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16. A numeral figure is often prefixed to a letter. This is

READINGS IN GERMAN.-I. called a co-efficient. It shows how often the quantity expressed by the letter is to be taken. Thus 26 signifies twice b; and 96,

INTRODUCTION. 9 times b, or 9 multiplied into b.

The object of learning a modern language is not simply, as in The co-efficient may be either a whole number or a fraction. the case of one that is no longer spoken, to be able to read and Thus gb is two-thirds of b. When the co-efficient is not ex- write, but also to speak it. For this purpose it is obviously pressed, 1 is always to be understood. Thus a is the same as necessary to acquire a knowledge of the pronunciation as well le, that is to say, once a, or one times.

as the meaning of the words. Hence we are not surprised at 17. The co-efficient may also be a letter, as well as a figure. having received many applications from the readers of our lesIn the quantity mb, m may be considered the co-efficient of b; sons in German for some instruction on this subject; and it is because b is to be taken as many times as there are units in m. our intention to publish in the pages of the POPULAR EDUCATOR If w stands for 6, then mb is six times b. In 3abc, 3 may be con- a series of German Reading Lessons expressly prepared with a sidered as the co-efficient of abe; 3a the co-efficient of bc; or view to teach the proper pronunciation of the language. These 3ab the co-efficient of c.

lessons will be found much better adapted to answer the pur18. A simple quantity is either a single letter or number, pose than any mere collection of rules, however carefully drawn or several letters connected together without the signs + or up, and however clearly expressed. In no case is the principle, - Thas a, ab, abd, and 86, are each of them simple quan- that example is better than precept, more applicable than in tities.

that of pronunciation, a knowledge of which can only be acquired 19. A compound quantity consists of a number of simple by frequent exemplification. We have no hesitation in saying quantities connected by the sign + or -, Thus a + b, d-y, that the study of our lessons will enable the reader to pronounce b-d +3h, are each compound quantities. The members of German, if not with absolute perfection, at least so as to be which each is composed are called terms.

easily understood by a native, which is, after all, the only prac20. A simple term is called a monomial ; thus, a, b,

tical object in view. monomials. If there are two terms in a compound quantity, it It is proper to observe, that whilst the lessons are especially is called a binomial: thus a + b and a--b are binomials. intended to teach pronunciation, they are also calculated to be The latter term (a - b) is also called a residual quantity, very useful to our readers as exercises in translation, being easy because it expresses the difference of two quantities, or the in construction, simple in style, rich in words, and adapted in remainder after one is taken from the other. A compound substance to persons of all ages. A vocabulary will be appended quantity, consisting of three terms, is sometimes called a tri- to each lesson, containing an explanation of the meaning of wonial; one of four terms, a quadrinomial. A quantity consist- every word in it which has not been previously explained. As ing of several terms is, however, generally called a polynomial. few words will be explained more than once in the whole course

21. When the several members of a compound quantity of the vocabularies, it will be necessary for the learner to study are to be subjected to the same operation, they are connected each with great care on its first occurrence, that he may avoid by a line called a vinculum (-), or by a parenthesis (). Thus the inconvenience of having to look through preceding pages 4-6+, or a-(6 + c), shows that the sum of b and c is to be for the meaning. subtracted from a. But a-b+c signifies that b is to be sub DIRECTIONS FOR THE USE OF THE INTERLINEAR tracted from a, and c is to be added to the result.

PRONUNCIATION. 22. A single letter, or a number of letters, representing any

Pronounce every syllable as in English. quantities with their relations, is called an algebraic expression

To make a vowel long which otherwise would be short, or or formula. Thus a + b + 3d is an algebraic expression.

might be either short or long, an apostrophe has been placed 23. Multiplication is usually denoted by two oblique lines immediately after that vowel. Thus vol will rhyme with doll, crossing each other, thus X : hence, a x b is a multiplied into but vo'l will rhyme with whole. b; and 6 x 3 is 6 times 3, or 6 multiplied into 3. Sometimes

