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11.

Schuld daran gewesen. 14. Morgen über acht Tage kommt ein Dampf- beleidigte nicht nur mich, sondern auch meinen Oheim. 4. Dieje Same schiff von New-Yorf an. 15. Morgen über vierzehn Tage wird es ein hat mir schon viel Vertruß gemacht. 5. Der ungerathene Sohn matt

Jahr, daß ich ihn gesehen habe. 16. Gestern vor acht Tagen ist sein Vater tem Vater viel Verdruß. 6. Es vertrießt den Lehrer, eigensinnige Súillet gestorben. 17. Das junge Mädchen begleitete ihren Gesang mit der zu haben. 7. Diese Rebe verdrog manche Anwesenden.

8. Der net Guitarre. 18. Der Freund begleitete mit dem Fortepiano das Geigenspiel drossene Knabe ließ seine Arbeit liegen. 9. Es vertroß den Freunt, taj bes Italieners. 19. Die Begleitung dieser Lieber ist von Mozart. 20. ich ihm seine Briefe nicht beantwortete. 10. Ich verbanfe ihm meine Miet. Vieles würde und natürlich erscheinen, wenn wir es einer gehörigen Unter tung. 11. Somit verbanfe ich ihm nächst Gott Alles. 12. Wenn e suchung unterwerfen wollten. 21. Wir fanden es sehr natürlich, daß er nicht bald anders wird, so laufe ich davon. 13. Bei solchen Greignissen gestern nicht fam. 22. Gin natürliches Ereigniß erregt feine Verwun möchte man davon laufen. 14. Dem Knaben ist sein fleiner Hunt tapet, derung. 23. Haben Sie heute Morgen die Feuerglocken gehört? 24. gelaufen. 15. Dem Richter geziemt et, nach der Ursache dieser Störung Nacürlich (Sect. LXXXII.), tenn ich war selbst bei tem Feuer. 25. 68 zu fragen. 16. Es geziemt mir, über diese Sache zu schweigen. 17. De ist natürlich, daß wir sterben müssen. 26. Ich begleite meine jungen Neugierige pflegt sich nach jeder Kleinigfeit umzusehen. 18. Ich ging in tie Freunde nach Hause.

Stadt, um mich ein wenig barin umzusehen. 19. Mein Freund will sich nach EXERCISE 163.

einer andern Wohnung umsehen. 20. 3ch lobe mir die alten Zeiten, 21, 1. It is a pity that your friend did not arrive half an hour Ich lobe mir die schönen Zimmer und die freundliche Bewirthung. 22. Die earlier. 2. I must submit to whatever my father resolves on. Pferde wurden scheu, und gingen mit und durch. 3. John's new book pleases me much. 4. One must submit in

EXERCISE 165. this life to many things. 5. I would not submit to it, if I were in your place. 6. To the right hand we had the river, and to

1. It does not become a child to contradict its parents. 2. the left hand the mountainous forest. 7. Right and left we

I went to the town for the purpose of looking about. 3. I adsaw nothing but enemies' troops. 8. This day week we go to mire these beautiful apartments and their pleasant situation

. Berlin. 9. To-morrow fortnight my brother

will arrive here. 4. The thief ran away with the money before it was possible to 10. A week ago yesterday a ship sailed for Australia,

overtake him. 5. He ran away for fear they should take him Three days ago we had unexpectedly great pleasure. 12. It is

in the act. 6. It is a vexations affair that he has lost my a pity that the talents of this young artist are not better deve- money. 7. I perceive that this little present pleases yon. 8. I loped. 13. Your sister accompanied me with the harp, and perceive that he has not spoken the truth. 9. Are you looking sang to the piano of my friend. 14. It is quite natural that about for your father ? 10. No, I am looking for my friends. everybody must die. 15. The accompaniment

of this piece is 11: I praise these intelligent scholars. 12. Do not fall, little by Handel.

child. 13. My brother shoots a bird from a tree at eighty paces. SECTION LXXXV.-DATIVE OF PRONOUNS, ETC. The dative of the personal pronoun of the first and second

THE UNIVERSITIES.-II. person (seldom translatable) is often employed in familiar style,

OXFORD.-II. to intimate in a wholly indefinite manner a participation or interest on the part of the speaker or the person addressed; as: II. Advantages and Conditions of the University Curriculum. Ich lobe mir den Knaben, I praise (for myself) the boy. Gehe mir i. The course open to students, described in the University nicht auf's Gis, do not go upon the ice. In der blut'gen Schlacht bei statutes as non ascripti, more commonly known as unattached Lüßen ritt er Euch unter des Feuers Blißen auf und nieder mit fühlem Blut students. (Schiller), in the bloody battle of Lützen he rode amid the light ü. Private halls. nings of the firing, up and down in cool blood,

iii. Collegiate education. 1. Davonlaufen=to run off, to run away; as:--Er ist bei Nacht

