Μειρακιον, α young man ; ανδραποδον, -ου, το, α ελαve. όπως, Tws, so.

EXERCISE 61.- ENGLISH-GREEK. Of these forms oi, tolev, and tws are found only in the 1. Wise men seek not external advantages. 2. Women sufer poets, and consequently are not to be ordinarily used in prose very much in adversity. 3. An intemperate man cannot become composition.

& faithful friend. 4. The nightingale is the sweetest in EXERCISES FROM THE CLASSICS.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

voice) of birds. 5. Girls are more given to sorrow than women.

6. The wisest (man) is greatest. 7. I am admired for having 1. Παν το σκληρον χαλεπως μαλαττεται. 2. 'o oupavos much wealth. 8. How can men admire me for having much χαλκους εστι τα εξω. 3. Ελεγεν ο Βιας, ατυχη ειναι τον ατυχίαν | wealth ? 9. My brother is wise, my father is wiser, the philoμη φεροντα. 4. Η φιλοσοφια διδασκει, ότι δει μητ' εν ταις ευπραγιαις περιχαρείς υπαρχειν, μητ' εν ταις οργαις περιπαθεις 11. Fight, o citizens, well and bravely for (περι) your (the)

sopher is wisest. 10. Children naturally love their parents. και θηριωδεις. 5. Πως η αχαριστοι, η αμελεις, η πλεονεκται, η

city. απιστοι, η ακρατεις ανθρωποι δυνανται φιλοι γιγνεσθαι ; 6. Ο πλουτος και τα εκτος αγαθα χωρις αρετης ανωφελη εισι τοις

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-IVII. έχoυσι. 7. Τις ορνις ευφωνoτερα εστιν αηδονος ; 8. Αι δευτεραι πως φροντιδες σοφώτεραι. 9. Δαρειου και Παρυσατιδος γιγνονται

EXERCISE 57.-GREEK-ENGLISH. παιδες δυο πρεσβύτερος μεν Αρταξέρξης, νεωτερος δε Κυρος. 10.

1. The deepest sleep is the sweetest. 2. Many flowers yield a very Γυναικες ανδρων φιλοπενθεστεροι εισι. 11. Το αδικειν κακιον εστι | sweet smell. 3. Nothing is swifter than youth. 4. The incontinent του αδικεισθαι. 12. Ο Αγησιλαος περι του μεγαλου βασιλεως serve a most vile servitude. 5. Friendship is the sweetest of all ειπεν, Τί γαρ εμου μειζων εκεινος, ει μη και δικαιοτερος; 13. things: 8. Nothing is more disgraceful than to have one thing in the Ζηνων όρων τον Θεοφραστον επι τω πολλους εχειν μαθητας mind but to say another thing. 7. Serpents are most odious to all

8. Nothing is more hateful to man than man. 9. θαυμαζομενον, και εκεινου μεν χορος, εφη, μειζων, και εμος δε | Swiftly does time bear things away with it. συμφωνοτερος. 14. Σοφος Σοφοκλης, Ευριπίδης σοφώτερος, ανδρων δε παντων Σωκράτης σοφωτατος. 15. Η μελιττα φυσικως

EXERCISE 58.-ENGLISH-GREEK. εν τοις ανθεσι εξανευρισκει το λειοτατον μελι και χρηστικώτατον.

1. Ουδεν ήδιον εστιν η βαθυς ύπνος. 2. Ηδιστος εστιν υπνος. 3. Ovde 16. Παντες, α επιστανται, ραστα τε και ταχιστα και καλλιστα και αισχιον εστι της δουλειας. 4. Οξύτατον εστι δουλεια. 5. Ιπποι εισι ταχιστοι. ήδιστα εργαζονται. 17. Καλως και ανδρειως έκαστα ποιει. 18.

6. Ουδεν εχθιον εστιν η βουλη κακη. 7. Αισχιον εστιν αλλα μεν λεγειν, αλλα Ω Αστυάγης, καλως, εφη, εποιησας, προειπων. 19. Τους αλισ- δε εν τω να εχειν. 8 Οι πονηροι αλλα μεν εν τω να εχειν, αλλα δε λεγειν. κομενούς, ως κακως κλεπτοντας τιμωρούνται. 20. Αδηλον εστι

9. Ουδεν εστιν ήδιον πιστου φιλου. ειτε βελτιον ειτε κακιον εσται. 21. Πώς καλλιον η ευσεβεστερον

EXERCISE 59.-GRECK-ENGLISH. τιμφη θεους ; 22. Σωκρατης ιδων μειρακιον πλουσιον και απαιδευ 1. The longest life is not the best, but the most virtuous. 2. τον, ιδου, εφη, χρυσουν ανδραποδον.