To make a vowel short which otherwise would be long, or a point is used to indicate multiplication: thus, a.b is the same might be either long or short, the short sign or breve has been az e xb. But the sign of multiplication is more commonly placed over that vowel. Thus mild will rhyme with wild, but omitted between simple quantities, and the letters are con mild will rhyme with build. Boot will rhyme with root, but boot nected together in the form of a word or syllable: thus, ab is will rhyme with put. the same as a.b or a xb; and bode is the same as b XcX dxe. When a compound quantity is to be multiplied, a

ah is long, and sounded as in father; a is short, and sounded rinculum or parenthesis is used, as in the case of subtraction. as in castle. Thus the sum of a and b multiplied into the sum of c and d, is

ey is to be pronounced as in obey. +bxe+d, or (a + b) (c+d). And (6 +2) x 5 is 8 x 5,

ai, representing the short sound of ę, when unaccented and cr 40. But 6 + (2 X 5) is 6+ io, or 16. When the marks of terminating a syllable, should be pronounced like ey in the parenthesis are used, the sign of multiplication is frequently noun sur'-vey. The letters ey could not well be used for this omitted. Thus (x + y (x - y) is (x + y) X (—y).

sound, as they have generally the sound of ee when unao

cented. 24. When two or more quantities are multiplied together, each of them is called a factor. In the product ab, a is a factor, ó has no corresponding sound in English ; plaee the organs as and so is b. In the product a X (a + m), « is one of the factors, if to pronounce o long; keep them exactly in this position, and (a + m) the other. Hence every co-efficient may be con and then try to pronounce the German e or English a. For sidered as a factor (Art. 17). In the product 3y, 3 is a factor the short sound of this vowel place the organs again as if

to pronounce o, and without changing, try to pronounce ef, 23. A quantity is said to be resolved into factors, when any el, eck, em, en, ep, er, ess, et, and you will utter the sound factors are taken which, being multiplied together, will pro required. The sound which comes nearest to it is the e in duce the given quantity. Thus 3ab may be resolved into the her. two factors 3a and b, because 3a x b is 3cb. And 5amn may ü has no parallel in English. Pronounce og in ooze, firmly be resolved into the three factors 5a, and m, and n. And 48 maintain this position, and try to pronounce long e in eel; may be resolved into the two factors 2 x 24, or 3 x 16, or

the sound uttered will be the one required. For the short 4 X 12, or 6 X 8; or into the three factors 2 X 3 X 8, or 4 x 6

sound, place the organs in a similar position, and without X 2, etc.

changing it try to say if, il, ick, im, in, ip, ir, iss, it. 26. Division is expressed in two ways: (1.) By an horizontal For those who have studied French it may be well to reline between two dots +, which shows that the quantity pre mark that the German û has the same sound as the ording it is to be divided by that which follows. Thus a = 0, French u. is a divided by c.

ou is always to be sounded as in out, our. 2.) Division is more commonly expressed in the form of a fraction, putting the dividend in the place of the numerator, c has different sounds, according to its position in the word.

gh before e and i must be pronounced like g in get, gimlet. and the divisor in that of the denominator. Thus

Thus, is a In the interlinear pronunciation we shall denote it by

oh, when it is pronounced like an aspirated k, or like the

As well as y,

divided by b.

gern

n.

ch in the Scotch word loch. It has this sound after the | Wohnung, f. dwell- Klein, small,

Umber, around, vowels a, o, u, au ; by

ing (wohnen, to Gast, m. guest.

about; schauen, to “y,” when it is pronounced like an aspirated y. It has dwell, reside, live). Entfkiegen, to fly & look. this sound in all other German words; by

Nun, now, well. way (ent-, prefix, Uns, us. * k," when it is pronounced like k. It has this sound in Picen, to pick. away, up, forward). Ansehen, to look at most words derived from the Greek and before s, unless Die, pl. the.

Den, acc. m. the. (an, prep. and prethis s belongs to the next syllable, or is an inflection ; Brosamen, pl. scraps. Nahe, near.

fix, at, to, by). by

Krume, f. crum. Walb, m. forest. Etwas, something, “sh," when it is pronounced like sh in English. It has Auf, up, upon, on. Bauen, to build. anything. this sound in words derived from the French.

Die, relative pronoun Singen, to sing. Wollen, to wish, want, We shall transcribe g in the same manner, whenever it is

pl. which.

Fröhlich, merry (froh, be willing pronounced in one of these ways.

