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of his love. Since the spinning faculty is that which is most We will now take a common spider as the example of the intimately connected with our idea of a spider, it was extremely class, so that we may go into detail without misleading the natural that the old Greeks should make the spider represent a reader by the idea that the description will apply to other woman. Despite its false fame of ugliness, we, who call single members of the class. ladies spinsters, naturally associate the spinder, or spider, with The cephalo-thorax is a somewhat flattened segment. Its them. Unfortunately for the reputation both of spiders and integument is of a harder consistence than that of the abdomen. women, we cannot stop short in admiration of the art displayed The upper plate is called the shield, and the lower the breastin the construction of the web, but the mind runs on to the plate or sternum. Between the edges of these two, along the design and uses for which the art is employed. These designs sides of the body, spring the legs. The shield is wider than the are to ensnare and to destroy. Hence deceit and cruelty, the breastplate, and overlaps it, so that while the bases of the legs vices of the weak, have been attributed to spiders. The bitterest are well seen from below they are not seen from above. The satirists of the fair sex have found in the spider a simile which shield is usually narrower in front, and wider and heart-shaped, has painted their invective from the earliest ages of literature. or rounded, behind. It is raised into a conical protuberance at Thus, in one of the most famous tragedies of Æschylus, when the fore part, and on this the eyes are set. Two lines of depresthe chorus find Agamemnon slain in his bath by his deceitful sion run on each side of the cone, and from these other lines run wife Clytæmnestra, they exclaim
off to the spaces between the legs, while a marked dent is often «« Κείσαι δ' αραχνης εν υφασματι τωδ'
seen at the middle of the hind part. The breastplate is often ασεβεί θανατω βιον εκπνεων.”
rounded, or heart-shaped, with the apex backward, or in the ("Thou in the female spider's toils art lying,
form of an escutcheon. The box of the cephalo-thorax contains And breathest forth thy life, dishonoured dying.")
the stomach, main nervous masses, and the muscles of the limbs.
The eyes in the common spider are eight in number, in two Since the spider is the type of the class, we shall first call transverse lines of four each. They are, however, in the various attention to the character which it possesses in common with species very differently situated, and of different relative size. the whole class Arachnida ; then proceed to describe the struc- Their relative position, number (two, six, or eight), and size are ture of the common spider in detail; and finally notice the varia much depended on to distinguish the genera. Sometimes they tions of this type in the different divisions of this class, such as are mounted on a pyramid, or elevated watch-tower, which rises scorpions, mites, etc.
from the shield in a very grotesque manner. The mandibles The Arachnida are articulated animals, whose bodies consist spring from under the truncated front of the shield, and are of a longitudinal series of segments like those of insects. This directed downwards. They are of two joints, the thick descendsegmentation into rings is, however, often less marked than in ing basal joint having attached to the outer part of its end & insects, and in the true spiders, which have a smooth soft integu- hooked claw, which works on a joint, so that the point of it can ment, the divisions are rather inferred, from tracing them in allied play from the side towards its fellow on the other side. When forms or in the embryonic state, as they become more and more the claw is completely flexed, it lies in a groove which runs obliterated, than from any indication of their actual presence in along the far edge of the rear joint. This groove has its two the adult animal. In all cases they are distinguished from in- walls generally armed with points or teeth. The maxille, or sects by having no marked division between the head and thorax. under-jaws, consist of two plates, the inner edges of which are Both these divisions are combined, as in the higher crustaceans, in motion approximated or removed from one another. Their into one piece, called the cephalo-thorax. In the mites a still edges and upper surfaces are often studded with small spines. further amalgamation of the divisions of the body into one From the base and outside of these plates arise the long-jointed globate bag occurs, which represents at once head, thorax, and palps, which in the female end in claws like the legs. In the abdomen. Where there is a constriction between the thorax male a very complex organ is found, which can be doubled up and abdomen, so that one can be distinguished from the other, into a rounded fist, by which the adult male can be readily disthe limbs are wholly confined to the thorax. This distinctive tinguished from the female. The lower lip, or labrum, is of feature cuts them off from the Myriapoda and Crustacea. The various shapes, but usually quadrate. The legs are sevenArachnida never possess wings, and instead of the three pairs of jointed. The first joint is called the coxa, or haunch; the legs of insects, they have four pairs. These limbs are all jointed, second, the trochanter; the third, the femur. These last two but they are built upon a somewhat different type to those of form the thigh, and to this point the legs are like those of ininsects, as we shall find when we come to describe them more sects. The tibia, or shank, which is whole in the insect, is in minutely.