Moderation is the best in all things. 3. The judgments of the more

aged are the better. 4. No counsellor is better than time. 5. Either VOCABULARY.

utter things better than silence or keep silence. 6. That which is 1. Σκληρος, , -ον, dry, hard; παν το. The article is fre- most secure is always the best. 7. You jeer, 0 excellent friend. &. At quently used in Greek when it must be omitted in English, as

times cowards are more fortunate than brave men. 9. There is no in general propositions και μαλαττομαι, I am softened.

worse evil to man than grief. 10. Flattery is the worst of all the other 2. Ta e£w, in regard to the things without, that is, on its dence is the fairest virtue for women.

evils. 11. A man soft in soul, and even capable of bribery. 12. Pru.

13. There is no nobler possesexterior.

sion than a friend. 14. Slavery is most painful to a free man. 15. The 3. Tov un pep., that he who could not bear misfortune.

way is very long. 16. The crocodile grows very big from being very 4. Ευπραγια, ας, ή, prosperity, literally, well-doing, from ευ Little. 17. The earth is less than the sun. 18. Be content even with less. and patteiv, I do, I am in a certain condition, as in our phrase, 19. Very few men are happy. 2). No law is stronger than necessity. a. “How do you do?" Trepixapns, very joyful, repı gives the idea Small gains often produce greater damage. 22. No evil is greater than of much or eccess ; opyn, -75, n, anger, here used for adversity, natural to man. 25. A good woman brings to her house very mans

anarchy. 23. War brings very many evils. 24. A desire for more is considered as a consequence of the anger of the gods; repitaðns, good things. 26. Bear the necessities of life as easily as possible. 27. -es, suffering greatly, acutely sensible to suffering; Onpiwons, -es, To order is easier than to do. 28. The fruits of wisdom are very ripe. like the animals, low, downcast.

29. The branches of the vine in my father's garden are riper than in 5. Αχαριστος, , -ον, ungrateful; αμελης, -ες, neglectful; | my neighbour's garden. 30. Iberia rears very fat sleep. πλεονεκτης, αυαγίcious ; απιστος, unfaithful.

EXERCISE 60.-ENGLISH-GREEK. 6. Εκτος, adν. υοίthout ; τα εκτ. αγ. external goods, αλυαηtages ; ανωφελης, -ες, useless ; χωρις, αραrt from ; τοις εχουσι, το

1. Ουδεν βελτιον πρακτικου βιον. 2. Η δοξα των παλαιών εστι κρατιστα. 3. those who have (them), that is, their possessors.

“ο χρονος εστι συμβουλος αριστος. 4. Το ασφαλεστατον εστι κρατιστον, 3. "Η 8. Πως, που, somehow, some way, η α measure; the adverb ηδοναις δουλευει. 8. Γυναιξι εστιν ουδεν καλιον της σοφιας, 9. Τω ελευθερο

λυπη εστι κακον μεγιστον. 6. Ουδεν εστι χειριoν η κολακεια. 7. Ο ακρατης ταις restricts or qualifies the statement.

ουδεν εστι κακιον της δουλειας. 10. Ο κροκοδειλος μηκιστος εστι. 11. Ο θεος 9. Δαρείου και Παρυς. These genitives depend on παιδες; we

μείων του πατρός. 12. Τοις κακoις εστι πολλακις πλείονα η τοις αγαθοις. 18. should say, D. and P., have two sons.

Πολεμος φερει πολλα κακα. 14. Το μεν κελευειν εστι ραδιον, το δε πει10. Φιλοπενθης, -ες, fond of mourning; πενθος, -ους, τo, grief, θεσθαι ισχυρον. 15. Οι καρποι πεπαιτατοι εισιν ήδιστοι, 16. Τα προβατα lamentation.