Von, of, from.

glad, cheerful). Antworten, to answer

Tisch, m. table. Lieb, n. song, hymn, (Antwort, f. an1.-Das Rothfehlchen.

Fallen, to fall.

air.

swer). Dass rote-keyl-den.

Auch, also.

Sehen, to see, to Vater, m. father, Ein Rothfehlchen · fam in der Strenge des Winters an das Kind, n, child.

look.

Wenn, if, when. Ine rote'-keyl-yen kahm in dair shtreng'-ai dess vin'-ters an dass Vogel

, m. bird (-lein, Kehren, to turn. Sie, they, them, she, Fenster eines frommen Landmanns, als ob es hinein

sign of diminutives). Abermals, again. her. fen'-ster i'-ness from’inen lant-manss, alss op ess gairn hin-ine' Lieb halten, to love. Weibchen, n. Weib, Reden, to speak (Reve,

Werth halten, to es n. mate, female, f. speech). möchte. öffnete der Landmann sein Fenster und nahm

teem, cherish wife. möy'-tai. Dah öf-nai-tai dair lant-man zine fen'-ster öðnt nahm

Können, to be able,

(halten, to hold). Mit, with; bringen, can. bas zutrauliche Thierchen freundlich in seine Wohnung. Nun

Aber, but.

to bring ; haben, to Würden, woald, dass tsoo'-trou-l-ye teer'-yen froint'-lij in zi-nai voʻ-noðnk. Noon Der, nom. m. the. have.

should, sign of pidte 18 die Brosamen und Strümchen auf, die von seinem Frühling, m. spring. Sammt, together the conditional pick'-tai ess dee broʻ-zah-men dönt krü'm'-yen ouf, dee fön zi-nem Wieder, again, prefiere. with.

mood. Tische fielen. Auch hielten die Kinder des Landmanns das

Bebūsd), n. collective Freuen, to enjoy, re Sagen, to say. tish-shai fee'-len. Ouch hee®-ten dee kin'-der dess lant-manss, dass

noun, bushes, joice.

Zutrauen, n. confi.

copse (ge-, a prefiæ, Sehr, very, much. dence. Vöglein lieb und werth. Aber als nun der Frühling wieder in

showing a mass of Beide, both.

Grweden, to awake. fö'g'-line leep oont veyrt. ah'-ber alss noon dair frü"-link vee-der in

things; Busch, m. Wie, how, as, like. Liebe, f. love (Lieben, das Land fam und die Gebüsche sich belaubten, öffnete bush).

Aus, out, out of. to love). dass lant kahm dónt dee gai-büsh-shai ziy bai-laup'-ten, dah öf-nai-tai Sich, himself, herself, Klar, clear.

Erzeugen, to engender, der Landmann sein Fenster, und der kleine Gaft entflog

in das

itself, themselves. Auge, n. eye (Aeuglein, beget. dair lant-man zine fen'-ster, dont dair kli'-nai gast ent-flo'ch' in dass Belauben, to cover

diminutive, Oegen, preposition nahe Wäldchen, und bauete fein Neft und fang sein fröhliches

with foliage (Raub, small eye, beauti and prefix, coun. nah'-hai velt-yen, dont bou’-ai-tai zine nest dönt.zank zine fröʻ-11-yess

foliage).
ful eye).

ter, against Siedchen leet -yen,

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. und fiehe, als der Winter wiederkehrte, da fam das Roth

EXERCISE 60 (Vol. I., page 302). oðnt zee'-hai, alss dair vin'-ter vee'-der-keyr-tai, dah kahm dass rote'

1. These great beautiful houses are all to let. 2. The one house is fehlchen abermals in die Wohnung des Landmanns und to let, the other to sell. 3. It is not to be believed that he has forkeyl-yen ah'-ber-mahlss in dee vo'-noðnk dess lant-manss ont saken us. 4. This book is to be had of Mr. Westermann in Brunshatte sein Weibchen mitgebracht. Der Landmann aber fammt wick. 5. Not one single star was to be seen in the whole heavens