1. UNATTACHED STUDENTS. und Nebel davon gelaufen, he has run away by night and fog.

Of the three conditions under which students can now matriDurchgehen has sometimes a like signification; as :-Der Diener culate in the University of Oxford, that of “unattached students” ist mit dem Gelbe durchgegangen, the servant has run away with the is at once the most recent in point of time, and the most popular money. VOCABULARY.

as regards its requirements. By this it is not intended to be

inferred that the majority of the undergraduates of Oxford are An'merfen, to perceive. Neu'gierig,inquisitive,| Störung, f. disturb- unattached students, but that the condition is the most inde Bewir'thung, f. enter curious.

ance.

pendent, and likely to commend itself to those who would seek tainment, recep- Rettung, f. deliver- Um*sehen, to look å university course rather for its educational than for its tion.

about.

social advantages. For this reason it is treated of first in the Freundlich, friendly. Scheu, shy, skittish. Vertrie'ßen, to grieve, second chapter on the advantages offered by the University of Gezie'men, to become, Somit', consequently,

vex, trouble.

Oxford. Its difference from the hitherto normal mode of passing beseem therefore.

through the University being only social, and the exercises and RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

examinations required for degrees being the same for all the Das Tanzen macht mir kein Ver- Dancing affords me no plea to all the three classes is given under this head; only that

three classes of students, all the information that is common gnü'gen. Ich merke es Ihnen an, taß Sie I perceive (Sect. LI. Sieht man, which is peculiar to the other classes being placed under the nicht zufrie’den sind.

etc.) that you are not con

divisions respectively allotted to them. tented.

The statute which provides for admission to the University Das ist eine verbrief'liche Sache, That is a vexatious affair (or independently of any college or hall, was passed in the summer

business).

of the year 1868, the Rev. Francis Knyvett Leighton, D.D., Die Niebe hat die Zufhörer verbro'. The speech (has) displeased the Warden of All Souls College, being Vice-Chancellor at the time sen.

auditors.

The delegacy appointed under the statute for the special superEr ist davon' gelau'fen. He has run away.

vision of students of this class consists of the Vice-Chancellor Schen Sie sich nach einer Wohnung Are you looking about (you) and Proctors (who are delegates ex officio), and the Rev. G. W.

for a residence (boarding

Kitchin, M.A., of Christ Church, and the Rev. G. S. Ward, place) ?

M.A., of Magdalen Hall, who have been elected by Convocation. && geziemt' mir nicht, dem Greise zu It does not become me to con- Such students keep terms by residing in Oxford, either with widersprech'en.

tradict the aged man,

their parents or in lodgings which have been duly licensed. Ich habe ihn nie mit irgend einem I have never offended him by a attached students must apply to the delegates for licensing

Persons who desire to be admitted to the University as anWorte belei'digt.

single word. Der Zahzorn machte Aleran'ter dem Sudden passion caused Alexan- lodging-houses ; and the delegates must be satisfied that the Großen viel Verdruß'.

der the Great much sorrow.

candidates are of good character, that they have the consent Ich lobe mir jenen Ehfrenmann. I praise that man of honour.

of their parents or guardians to their living in lodgings, and

that they are of sufficient attainments in classics and matheEXERCISE 164.

matics. 1. Vielen Menschen scheint es ein Vergnügen zu machen, Andere zu be Twenty-five students were admitted in the first instance leidigen. 2. Ich merkte es ihm an, daß er sich beleidigt fühlte. 3. Er | under these conditions, and more have since been matriculated,

ance,

sure.

um ?

The subjects of the examination are as follow :

six weeks is required by the statutes to keep each of the two 1. Three books of Homer, or one Greek play.

first named, and three weeks for each of the other terms; but 2. Three books of Virgil's "Æneid," or three books of the these last may also be kept jointly by residing for forty-eight "Odes" of Horace.

days. 3. Translation from English into Latin.

Under the statute "De Scholarium Residentia," no student 4. The Elements of Greek and Latin Grammar.

can reside in any lodgings which have not been duly licensed. 5. Arithmetic, including Fractions, Decimals, and Proportion. [It may be well to state in this place that this provision applies

6. Euclid, books i. and ii., or Algebra, to Simple Equations, to collegiate and aularian as well as to unattached students.] inclusive.

The following means of education are open to unattached Each candidate must forward to the delegates (under cover students :to the Rev. G. W. Kitchin, M.A., Christ Church, or to the Rev. 1. All professorial or public lectures. [A list of these lectures G. S. Ward, M.A., Magdalen Hall) at least one week before the is published terminally, and may be seen on a notice-board in Jay appointed for the examination

the schools' quadrangle.] 1. A testimonial of good conduct and character.