του πατρός μου εισι πιοτερα η τα του πλησιου, 11. Το αδ. The infinitive mood with the article is often equivalent to a noun in English: to injure another is worse than to suffer an injury.

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XVIII. 12. Ο μεγαλου βασιλεως, the great king, that is, the king of Persia, who was the great king to the Greeks; EKELVOS, he,


We have now to complete our study of the “scale of all 13. 'Ορων, seeing, pres. part. from οραω ; επι τω, etc., η con- nations and all times” by examining the two notes which are sequence of having many disciples ; xopos, our chorus, here class, at once the most difficult to sing correctly, and the most diffiaudience ; quupuvos, -ov, agreeing, harmonious ; ó fuos, mine ; cult to understand the seventh (TE) and the second (RAY). literally, the mine.

1. These are the only notes of the scale which do not sound

well with the key-note. They are its dissonances. It is generally confessed by teachers of singing that Ray and TE are the most difficult, " the most artificial,” notes of the scale. This is especially noticeable, in uncultivated voices, on the note TE in ascending the scale, and on RAY in descending. The mathe

S : S 11 S:t .d? r matical musician who wrote the article “Scale" in the " Penny

flower, That drinks the morn - ing dew, Cyclopædia" states, that a note sharper than the present RAY and one flatter than TE would be more natural. General Another beautiful example of the effective use of TE you find Perronet Thompson, however, seems to have come nearer the in Haydn's “ With verdure clad :"practical truth in his discovery of what he calls “the duplicity of the dissonances.” He believes these notes to be " duple' or double, and asserts that a good ear and voice will intuitively choose that one of the two which best accords with the accom. panying notes. Ray, for instance, in any near fellowship with KEY Bb :S

S:t :tild:m:s S:t, :tild:FAH and LAH will be slightly flattened, but to tune well with

En han ced 80H will remain in its sharpened form. He has constructed

is the charm - ing sight. instruznents upon these principles which have approached more nearly the "just intonation" of the good singer or violinist able to enjoy

by studying Handels song,

“ Angels ever bright

But the finest examples of these mental effects you will be than anything before attempted. We have heard musicians and fair." The character of Ray preceded by Lan is shown in say, that to hear Mr. Purkis play on General Thompson's organ the opening on the word “fair :". in the Great Exhibition" of 1851 was the most delicious treat imaginable to true and delicate ears. Unfortunately, his key. board looks discouragingly complex. We shall have to speak of these points more definitely when we come to treat of har. mony. We have mentioned the difficulties connected with these notes that the pupil may understand why they are placed last

S:-D : di it.l is :1.r in the order of illustration. It was necessary to make him

An - gels

ver bright and fair, familiar with the simpler and easier notes of the scale before he advanced to any characteristic or difficult use of these two.

Then follows the soft appeal of ME, seconded by the urgency Our pupils will also see the mistake of the ordinary methods of FAH, on the words, " Take, O take me, to your care:"of developing the voice, by practising it at once on the scale of snecessive degrees, instead of the chord of easily recognised intervals, to which the more difficult notes may be afterwards sdded. 2. The note TE, when heard at length, and after the ear has Im :r f :m

Ir :d S:-1-: been filled with the other notes of the scale, inspires the mind

Take, 0 take

to your with a feeling of suspense accompanied with a strong desire for its resolution in the key-note. For this reason, it is generally called the leading note”_leading the ear to the key-note.

This is repeated and again varied with the introduction of To prove this, let the pupil sing the notes of the scale either

lower Te, thus up or down, and try whether the ear can be satisfied by resting on TE.

3. The note RAY, when heard in similar circumstances, excites a feeling of suspense almost as strong as TE, but does not so decidedly indicate its resting note. The ear is pleased by its

If :-.5 m :r.d iti :-.d d:rising to the third of the scale (ME), but more satisfied by its

Take, O take

to your falling on the key-note. Try the well-known Gregorian Tone with these two endings :

And when desire has risen to the intensity almost of despair, it is expressed by the piercing voice of the higher Te, thus :








Key F. m :
m ir m


S:-1-:1 t : dilm :r.d d: Take, 0 take


your 1st ending. 2nd ending After several repetitions and variations of the softer theme

referred to, the whole piece closes with this last piercing appeal. Indeed, examples from the great masters might be multiplied

easily, but space forbids us to enlarge. 1 r : m

d :