. hat-tai zine vipe'-yen mit-gai-bracht. Dair lant-man ah'-ber zamt

6. How is this long word to be pronounced? 7. Where are the best

boots, shoes, and over-shoes to be found ? 8. The best, which I have seinen Kindern freuten fich sehr, als sie die beiden Thierchen "sahen, seen, are to be found at my old neighbour N's. 9. The fire burnt so zi-nen kin'-dern froi'-ten zij zeyr, alss zeo dee bi-den teer'-yen zah'-hen, rapidly that nothing was to be saved in the castle. 10. Nothing valuwie sie aus den klaren Peuglein zutraulich umherschauten;

able is to be gained without trouble. 11. This high rock is not to be vee zee ouss dain klah'-ren oig'-line tsoo'-trou-liy dóm-heyr'-shou’-ten; this forest one cannot get. 14. He is neither to be convinced nor to be

climbed. 12. This old house is to be repaired no more. 13. Through und die Kinder sagten : Die Vögelchen sehen uns an, als ob persuaded. 15. His behaviour is not at all to be pardoned. 16. What ont dee kin'-der zahch-ten: Dee fö"-ghel.yen zey'-hen dönss an, alss op is your friend's name? 17. He is called James. 18. How is this fie etwas sagen wollten.

called in German ? 19. It is called Brille (spectacles). 20. The more

perfect a work of art is, that is, the more parts it has, and the more zoe et'-vass zah'-ghen vol-ten.

all these parts contribute to the purpose, the more beautiful it is. Da antwortete der Vater: Wenn sie reden fönnten, so Dah ant'-võr-tai-tai dair fah'-ter: Ven zee rey'-den kön'-ten, zo'

EXERCISE 61 (Vol. I., page 302). tvürden sie sagen : Freundliches Butrauen

1. Die Aussprace fremder Wörter ist nur durch Uebung zu erlernen. 2.

erivedet vür-den

3. Vollfommene Oludjeligfeit ist in

Nichts ist ohne Mühe zu erlernen. zee zah'-ghen: Froint'--yes tsoo'-trou-en err-veck'-et

dieser Welt nicht zu finden. 4. Sie sprechen so schnell, daß Sie nicht Zutrauen, und Liebe erzeuget Gegenliebe !

zu verstehen sind. 5. Gesundheit ist mit Geld nicht zu erfaufen. 6. Die tsoo-trou-en, dont lee'-bai err-tsoi-ghet ghey'-ghen-lee'-bai!

Ruhe der Stadt war burch firenge Befehle nicht herzustellen. 7. Wie VOCABULARY.

nennen Sie diese Blumen? 8. Sie werden Tulpen genannt. 9. Die Das, n. the. An, to.

Hinein, into (hin, klugen Schüler sind zu loben. 10. Der Unterschied zwischen fausen und Rothkehlchen, n. red- Fenster, n. window. along, towards). verkaufen muß den Schülern zu dieser Zeit befannt sein. 11. Dieses Buch

breast (roth, red; Eines, gen. m. and n. Da, then, there. ist bei dem Buchhändler 6. in Lonton zu haben. 12. Gin werthvolled Keble, f. throat; of a, of one. Öffnen, to open.

Kunstwerk kann nicht ohne viel Mühe gemacht werden. 13. Die Rose und -chen, affix, sign of Fromm, pious. Sein, his.

tas Veilchen werden wegen ihres Wohlgeruchs geschaft, die Tulpe wegen bes diminutive). Landmann, m. coun- Und, and.

Glanzes ihrer Farben. 14. Jakob geht morgen nach Braunsdweig. 15. Gin, a, one.

tryman.

Nehmen, to take. Die Himmel verfündigen die Herrlichkeit Gottes.
Kommen, to come. Als, as, when. Zutraulicy, confiding

EXERCISE 62 (Vol. I., page 302).
Der, f. dat. the, to Db, if, whether. (trauen, to trust).
the.
Ee, it.
Thier, n. animal.

1. Where are you sending your servant ? 2. He is ill, he can go noStrenge, f. severity. Gern, willingly, with Freundlich,

friendly, where. :3. Do you copy this letter! 4. I have already copied it. 5. Do

you believe that the bookbinder sends me back my books? 6. Has Des, gen. m. and n. of pleasure (Gern kind (Freund, m.

your sister received the flowers which I have bought for ber? 7. The the. mögen, to like; fom

friend ; -lich, affix, gardener comes to-morrow, and will bring them with him. 8. When Winter, m. winter. men, understood).

doas John go to school? 9. He goes there to-morrow, and little

like -ly).