spiders of two pieces; while the foot, instead of being in five They have no antennæ for the purposes of touch. These, small bead-like joints, is of two pieces only, and they are of the however, are probably represented by the great poison-jaws. same thickness as the joints which precede them. The last These jaws are so utterly different in form and function from joint has two, three, or more movable curved claws which are the feelers of insects that it is only by a careful examination, often toothed like a comb. On the under-side of both joints combined with a good deal of speculative reasoning, that they there are sometimes found pads, hairs, or spines, which can have been identified with them. Thus the absence of antennæ be opposed to the claws, and so form an effective hand for (in the proper sense) is a good distinctive character. Other weaving. jaws, situated further back, are possessed by the Arachnida, the The abdomen is a globular or oval bag. It often overhangs most distinctive feature of these being the usually enormous the thorax in front. Its walls are very flexible and elastic, as development of the palps which correspond to the flagra or fla- is necessary, in that at certain seasons it is distended with eggs. bella of the crustacean limbs. These palps are so elongated It contains the major part of the fat and liver masses, the organs and jointed in the spiders that they would be taken for legs by of generation, and the web-secreting glands. It is attached
to an ordinary observer, and hence spiders appear to have ten in the front segment by a very narrow stalk. Through this thin stead of eight legs. "In scorpions these maxillary palps are stalk, however, prolongations of almost all the organs of the larger than any of the other limbs, and will be described here- body are carried. Thus the alimentary canal and the small after. The eyes of the Arachnida are, when they are present, hinder continuation of the nervous cord pass from the cephaloalways simple and few in number-eight, six, four, and two thorax to the abdomen, and the blood-system is continued forbeing the common numbers found. They never have a multi- ward from the latter to the former. If the spider be placed on tude of hexagonal or quadrate ocelli grouped into one organ as its back, two plates, with a slit on the
inner side of each of insects have. The method of breathing is very various in the them, will be seen. These plates cover the breathing cavities
, class, the lowest having their juices oxygenated through the or pulmonibranchiæ, as they and their contents are called. Beskin, others having trachexe like insects, while the highest have tween them is the opening of the generative
organs. The anus what are called lungs, or, more properly, pulmonibranchiæ, to is at the extreme end of the abdomen, and immediately below bo described hereafter. The sexes are usually distinct, the it are the palp-like jointed protuberances
through which the silk females exceeding the males in size. With the exception of the of the web is forced or drawn. These are in three or four pairs, Pantopoda (or Pycnogonidze), a doubtful order, allied to the and they are perforated at the ends with many small pores, to Crustacea, none of the Arachnida are marine in their habitat. the number estimated at 1,000.
We trust the reader has Some of the lower orders inhabit fresh water, as, for instance, the now a pretty clear idea of the outer form of the spider; and he little scarlet water-spider. The major part live in and breathe air. cannot do better than verify the description by catching a spider,
killing it in hot water, and then examining it with a Coddington great number of tubes, on which rounded clusters of follicles lens.
are found. These have also dilations in their course. All the We proceed to describe the internal organs in detail. The tubes end in the spinneret, and the substance they secrete is a mouth, situated between the jaws, leads to a throat which runs a sticky liquid which is squeezed through the open pores at the short way backward, then bends sharply upward, and then again ends of the external organs. It would seem that not only all backward, in a horizontal position. From the outside of this the threads of each spinneret run together, but that all the last-named flexible horizontal portion, which opens into a globu- strands so formed from all the spinnerets are united into one lar stomach behind, muscles run to the inner wall of the shield, cord. As the thread is evolved, the spider usually grasps it and thus provide the means of sucking up juices. The lower with its two hind feet, which may be either to consolidate it or oval and depressed portion of the stomach sends from each of to draw it out. The sticky secretion of the web dries on exits sides five tubes, which bend upwards, and then enter an posure to the air. Perhaps, however, in the singular web of the armlar second stomach, which is situated above the other. A Ciniflo the separate strands are not blended, for the web has solid mass lies between the stomachs, and to this a muscle is this peculiarity—the lines are composed of one stout thread, attached, which passes through the central hole of the npper encompassed by thinner lax lines, which twist in all directions. ring-like portion, to be attached to the dorsal shield above. All the spiders appear to be silk-spinners, but they do not all This muscle not only suspends the stomach, but, by contracting apply their arts to the fabrication of snares. Fully one-half of and relaxing, causes the lower sac to work like a bellows, and them confine their weaving to the construction of cocoons for so stirs its contents, driving them through the side tubes into their eggs, or for lining or making tubes and tunnels into which the upper stomach, and this favours the functions of digestion they can retreat. The little Salticus, which, dressed in a harleand absorption. Almost the whole nutritive process is carried quin suit, courses over the upright walls that the hot summer on in the stomach, for only a narrow prolongation of it is carried sun shines upon, springs on its prey, first securing itself by a into the abdomen; and although this receives ducts from the thread lest it should fall. Those spiders which spin snares, do liver-fat masses, yet it runs as a short straight narrow tube to so according to very different methods. The Agelenidæ spin the rent. Just before the exit, the intestine dilates into a loose, irregular webs over foliage, etc., that communicate