5. It may easily be noticed that every tune is divisible into

parts which correspond with a line in poetry. The notes most 4. The musical effects of te and RAY carry a strong appeal frequently used for the close of these phrases are DOH, ME, SOH, to the mind's emotions, but do not touch so directly those softer the resting notes of the scale. Next to these in frequency are and gentler feelings which FaH and LaH affect. There is ray and TE. But the more emotional notes, Fan and Lan, are more of hope and energy about them. Tɛ may be called the but seldom found in that position. Let our pupils test this SENSITIVE or piercing note, and Ray the HOPEFUL or rousing interesting fact by examining the previous exercises. They are note.

now invited to study the following exercise, the words of which The touching and elegant effect of both these notes is beauti- were written by Robert Burns, the national poet of Scotland, fally shown in the opening of Handel's song, “What though I but are slightly altered here to obviate the difficulty of protrace."

nunciation which the Scottish form of many of the words might' present to some of the students of our Lessons in Music. A finer lyric, as far as the sentiments of the poetry goes, was, perhaps, never written. Every line has a genuine ring which must find its way to the heart of every man who

hears or reads the poem. The theme is a noble one, and its KEY E. .d im :-.f S:-.S 11 :-.1

dignity is in no way marred by the simplicity of the language What though I trace each herb and in which it is couched.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

2. A king can make a belted knight,

3. Then let us pray that come it may,
A marquis, duke, and all that;

As come it will for all that,

That sense and worth o'er all the earth,
For kings they can't do all that.

May bear the palm and all that.
For all that, and all that,

Their dignities, and all that,

The pith of sense and honest worth

That man to man, the wide world o'er,
Are better far than all that.

Our Scottish friends must pardon the Anglicisms and sing the expression, or not at all. The tune illustrates the mental
Scottish words. This true and noble song should be sung with effects of LAH, rather than of Ray and Te.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XIII. less needlessly destructive of these creatures, which are neither

ugly nor uninteresting, it is worth repeating. The unfortunate ARACHNIDA.

Arachne still weaves her inimitable fabrics, and still hangs susThe type of this class, and that which gives it its name, is the pended from our ceilings, while the omnipotent housemaid, common spider. According to Greek mythology, Arachne was goddess of this lower sphere, still rends her web, and drives the the daughter of a famous Lydian purple-dyer. She so excelled weaver to despair. The little metamorphosed Lydian dyer's in weaving that she challenged the great Athena, goddess of all daughter excites a childish disgust, which is handed down from

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][graphic][subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]



SYSTEM, VII. PYCNOGONIUM LITTORALE. VIII. IXODES (DOG-TICK). IX. SCORPIOX. Ref. to Nos, in Figs.-II. 1, mandible, or antennary jaw; 2, maxilla; 2', its palp; 3, labrum ; 4, breastplate; 5, origin of legs. V. 1, brain; 2,

thoracie ganglion with the cut ends of the nerves of the legs; 3, optic nerves ; 4, mandibular nerves ; 5, mouth; 6, commencement of stomach. VI. 1, Four-chambered heart; 2, lung. IX. 1, cephalo-thoracic shield succeeded by the abdominal segment; 2, mandible ; 3, maxilla, with its pincer-like palp; 4, 5, 6, 7, legs; 8, comb-like organs on the sternum of the tenth segment; 9, telson, or sting.

the arts, to compete with her. To display her skill she wove a generation to generation; but if any one will substitute a reason. piece of tapestry representing the loves of the gods, which was able examination for an unreasonable avoidance, he will find that so faultless that Athena herself could not find a flaw in the de- beautiful which he preconceived was ugly, and that interesting sign or execution. Not to be baffled, the goddess did what so which he misjudged as repulsive. In those dark ages when many mortals do when surpassed by others—she tore the master superior wisdom and virtue were more certain to bring to their piece to fragments. Arachne, in despair, essayed to hang her- possessors hopeless imprisonment than the greatest crimes, self; but Athena, more in anger than in kindness, changed the many a solitary prisoner of refined and appreciative nature has rope into a cobweb, and Arachne into a spider. If this legend waited to see the little Arachne descend from the roof of his should induce any one to be a little more considerate, or a little cell with as much impatience as any lover beneath tho casement VOL. IIL


« 前へ次へ »