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11. The

Henry goes too. 10. Where are the new tables which the joiner day. 10. Are you going with me this afternoon upon the ice? 11. No, has made ? 11. Havo you seen the beautiful carriage, in which it thaws already, and the ice may easily break in. 12. When it Mr. G. has taken his wife and children away? 12. When does your dawns I shall call for you for a walk. 13. It has showed the whole brother come back from Paris ? 13. He has already been back these of the day. 14. Does it rain already? 15. No, but it will soon bogin five days. 14. Do you wish to take a walk ? 15. No, I have already to rain. 16. How long has it rained ? 17. It rained till four o'clock. taken a walk round the town,

18. Does it thunder? 19. Yes, it thunders and lightens, and I fear it

will also hail. 20. Where were you when it snowed ? 21. I took EXERCISE 63 (Vol. I., page 302).

shelter in St. George's Chapel; for it not only snowed, but stormed 1. Gr war im Begriffe uns mitzutħcilen, was er geschrieben hatte, aber er and hailed. 22. I only tell you what I have heard. kurde turd die Anfunft eines Fremten unterbrochen. 2. Wann ist Ihr

EXERCISE 69 (Vol. I., page 311). frånlein Sowester nach Frankreich abgereist? 3. Sie ist vorgestern abgereist. 4. Sat fte tie Feine Maria mitgenommen? 5. Es wird sehr schwer sein, 1. Es schien tiefen Morgen als ob es regnen wollte, aber nun fångt frin Baragen mit ten Grundsäßen, gut welchen er fich bekennt, übereinstim, bas Wetter an schön zu werden. 2. Es ereignete fich, daß es regnete, gerade Inend zu machen. 6. Shr, tie ihr eure Freunde verlassen habt, seit feines als die Schlacht begann; und es tonnerte und hagelte den ganzen Tag Bertrauens würtig. 7. Gute Frauen sind die reizentste Klasse der Gesell. binturch. 3. Es hat diesen Winter geregnet, gehagelt, geschneit und itaft, fie trösten uns, erheben unser Gemütl, begrünten unser Glück, und gefroren. 4. So lange es regnet, kann ich nicht abreisen. 5. Es scheint, Haben feine Pastor, ale tie, welche wir ihnen mittheilen.

taß viele Frembe in diesem (Vasthofe sind. 6. Es giebt viele Dinge, die EXERCISE 64 (Vol. I., page 303).

wir nicht erklären können. 7. Sobald es tagt, werde ich bei Ihnen vorsprechen,

um zu gehen und den Aufgang der Sonne zu sehen. 8. Gibt es wohl etwas 1. We are growing older and older, and are sooner at our end than Etleres, als einem Feinde vergeben? 9. Wollen Sie morgen mit mir auf is agreeable to us. 2. It became so dark that we were not able to see our hands before our eyes. 3. At five o'clock it grows dark. 4. Do das Eis gehen? 10. Nein, ich fürchte, daß es schon thaut, und es würde you rise early in the morning ? 5. As soon as it is light, I leave my gefährlich sein, es zu wagen. 11. Sebald der Wind sich legt, wird es bed. 6. Shall you still emigrate this year to America ? 7. I intend regien. 12. In jeder Gesellschaft gibt es mehr Dummföpfe als Bösewichte, it, bat I do not think anything will come of it. 8. In the year one

und mehr Unwissente als Gelehrte. thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, France became a republic,

EXERCISE 70 (Vol. I., page 323). 2. God said, Let it be, and it was. 10. Is your new grammar already inisbed? 11. Not yet, but I hope it will be finished in a fortnight at 1. All exhalations and vapours which continually rise from the earth, the latest 12. What will become of me? 13. "It will be a hot day," collect in the atmosphere, and when they unite, rain, snow, mist, said an old warrior to his comrades a few hours before the battle. wind, and every other change of air results from them. 2. He who 14. The sun sunk in the sea, and it became night. 15. The sick man accustoms himself to work in his youth need not suffer want in his old on his couch says, with a sigh, “Will it, then, never be day?" and age. 3. The Ludwig street in Munich is distinguished by a row of the day-labourer, under the pressure of his work (says), " Will it not splendid. palaces. 4. Those persons who praise themselves very often soon be night ?" 16. The weather has already become rather cold. make themselves ridiculous. 5. The sons of Charles the Great were

obliged to practise theniselves in arms, in riding, and in swimming. EXERCISE 65 (Vol. I., page 303).