with roundish cavity, which is called the cloaca, and receives two tubes in which the spider lies concealed. The Linyphiida docts, one on each side, which are thought to be excreting spin horizontal webs, and stand clinging to their under-sides, organs to remove the azotised products of the breaking down of back downwards. The chief of all spinners are the Epeiridæ. the tissues of the body. The ducts, three or four in number on These spin vertical webs whose lines are all in one plane. The each side, which enter the abdominal portion of the alimentary outer framework of these webs is necessarily irregular, because canal, proceed from the large masses of fatty substance which this is determined by the support on which it rests, but all is collected into a mass of vesicles on either side of the bag-like within this is beautifully symmetrical. Lines radiating from a hind segment. These masses may, therefore, represent the common centre pass to the cords of the frame, and on these is liver, but they no doubt also act as a store of nutriment laid up sustained a close-set spiral line, which runs continuously from in the body. This arrangement would seem to be necessary on centre to circumference, being attached to each radius as it account of the precarious nature of the supply of food. These passes them. These lines are very elastic, and will bear a good creatures, having to lie in wait for their prey, must be able to deal of strain. It is a peculiarity of these lines that they have play a waiting game; and they manifest, by their fierceness on them, at regular intervals, beads of viscid matter, which when a stray victim falls into their toils, that they appreciate an does not dry in the air like the silk. A clew runs from the opportunity which may be long before it is repeated.
web to the neighbouring retreat where the spider hides; and A heart shaped like that of insects lies immediately under the this would seem to answer the double purpose of informing the skin of the back of the abdomen. It is divided into four chambers, spider when the snare is shaken by an entangled insect, and of placed in a longitudinal series, and propels the blood forwards. affording it a way whereby, at once to rush upon its' victim. It is contained in a loose membraneous investment, which is When the insect is powerful the spider will wait till both ends called the pericardium. This is a reservoir of the blood received of the body are attached to the web, and then, striding over it, from the system, and it passes from this outer court of the it will hold the cords of attachment tense with its wide hindheart into its four compartments, through small valvular holes, legs, touch the insect with its spinnerets, fix a thread to it, and one to each compartment. The large vessel given off in front then set it rapidly revolving with its fore-legs, until the insect is passes into the cephalo-thorax, and there divides into three completely enswathed in silk, like a mummy. The watch-box pairs of vessels. The top pair goes to the eyes and mouth of the spider is usually under some leaf, but often it constructs organs, the middle pair to the stomach, and the lowest pair to a dome of silk to protect it from the rain, etc. A most remarkthe lege. The blood from these is collected again, and flows able instance of an animal formed for air-breathing, all of whose through a long central vessel running along the floor of the body relatives live in air, having invaded the water, is found in the right to the spinnerets, giving off vessels to the skin viscera, Argyroneta aquatica, which makes a dome under water, and then and also sending part of its supply of blood to the pulmonary carries down air, which it places under its diving-bell. sacs. After being distributed through the pulmonibranchiæ, the The scorpion is the type of another group of Arachnida. blood is collected into a number of vessels which run from This creature is much more elongated than the spider, and its these along the sides of the body, mounting upwards, and dis- segmentation is very much more distinct, the segmentation of the charging themselves into the pericardium. The lung-bags con- abdomen furnishing its distinguishing characteristic. The thotain a number of fine leaves which lie close together like the racic shield, which is supposed to represent the dorsal half, is of leaves of a book, and in these the blood is aërated.
eight rings. About the centre of this are seen two eyes, one on The nervous system in the spider is so concentrated as almost each side, and close to the mid-line, while at the front outer to lose its homogangliate character. A small double ganglion angles groups of simple eyes are found. All the jaws and limbs Desta on the top of the throat, and sends words to the eyes and are supposed to belong to these coalesced segments. The next jaws. This is connected by two cords, one on each side of the eight segments of the back are as wide as the cephalo-thorax, throat, to a large nervous star-shaped mass, which lies on the while the succeeding six are very narrow, and capable of moving door of the cephalo-thorax, and sends nerves to the legs, while on one another by definite joints in an up-and-down direction. from its hind part a thicker cord passes into the abdomen, and The last segment has a hooked spine with its point directed there splits into a number of small nerves which go to all parts of downwards. This is the instrument of attack, and it contains a the viscera. The great star-shaped mass represents the whole gland from which poison is ejected in the wound it makes. Thus chain of double ganglions, shortened, and compressed into one. the sting, instead of being in the antennal jaw at the head end, It will be seen that this arrangement is very much like that of as in the spider, is placed in the very hind-joint of the scorpion. the nervous system of the short-tailed Crustacea, or crabs. The bases of the legs almost obliterate the under-segments or
The glands of special secretion are of two kinds. The poison- sterna of the fore-part of the body, but the succeeding ones are glands lie in the cephalo-thorax, one on each side of the throat, well represented, and through four of them the slits which lead and in the upper part of the mandibles. A duct from each into the eight pulmonibranchiæ are cut. Between the black gland passes to the point of the fang, and it conveys a liquid horny back and front pieces of these segments is a white flexible which acts as a rapid poison to insects.