2. The University Museum, with the lectures, etc., on Physical 2. A certificate that his parents or guardians consert to his Science. [Information to be had at the Museum.] jving in lodgings.

3. The Bodleian Library and the Radcliffe Reading Room When a candidate has satisfied the delegates in the examina- are open to all undergraduates. [Apply, with recommendation tion, he is required by the statutes to have a tutor, whom he from a M.A., to the Rev. H. 0. Coxe, M.A., the librarian.] may select for himself from a list of graduates who have been 4. The Taylorian Library of Foreign Literature, the Taylorian approved by the delegates to act in that capacity. Finally, he Galleries, and the Art School, are open to all undergraduates, will be matriculated by the Vice-Chancellor as an unattached under due restrictions. student of the University; and he can then at once begin to In addition to these advantages, which are provided by the keep terms.

larger body of the University, Oriel and Queen's Colleges have The following is a list that has been published of graduates opened their lectures on certain conditions, which may be who are willing to act in the capacity of tutors, from whom learned on application to the provosts of those societies, and unattached students may make their selection :

for a very moderate cost, to such unattached students as may T. Arnold, M.A., Exeter College (Laleham, St. Giles's Road be recommended by their tutors for such assistance. East).

Several resident Masters of Arts, among whom are Mr. J. Rev. T. Chamberlain, M.A., Student of Christ Church. Y. Sargent of Magdalen, the Rev. 0. Ogle of Lincoln, the Rev. D. P. Chase, M.A., Principal of St. Mary Hall.

Rev. S. J. Hulme of Wadham, and the Rev. G. W. Kitchin Rev. R. F. Clarke, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College. of Christ Church, have expressed their readiness to give lectures Rev. E. Cooper, M.A., Queen's College (70, High Street). in various branches of University study. Rev. H. B. George, M.A., Fellow of New College.

At any time the Revs. G. W. Kitchin and G. S. Ward may E. M. Geldart, B.A., Balliol College (North Parade).

be consulted in any difficulties which may occur to unattached Rev. E. Hatch, M.A., Vice-Principal of St. Mary Hall. students, the delegates as a body exercising over students of Rer. C. H. Hoole, M.A., Senior Student of Christ Church this class the same authority which is exercised by the heads (Museum Villas).

of colleges and halls over their students. Rev. S. J. Hulme, M.A., Wadham College (Felstead House, The chief information now required is a brief view (1) of St. Giles's Road East).

such further fees as the bulk of those who go through a course Rev. J. D. Jenkins, B.D., Fellow of Jesus College.

are liable to be called on to pay; and (2) of the principal subjects Rev. J. R. King, M.A., Merton College (Backworth, St. Giles's for examination. Road East).

Fees. Rer. O. Ogle, M.A., Lincoln College (20, Park Crescent, Park Before admission to the status of S.C.L. or S.M., £7 10g.; Town).

degree of B.A., £7 108.; ditto, if previously S.C.L. or S.M., Rev. J. Rumsey, M.A., Pembroke College.

£2; degree of Mus. Bac., £5; degree of M.A., £12; degree J. Y. Sargent, M.A., Tutor of Magdalen College (Headington of B.C.L. or B.M., £6 10s.; degree of B.D., £14; degree of Hill).

D.C.L., M.D., or D.D., £40; degree of Mus. Doc., £10. 8. B. Smith, B.A., Mathematical Lecturer, St. Alban Hall.

The sum of £1 per annum is also to be paid for University F.W.O. Ward, B.A., Charsley's Hall (7, Museum Terrace).

dues by all persons of the degree of M.A. who wish to remain The tutor is required to watch over the conduct and cha- on the Register of Convocation, and to retain membership of racter of the pupil, and to satisfy himself that he is receiving the University and the right of voting. This annual payment instruction in the studies of the University, and if a member can be compounded for by a single payment fixed by a scale of the Church of England, especially in matters of faith. For according to the age of the compounder. these services the tutor will receive a remuneration from the

[It may be mentioned in this place, in order not to have to University; but this remuneration does not provide for in- recur to fiscal matters, that a further annual payment is restruction.

quired from all persons who retain their names on the books The fees and dues to be paid by unattached students are, of any college or hall, to be made to the bursar or other upon matriculation, £5, and subsequently £3 10s. per annum.

official of such society. This payment varies slightly in the These payments entitle them to the advice and supervision of different colleges and halls.] their tutors, and to all the University advantages which are

Exercises and Examinations for Degrees. the privilege of undergraduates.