6. The daring diver ventures to plunge himself in the roaring whirlpool. 1. Die Gegenwart kennen wir, von der Zukunft wissen wir nichts, und Ohre 7. The envious (man) injures himself more than others. 8. Frederick tem Meusden, ter ruhig die Zukunft erwarten fann. 2. Wurte Ihre the Great often stopped at Potsdam, in the palace of Sanssouci. 9. Styrester plößlish trant? 3. Nein, ste fühlte sdon acht Tage zuvor heftiges Goodness is its own reward. 10. The believer in affliction appears Leefneh. 4. Wollen Sie ein gelehrter Mann werten ? 5. Laßt uns

as a rock in the sea when the ocean billows rage about him. sach Gause geben, ehe es tumfel wird. 6. Die meisten Menschen werden great blue arch which we call heaven, is an immeasurable space, in tranf burd Bernachlässigung. "7. Mancher wurde ein ganz anderer Mensch, force with which the muscles contract and extend is very great.

which the earth, sun, moon, and innumerable stars move. 12. The nadrem er eine sorgfältigere Erziehung erhalten hatte. 8. Die meisten 13. Many people addict themselves so passionately to bad habits, that Neniden werten Scaven des Reichthums anstatt Herren desselben. 9. they consider them necessities of nature. 14. A child in the arms Sebab es Frühling wirt, belebt die ganze Natur sich wieder.

of its good parents is not afraid ; ,so the man who has confidence

in God. 15. The army collected together, and moved toward the river. EXERCISE 66 (Vol. I., page 310).

16. The enemy encamped around the town. 17. He distinguished 1. How old is this man? 2. He is not very old. 3. Has he much himself from all others by his brave behaviour. 18. He is afraid of money? 4. Yes, and he has also many friends and many enemies. nobody. 19. He criticises my neighbour's words. 3. Which boy has many apples and pears ? 6. One of the peasant's

EXERCISE 71 (Vol. I., page 323). soos has many apples, the other has many pears. 7. The one has noch zuccess, the other only grief and anxiety. 8. How much bread 1. Der Züngling grimt sich über den Verlust seiner Eltern. 2. Die has the baker ? 9. He has very much brend, but only a little Mutter war erfreut, als der Brief von meiner Schwester ihr vorgelesen wurde. floar. 10. This man has little money, but much intelligence. 11. These 3. Sie tröstete sich mit dem Gedanken, daß fie bald ankommen würde. 4. boots are much too large for me, and the shoes are a little too short Werten Sie lange in Italien verweilen? Nein, es ist nicht mein Wille. for my brother. 12. Will your uncle buy much powder ? 13. He will bay only a little, because he has too little money. 14. Who is that? 5. Gin ehrlicher Mann fürchtet nichts. 6. Die Slaven haben sich gegen 15. It is an old friend of the physician. 16. Who has good water die östreichische Regierung empört. 7. Die englischen Truppen zeichneten 17. The sailor has some. 18. Shall I have some books to morrow? sich durch ihre Tapferkeit in der Schlacht bei Waterlov aus. 8. Derjenige, 19. You will have some to-day already. 20. Has the peasant much welcher sich über das Unglück eines Andern frent, verdient nicht ten Beifall wheat? 21. He has not much.22. Has the blacksmith much steel ? der Tugendhaften. 9. Derjenige, welcher sich ärgert, wenn ein Anderer in 23. He has much. 24. Has he many nails ? 25. He has many seiner Gegenwart gelobt wird, ist ein Mensch, welcher nicht verdient, geliebt 21. Who has milk ? 27. The peasant has some. 28. Has he very und geehrt zu werden. 10. Derjenige, welcher fich freut, wenn sein Nachmuch? 29. He has enough.

bar geliebt wird, ist ein gutmüthiger Mensch. EXERCISE 67 (Vol. I., page 310). 1. Bir müssen vorsichtig in ter Wahl desjenigen sein, dem wir wichtige Angelegenheiten anvertrauen. 2. Diejenigen, welche übel von andern