membrane. In the six tail-pieces the top and bottom parts are The silk-secreting organs found in the abdomen consist of a united immovably together. The nature of the limbs is best
seen in the illustration. The small forceps in front would seem familiar with their formation. He should also write out frou to correspond with the mandibles of spiders, and the large and memory our remarks on the construction of hortor, vereor, etc., long pincers to the maxillary palps, while the four pairs of suc- correcting his work by comparison with the original. ceeding legs represent the legs of spiders and the hind walking
VOCABULARY. legs of decapod crustaceans. Thus it would appear that the Cito, quickly. hind foot-jaws and first pair of walking-legs of crustaceans are confiteor, 2, confessus
Inanis, -e, empty (E. R. Nego, 1, I deny. inanity).
Nondum, not as yet absent. The stomach in the scorpion is much simpler than in sum, I admit, confess Informo, 1, I instruct. Penitus, thoroughly. the spider, and there is scarcely any distinction of parts. The (E. R. confession). Inopia, -æ, f., want. Præsidium, -i, 1., pro. heart has eight segments, and the hind one, not being situated Cunctus, -a, -um, au Intueor, 2, I look on, tectien, support, as further back than the broad part of the body, sends the blood
unitedly, in oppo contemplate (E. R. sistance,
sition to backward by a vessel to the tail. Besides the ventral vessel, a
Profiteor, 2, profesens sub-ganglionic or portal vessel exists, which drives the blood to
which is, all seve- Liberaliter, freely. sum, I profess, pro
rally. the lungs. Perhaps the course of the blood can be gathered Denuo (de novo), anev,
Malitia, -æ, f., badness, mise (E. R. Pro
baseness, malice. fession). from the rough diagram below. It would take too long to de
again, lately. Medeor, 2 (no perfect), Reor,2(reri, ratus sum), Detráho, 3, I take away. I heal, with the da I am of opinion, think, Exemplar, -āris, n., a tive; that is, the ob. Trado, tradere, tradidi,
pattern, model. ject of this verb must traditum, 3, I hard Impetro, 1, I obtain. be in the dative case. down, I give up (E.R. Imploro, 1, I entreat Mereor, I deserve, etc., tradition).
(E.R, implore; ploro, is followed by de, as Venia, -ee, L., pardon,
leave, permission, Observe that the conjunction quum requires its verb to be in the subjunctive mood, when it denotes a cause or reason, and is rendered by since or although ; quum is then said to have a causal force.
EXERCISE 110.-LATIN-ENGLISH. 1. Vix peccatum tuum fassus eras, quum pater tui misertus est. ? Jam te errasse confessus eras, quum denuo negasti. 3. Nondom, vestrum auxilium imploraveramus, quum jam id nobis profeski estis. 4. Vix inopiam nostram fassi eramus, quum liberalissime vestrum præ
sidium nobis polliciti estis. 5. Magna vis est philosopbise quuza scribe it here. The nervous system consists of seven double medetur animis, et inanes sollicitudines detrahit. 6. Artes magnum ganglia besides the brain.
nobis præbent præsidium, quum seipsæ per se tuentur singulæ. 7. The mites have a smooth bag-like body, with a small head Præclare de patriâ merentur præceptores, quum juventutem bonarum united with it. They breathe through tracheæ, whose entrance- literarum studiis informant. 8. Quum philosophia animis medetur ei orifices are situated on the under-side of the body. Some, totos nos penitusque tradere debemus. 9. Omnes miserebantur restri, however, have two exit-holes for the tracheal system, one on
quum non propter malitiam sed propter fortunam in miseriis essetis. each side of the mouth, through which they expel the air figere. 11. Avarus, quum sit divitissimus, non fatebitur se satis habere
10. Quum milites pericula vererentur, non audebant cum hostibus comderived through the other openings. The nervous system in 12. Miserere nostri; medemini, O cives, inopiæ nostræ, 13. Suom these is said to consist of only one ganglion. These creatures quisque tuetor filium. 14. Nemo, cunctam intuens terram, de divini often live on the bodies of other animals. The shard beetle has providentiâ dubitabit. 15. Cives, hostes urbem oppugnaturos esti, eos almost always a multitude of them clinging to its body in the acriter propulsare studuerunt. 16. Venio meum præsidium tibi pollicigrooves between the segments of its body underneath. The turus. 17. Adolescentis officium est majores natu vereri
. 18. Omnibus organs of the mouth in these are usually converted into sucking modis vos inopiæ civium mederi debetis. 19. Quis nescit te præclare snouts, with points directed outwards, so as to secure the holà de republicâ meritum esse? 20. Spero te mei miserturum esse. of the creature.