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. trzen, sind oft idlimmer als die, teren Fehler fie bloßstellen. 3. Er be:

THE CRAB. funnte sie Religion, deren Ursprung gëttlich ist. 4. Dieser Knabe befist zu The word crab requires no definition, and the animal thus named sul Stolz und zu wenig Fleiß. 5. Das ist der Mann, burch bessen Hülfe is probably known to every reader. Whether the term be doet gerettet wurte. 6. Welches gefiel Ihnen am meisten? Dieses over rived by abbreviation from the Latin carabus (crabus, crab), or mes? Seince von Beiten. stermann verabscheut werten? •8. Wie viele Hüte þat jener Knabe? 9. from a Saxon root signifying to bite or grip, is matter of debate. fr hat trei. 10. Ber verkauft hier gutes Brod ? 11. Unser Väder

The latter origin is, however, the more probable. In this case perfaust sehr gutes Bret.

one primary meaning can be traced through crab, the crus

tacean; crab, the apple, from its biting taste; and crab, a machine EXERCISE 68 (Vol. I., page 311).

for lifting or gripping heavy weights. But this short word con. 1. There is very much fruit this year. 2. It is very beautiful weather veys little notion of the animal's structure, and is therefore of to-day. S. There are more poor people than rich. 4. It is really a no scientific value. What, then, does the reader say to the pleasure to take a walk this morning. 5. Are there also ravenous name Decapod, brachyurous crustacean ? * To many this long beasts in Germany ? 6. There are still many wolves in the mountains. 7. The hostile army is on its return (retreat). 8. Is there anythiug more beautiful than the rising of the sun ? 9. It has snowed the whole

* Decapod, ten-footed; brachyurous, short-tailed.

name will at once suggest the peculiar structure of the crab ; others may feel inclined to regard it as pedantic. But as the meaning of the designation is simply this, that the crab is a crustacean with a short tail and ten feet, it is an exact description of the animal. Our notices must be limited to a few only of the more remarkable species, their singular habits and peculiar structure. The spider-crabs, so named from the great length of their legs, are found on many parts of the south, west, and east coasts of England. The large reddish, spine-backed spider-crab of Cornwall (Maia squinado) has sometimes the front legs fifteen inches long. Though little prized as food, and contemptuously

these fights, claws, limbs, and shells are torn, wrenched, and cracked, with a fury and energy to which a battle between two game-cocks is but play. When a large crab has seized a smaller, he tears open the shell, and scoops out the flesh of his living captive. Perhaps, while the conqueror is enjoying his feast, a still stronger crab will tear open the body of the victor, and feed upon him. The most singular fact is, that a crab, while thus being eaten, will actually continue to feed on the victim seized by himself. Here appears a total insensibility to suffering. A crab has been known to lose seven of its limbs in a fight, and immediately after to begin eating a captured mollusk, as if nothing particular had happened. These furious battles are probably

THE SHORE CRAB (CARCINUs MENAs).

called “spiders” by the fishermen, this crustacean was highly honoured by the ancient Greeks, who deemed it a “rational animal,” used it as a symbol of wisdom, and sculptured it on the statue of “Diana of the Ephesians.” Still more was this genus honoured by receiving the name Maia, that of the mother of Mercury; and it is probable that the month of May was named from the same root. Thus the spine-backed spider-crab is not without a history. The common edible crabs of the fish-shops (Cancer pagntrus), though well known, require some notice. They are found on rocky parts of our coasts, the small animals inhabiting holes in the cliffs, but the larger and more experienced dwelling in deeper waters. When caught and kept alone in an aquarium, one of these crabs may become tame and quite familiar; but if placed with others of its race, a series of desperate battles will soon declare the degree to which the ferocity of the crab may extend. In

not so common when the crabs are in their natural state, as when pent up in a close marine tank. The small red crab (Carcinus monas) sold by the London costermongers is, of course, to be classed with the edible kind, though grouped with the portunians, or paddling crabs. It is easily found a little beneath the sand when the tide has gone down. One may be kept for several days in moist sand only; and if the captor will give his crab a mussel, he will receive his reward by observing the grave earnestness with which the crustacean scoops out the flesh with its handlike claws. This crab is of a greenish tint when alive; the red colour of those on the stalls arises from the oxidation of the shell when boiled. The voracity of the common crab renders it an easy prey to the fisherman, who has only to bait his wicker traps, called “crab-pots,” or “stalkers,” with useless or decayed fish, and

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sink them in a suitable place, when the eager crustaceans will When the hermit grows too large for the shell first approsoon enter. Readers have, doubtless, noticed in the shops priated, another is sought, and, after repeated trials, is fitted to huge specimens of the edible crab; these fellows, brought up the body. Thus new homes are provided as required. from deep waters, have sometimes weighed twelve pounds each. Of course we need not warn any reader not to place these

Perhaps the most remarkable of our British crustaceans is crabs in an aquarium containing other marine creatures ; the the hermit crab (Pagurus Bernhardus). There is no mistaking hermits will kill them all. If, however, a tank can be arranged this red and yellow tinted crab, as he runs along the sand, for hermits only, the peace will probably be kept for some dragging with him the whelk or other shell which he has appro- time, they having a wholesome respect for each other's pugpriated for his house. Most readers are aware that this family nacity, and acting on the international principle, “ If you wish of crabs is without any shell on the hinder part of the body. peace, be ready for war." Were this all, we might simply note the fact as a remarkable The name "hermit" seems to have been given by those who deviation from the usual structure of crustaceans. We should fancied a resemblance between each crab in its shell and a also infer that the animal's habits were suited to its peculiar lonely hermit in his cell. In the West Indies these crustaceans formation, and that no sense of a deficiency in its covering are called “soldiers," their thorax case suggesting the notion would be felt by the creature. But this is not so; the crab does of a warrior's breastplate. feel the absence of its protection, and remedies the want by The habits of the pea crab (Pinnotheres* pisum) are not less seizing on the shells of other animals, and inserting the unde- remarkable than those of the hermits, and demand a few sen

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1. 2. STAGES IN THE METAMORPHOSIS OF THE SHORE CRAB. 3, 4. STAGES IN THE METAMORPHOSIS OF THE SPIDER CRAB.

6. THE HERMIT CRAB. 7. THE LAND CRAB,

5. THE PEA CRAB.

fended part of its body into the appropriated asylum. If the crab tences. These pinnotherians are sometimes not above one-tenth finds the empty shell of a whelk, or any other of a suitable size of an inch long, are of a pale-red colour, and inhabit the shells and shape, the naked part of its body is so firmly fixed in the of living mussels. The common edible mussel may often be Dorel home that it is easily drawn after the animal. If no empty found with one of these small pea crabs dwelling very comshell can be found, then the fierce crab seizes a whelk, eats the fortably inside the shell, without apparently giving any vietim, and appropriates its house. When one of these hermits annoyance to the mussel. The softness of their carapace comis seen, the fore part of the body is alone visible, the rest being pels these small crustaceans to find so strange a shelter in the concealed in the cleverly adapted home. To enable the crab homes of living mollusks. What service the crab renders the thue to crouch into a shell it was necessary to deprive it almost mussel is debated, though the old naturalists were very clear entirely of the two hinder pairs of legs, which are therefore upon the matter, holding that the tenant gave warning to its only rudimentary limbs. The observer may wish to have a protector of approaching foes, the mussel then closed its shell, complete view of so strange a crustacean. Let him be cautious; and both were safe. “Thus,” remarks one writer, " the little the hermit is sharp in temper, and a pinch from its mandibles crab pays a good rent, by saving the life of his landlady." will not be soon forgotten. See how bravely the creature Sometimes a whole family of pea crabs will be found thus defende its house ! Shrinking back as far as possible, it draws living with their guardian in the atmost harmony, Some in the small claw, bars the entrance with the large one, and naturalists, however, hint that the mussel would gladly eject hods this in readiness to seize the enemy. Should the hermit the intruders if it were possible. Cockles, oysters, and other at last be gripped without damage to fingers, it is even then mollusks, are also patronised by the pea crabs. question whether its body will not be torn asunder in the endestour to drag it out. This tenacity of hold arises from a * Mussel protectors ; so named from the notion that these small crabs peculiar grasping apparatus on the tail.

guarded the pinna, or mussel, from the cuttle-fish.

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