EXERCISE 111.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Two other orders of very low grade would seem to indicate 1. They confessed their sins. 2. They will confess their síns. 3, that the spiders are related to the articulate type directly Will they have confessed their sins! 4. He will not confess his sins, through the worms. In one of these the body is completely 5. My sister has confessed her sins. 6. The young men deny that they like a worm. These are internal parasites. The other order will confess their sins (acc. case and infinit. fut.; drop the that: is represented by a creature which inhabits the skin-follicles of "deny that they will,” is equal to say they will not, that is, refuse). 7. the human face, generally fixing on the nose as its habitat. Religion heals men's minds. 8. True religion only can heal men's This starts in life with a worm-like form, and gradually shortens Pity me, o my father. 11. O God, pity us. 12. O God, pity all men.
minds. 9. Religion has always healed the minds of the pious. 10. into a mite-like animal. The orders are defined as follows:
13. Let every husband guard his wife. 14. The young men, thinking 1. Pantopođa.-Arachnida, with the cephalo-thorax segmented the soldiers about to attack their homes, slew themselves in fear (being into four pieces; a rudimentary abdomen, and long many afraid). 15. The arts severally protect artists (artificers). 16. Do the jointed legs; without true organs of respiration.
arts protect each other? 17. The arts have protected, do protect 2. Linguatulina.--Wormlike Arachnida, having the habits of (present tense), and will protect artists. 18. Look at the heaven, intestinal worms; with sexes distinct, and no apparent orgazs and thou wilt fear God. 19. Contemplating virtue, men become wise. of respiration.
20. He has served the republic well (deserved wel of the republic, de 3. Tardigrada.--Hermaphrodite Arachnida, with stumpy logs, republicâ). 21. The queen will serve the republic well.
soldiers served their country well. 23. I am not able to serve my and without organs of respiration. 4. Acarina. - Arachnida, with biting or sucking mouths; an fesses his sins, and obtains pardon.
home well. 24. He contemplates a model of virtue. 25. He con
26. They have confessed ther unjointed abdomen united to the cephalo-thorax ; second feeler-sins, and obtained pardon. 27. Since you have confessed your sins, jaws foot-shaped, with a tracheal system.
you will obtain pardon. 5. Araneina.--Arachnida, with biting jaws, stalked unseg. mented abdomen"; second pair of feeler-jaws shaped like feet, one's own infirmity, as compared with the
high attributes of the
Vereor denotes the reverence which arises from a sense of and with combined lungs and tracheæ. 6. Arthrogastra.--Arachnida, with a distinctly jointed abdo- the root of reverence.
object who calls forth the sentiment. Vereor, accordingly, is
Vereri denotes the feeling of children men, breathing by pulmonibranchiæ.
towards a parent. But when the sentiment of self-abasement
rises into a fear of some evil from a superior power, or an LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXI. oppressive consciousness of superior power over you, then the DEPONENT VERBS (continued).
sentiment is expressed by metuo. In our last lesson the learner was furnished with a model of a
CONSTRUCTION OF “VEREOR." deponent verb of the second conjugation and a list of verbs to Accusative of object; with ne; ne non; non and ne; with uf; be written out according to the example given. This should be infinitive as an object. done frequently, in the case of all the parts of speech in Latin Note.---Vereor ne is used of things you do not desire. that suffer declension, if the student desire to become thoroughly Vereor ut is used of things you do desire.
Accusative of object :-"Metuebant eum servi, verebantur liberi." Similar diversities would be found between any two other lanCicero.
guages that you might compare together. Literal Translation:-"Feared him slaves, reverenced children.”
Idiomatic Translation:-"His slaves feared, his children reverenced him."
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.
EXERCISE 108.-LATIN-ENGLISH. With ne :
1. Sabinus having encouraged his (troops), gives the signal. 2. Vereor ne quasi præcipientis esse videntur oratio mea." --Cicero.
Your benefits exhort me to obey your command. 3. Cæsar exhorted Lit. Trans..-"I fear lest as if of one enjoining to be may appear his soldiers to (strive after) glory. 4. They encouraged them to bespeech my."
come friends (towards joining friendship). 5. I exhort you again and 14. Trans.:-"I fear lest my speech may appear like the speech of a
again concerning the same things on which I have exhorted you in a master."
former letter. 6. We will not cease to advise Pompey to shun great With ne non :
dishonour. 7. He exhorts them not to fail in courage. 8. I then, "Veritas ne hostium impetum sustinere non posset."-Cæsar. fearful, advised shameful flight. 9. I, indeed, cease not to recommend
LI. Trans. :-"Fearing lest of the enemies the attack to endure not peace. could."
EXERCISE 109.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Id. Trans. : -"Fearing he should not be able to endure the attack of 1. Magister ad diligentiam discipulos hortari non desinit. 2. Magisthe enemy."
ter discipulos ad diligentiam hortabatur. , 3. Magister discipulos ad With non ne :
diligentiam hortatus, omnibus oscula dedit. 4. Sapientia tua me hor. # Non vereor ne aucupari tuam gratiam videar."-Cicero.
tatur ut imperio tuo paream. 5. Hortabitur eos in amicitiam jungen. Lt. Trans. :-"I do not fear lest to court thy favour I may appear.” dam. 6. Pater tuus te iisdem de rebus hortatur, quibus ego fratrem
meum hortabor. 7. Hortor te ne animo deficias. 8. Sororem tuam IL. Trans, :-"I do not fear of appearing to court thy favour."
hortati sunt, ne animo deficiat. 9. Pudendam fugam hortabor nun. With ut:
quam. 10. Bellum hortari non desinit. "Ia dno vereor ut tibi passim concedere.”—Cicero. LAL. Trans. :-"These two things I fear that to thee I may be able to concede."
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.- XXXI. 14. Trans, "I fear I cannot concede these two things to thee."
CHIEF POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF ASIA. Infinitive as an object :
THE following table exhibits the principal political divisions of "Hei mihi! vereor dicere."-Terence.
the continent of Asia, showing the capital or chief city in each Lit. Trans. :-"Alas to me! I fear to say."
country, and the river, etc., on which it stands; the approximate Id. Trans. :-" Alas! I fear to say."
area in English square miles; the number of inhabitants, as far VOCABULARY.
as it is possible to make any estimate without a periodical census Cognosco, 3, I know. Incipio, 3, I begin (E. R. Redditæ sunt, have been as a basis ; and the approximate number of persons resident, Excido (ex and cædo), incipient).
on an average, on each square mile : I cut of or down. Intelligo, 3, I understand Valeo, 2, I am strong,
THE CHIEF DIVISIONS OF ASIA-THEIR CAPITALS, AREA, Espleo, 21 kill up,satisfy Introeo, 4, I enter. I avail, prevail (E. R.
Recedo, 3, I return. veteran soldier,
RUSSIA IN ASIA Tobolsk Irtish. 5,600,000 4,000,000 5-7ths bella stis nobis prodesse possit. 7. Accepi tuas literas, quibus intel
CHINESE EMPIRE , Pekin. Pei-ho. 5,300,000 415,000,000 78 leni te Fereri ne superiores mihi redditæ non essent. 8. Ne ejus
Boliara Zerafchan 400,000 4,000,000 10 supplicio Divitiaci animum offenderet, verebatur. 9. Vereor, si res
TURKEY IN ASIA Smyrna Ægean Sea 670,000 16,000,000 explicare incipiam, non vitam ejus enarrare, sed historiam videar scri
Mecca. Inland. 1,200,000 8,500,000 here. 10. Non vereor ne scribendo te expleam. 11. Non vereor nequid
552,500 10,000,000 18 timide, nequid stulte facias. 12. Non vereor ne meæ vitæ modestia
AFGHANISTAN Cabool. Cabool 225,000 5,125,000 parem valitura sit contra falsos rumores,
BELOOCHISTAN Kelat Gundava 160,000 480,000 EXERCISE 113.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
Calcutta Hooghly 1,476,500 186,000,000 125
FURTHER INDIA Monchobo . Irrawaddy 880,000 28,000,000 31 1 They venerate their parents, and fear the king. 2. Tyrants are feared. 3. They will fear tyrants. 4. I shall fear my parents. 5. I
JAPANESE EMPIRE. Jeddo . Sea Coast. 267,000 35,000,000 131 do not fear that I shall fill (satisfy) you with words. 6. You fear to enter the enemy's camp. 7. I fear that I read without profit; they
The cities in italics in the preceding table are the most im. fear for (de) their country, lest it be destroyed. 8. I fear my mother portant of the capitals of the petty states into which are subwill come. 9. Why do you fear that your mother will come? 10. Because I am acting (I act) against her commands. 11.
They fear divided the divisions to which they are appended. From an that their uncle is dead. 12. I fear that the wrath of God will fall on inspection of the table, it appears that Russia in Asia, or this city. 13. Thy life will prevail against calumny. 14. Do not fear Siberia, is the most thinly populated country in Asia, while that thy life will not prevail against the calumny of bad men. 15. Hindostan is the most densely populated. The student, howThou fearest that I am unable to do thee good. 16. Fear not that I ever, must remember that in point of fact China Proper, the most shall do any foolish thing (Latin, anything foolishly). 17. My brother important section of the Chinese Empire, is the most densely does not fear that I shall do any foolish thing.
populated part of Asia, containing a population estimated It is very difficult to give in English an exact counterpart of approximately at 400,000,000 to an area of about 1,700,000 Home Latin forms. You will constantly have to make some square miles, which gives 235 as the average number of persons Little allowance for difference of idiom, though the sound scholar to each square mile. The average for the entire Chinese Empire only can judge in particular instances whether a latitude is is lowered by taking into consideration Chinese Tartary, or allowable or not.
Thibet, and Mongolia and Mantchooria, which have but a scanty In the preceding English-Latin Exercise I have written, “I population in comparison with their area. do not fear that I shall satisfy you with words." Here, and in Russia in Asia, or Siberia, is divided into two parts, Eastern otser parts of the exercise, the future “shall” and “will” are Siberia and Western Siberia. Each part is sub-divided into used in the English when the subjunctive present is required
in governments or provinces as follows :-the Latin. The subjunctive present could not be used in the
EASTERN SIBERIA. English with a proper regard to idiom ; nor could the future
Governments. Chief Towns. Governments, indicative be employed in the Latin. You have here one of Yeniseisk.
Chief Towns. Yeniseisk.
Yakutsk, Yakutsk. those diversities of idiom with which you must become well Irkutsk. Irkutsk,
Okhotsk. Okhotsk. acquainted, if you wish to be master of the Latin language. Amoorskaja. Blagoveschensk.
The presidency of Bengal is on the east side of India, and Governments. Chief Towns.
Governments. Chiof Towns. comprises the whole of the fertile plain watered by the Sanpoo Tobolsk. Tobolsk.
Semipolatinsk. Semipolatinsk. or Brahmapootra, and the lower parts of the Ganges. The Tomsk. Tomsk.
British dependencies east of the Ganges and in Further IndiaIn addition to these must be named the territory south of namely, Aracan, Pegu, Tenasserim, Malacca, and Singapore the Caucasus, belonging to Russia, commonly called Trans- are now included in this presidency. The chief town is caucasia. of the above, the province or government of Calcutta. Amoorskaja comprises the territory lately acquired by Russia The presidency of the North-West Provinces (or, as this from the Chinese Empire; while the new government of district should be called from its position, the North Central Turkestan, divided into the provinces of Semiretchensk and Syr- Provinces) lies in the centre of the northern part of Hindostan, Daria, includes the Kirghiz Steppes and the districts lately and comprises Oude and a number of provinces to the south annexed in the north of Independent Tartary.
and west of it, stretching up to the borders of Cashmore and The Chinese Empire is divided into three parts : China the Punjaub. Agra is the chief town and seat of governProper, in the south-east; Mongolia or Chinese Tartary, in the ment. north ; and Tibet, or Thibet, in the south-west. The capitals The Punjaub occupies the north-western corner of Hindostan, of these great divisions are respectively Pekin, Ourga, and and lies to the south-west of Cashmere. The word Punjaub Lassa, but Pekin is the metropolis and chief seat of government means the plain or country of the five rivers, so called because of the entire empire. The island of Hong-Kong, at the mouth it is watered by the Sutlej, Beas, Chenab, Jelum, and Ravee. of the Canton River, is a British dependency. Its chief town The chief town of this presidency is Lahore. is Victoria. Macao, also in the Canton River, belongs to the Bombay, which includes Scinde, extends along the southPortuguese. The Chinese ports open to British commerce are western coast of the peninsula from Kurrachee to Goa. The Canton, Swatow, Foo-chow, Amoy, and Shanghae.
presidency takes its name from its chief town, Bombay. Turkestan, or Independent Tartary, is broken up into a The southern extremity of the peninsula, and the whole of number of petty states, called khanats. Of these Bokhara, the south-east coast, and the countries bordering on it, form with its chief towns Bokhara and Samarcand, is the most im the presidency of Madras, which also takes its name from its portant and most powerful, while the khanats of Koondooz, chief town. The fine island of Ceylon, at the south of the Khiva, and Khokan occupy the second rank, all with chief peninsula, is a dependency of this presidency. towns of the same name.
The principal protected states, governed by native princes
Goojerat. the south-west; Turkish Armenia (chief towns, Trebizond and Cooch-Behar, Hyderabad.
Cutch. Erzeroum), in the north-east; and Mesopotamia (chief towns, Muneepoor. Mysore. Indore.
Bahawalpoor. Bagdad and Diarbekr), in the south-east.
Travancore. Rajpootana. Sikh States. Arabia, like Turkestan, is divided into a number of states,
Bundelcund. Kolapoor. Bhurtpoor. some independent, and comprising a number of small districts, The French and Portuguese still retain a slight footing in the subject to Arab chieftains, as Yemen, Hadramaut, Lachsa, and peninsula, the former holding Pondicherry on the Coromandel Nejd ; and others nominally tributary to a foreign ruler, as Coast, and Chandernagore on the Hooghly; while the latter Arabia Petræa, and Hedjaz, which are considered as subject to possess Panjam and Goa on the south-west coast. Turkey; and Oman, which is under the control of the Imam of Further India, or India beyond the Ganges, comprises the Muscat. In Hedjaz are the towns Mecca and Medina, famous, states of Burmah, Siam, and Laos, in the centre of the peninsula, the former for being the birth-place, the latter the burial-place lying between the British possessions on the west coast and of Mahomet, the founder of the Mahometan religion. In Anam on the east. The Malay Peninsula is partly occupied by Yemen, on the Red Sea, is Mocha, which gives its name to the independent tribes, or tribes which owe a nominal allegiance to delicious coffee grown in the surrounding districts; and at its Siam. The French have acquired a large territory in the southsouthern extremity Aden, a British seaport, taken from the east of the peninsula, consisting of the southern provinces of Arabs in 1839, and serving as a convenient coal depôt for Siam and Anam. The chief of the French settlements in this steamers plying between India and Suez, at the north-western district is Saigon on the river Dong-nai. extremity of the Red Sea.
The Japanese Empire is composed of a chain of large islands, Persia is divided into a number of provinces, of which it is extending in the form of a crescent from the southern extremity difficult to give a list that may be relied on for correctness of the island of Saghalien, half of which is claimed by the Part of the country is occupied by wandering tribes under Japanese, to the peninsula of Corea. The chief of these islands sheikhs, who are nearly independent, but pay a yearly tribute are Niphon, Sikoke, Yesso, and Kiusiu. The capital is Jeddo, to the sovereign or shah of Persia, who maintains a standing or Yedo, on the island of Niphon. The principal ports open army, equipped and disciplined after the European fashion. to British commerce in Japan are Hakodadi, Néegata, Kana
The principal sub-divisions of Afghanistan are Cabool, Can- gawa, Hiogo, and Nagasaki. dahar, and Herat, each taking its name from its chief town. Seistan, a district in the western part of the country, is occupied by a number of semi-independent tribes, who are supposed to
READINGS IN GERMAN.-VI. be under the control of the ruler of Herat. Beloochistan is divided into a number of provinces, each governed by its
6.-Die Pfirsich en own chief. Those forming the western half of the country are
Dee pfirr'-zřý-jen. independent, but those in the east owe a nominal allegiance to the Khan of Kelat, the most powerful of the petty princes of
Ein Landmann brachte aus der Stadt fünf Pfirsichen mit, tie
Ine lant-man brac;'- tai ouss dair shtat fünf pfire-sty-yen mit, des Beloochistan, The greater part of the peninsula of Hindostan consists of schönsten, die man seben konnte.
Seine Kinder aber abert territory absolutely belonging to the British Empire, and states sho'n-sten, dee man zey'-hen kon’tai. Zi-nai kin’-der ah-ber zah”-ben governed by native princes under British protection. The only diese Frucht zum
ersten mal. Deshalb states that are really independent of British control are as dee'-zai fršocht tsöðm eyr-sten mahl.
Dess'- halp vodn'-der-ten dönt follows :--Cashmere, in the north; and Nepaul and Bhotan, on the north-east frontier, forming for the most part the southern froi-ten zee ziy zeyr u"-ber dee sho-nen ep -fel mit dain rö't-ny-gen
freuten sie sich sehr über die schönen Pepfel mit den röthlichen slopes of the great Himalaya range. The remainder is divided into five districts called presidencies, each under a lieutenant- bucket en vent tsahrtem pfoum. Dah-rous ferr-tik" tai see dair
zartem Pflaum Darauf governor, except the presidency of Bengal, the presidency immediately under the control of the Viceroy of India, to whom Vater unter feine vier Knaben, the lieutenant-governors of the remaining provinces are subject. fah’-ter gön’-ter zi-nai feer kmab-ben, 88nt i-vai err-beelt des
The five presidencies are those of Bengal, North-West Pro-Mutter. vinces, Punjaub, Bombay, and Madras.
vertheilte fite der
und eine erhielt ble