Students in the University of Oxford are required to pass The following fees are also charged, viz. :

£ g. d. three distinct examinations, viz. :-(1) Responsions, before the On entering the name for Responsions

0 Masters of the Schools (commonly known as the “Little-go "); First public examination

0 (2) the First Public Examination before Moderators (commonly Second public examination

o known as “Moderations"); and (3) the Second Public ExFinal school

0 10 0

amination, before the Public Examiners (commonly known as It is practically found that the expenses of unattached stu- the “Great-go"). dents for board and lodging average about £1 15s. per week

'1. Responsions. while in residence.

This examination is held three times in each year, printed Twelve terms must be kept in residence by every student notices being circulated of the times at which one of the Proctors before he can take the degree of B.A.; and twenty-six-for will receive the names of candidates, and the list of subjects in none of which (after the B.Ă. degree) any residence is required which they wish to be examined. Similar notice is given of all for the degree of M.A., which can be taken on the first approaching examinations. Each candidate for Responsions is day of the twenty-seventh term, or on any subsequent degree required, in order to obtain the Testamur, to satisfy the masters day.

of the schools, partly in writing, partly viva voce, of his proThere are four terms in the academical year - namely, ficiency in Latin and Greek grammar; the translation of a Michaelmas, Lert, Easter, and Trinity Terms. "A residence of passage of some English writer into Latin prose (usually an

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extract from the Spectator); Arithmetic, as far as Square Root Honours are also awarded in Mathematics as well as in Classics, inclusive; and either the first two books of Euclid, or Algebra the examination being confined to Pure Mathematics ; but no as far as Simple Equations inclusive. These subjects of exami- honours, either classical or mathematical, can be awarded later nation never vary. In addition, each candidate must offer a in the University course than the end of the tenth term from portion of one Latin or one Greek author. The following are matriculation. Subject to this condition, candidates may offer recommended to choose from :

themselves for mathematical honours in a different term from In Greek

that in which they have been examined in classics. A Testamur,

similar to that given at Responsions, is awarded to all who Homer.-Any five consecutive books. One of the Dramatists.-Any two plays. (Those offered are for honours being divided into three classes (both in the Clas

satisfy the Moderators, the names of the successful candidates most usually selected from the “ Hecuba," “ Alcestis," and sical and Mathematical Schools), the names in each class being « Medea” of Euripides; or from the "Ajax,” “ Philoctetes," arranged alphabetically. The names of those who satisfy the and "Antigone" of Sophocles.)

Moderators in the Pass Schools are also printed in alphabetical Xenophon's Anabasis.-Any four consecutive books.

order. In Latin.

3. Second Public Examination. Virgil.—The “Georgics;" or any five consecutive books of the This examination is held twice in every year, notice being *Æneid;” or the “Bucolics" with any three consecutive books given of the approach of the time in a similar manner to that of the “ Æneid.”

adopted previously to the other examinations, and students Horace.-Any three books of the “Odes” (the "Epodes” enter their names before the Proctor as before, producing their counting as a Book of the “Odes”), and “ De Arte Poeticâ ;” Testamur for the First Public Examination. The examination or the * Satires,” with “ De Arte Poeticâ ;” or the “ Epistles," embraces four schools, or sets of subjects-namely, Classics, or with “De Arte Poetica."

Literæ Humaniores; Mathematics ; Law and Modern History; Juvenal.-The whole, except “Satires” ii., vi., and ix. and Natural Science--and, as before, is conducted partly in

Cicero.-The four “Orations against Catiline," or any other writing, partly viva voce; and pass-men, as a rule, must satisfy four “Orations ;” or two books " De Officiis ;" or three books the public examiners in two schools. If, however, a candidate of the “Tusenlan. Disputations;” or “ De Amicitiâ ” and “ De has previously passed in not less than three books in the First Senectute.”

Public Examination, and obtains a place in at least the third 2. First Public Examination.

class in any one of the four schools, and has also satisfied the This examination is held twice a year. Every candidate who examiners in Divinity (or its substitute, if not a member of the passes it must have entered his name on the Proctor's list as Church of England, a provision being made in this examination previously to Responsions, producing at the same time his also similar to that which has been mentioned in connection Testamur for Responsions, and must satisfy

the Moderators in with the First Public Examination), nothing further is required Latin and Greek Grammar; in either Logic or Algebra, with

of him. (in either case) three books of Euclid; the four Gospels in

In the Classical School, or Literæ Humaniores, every candidate, Greek; and translation from English into Latin prose. These to obtain the Testamur, must satisfy the public examiners in subjects never vary; and the examination, as with Responsions, Divinity (or its substitute),

and in at least one Greek and one is partly in writing, partly viva voce. Such students as are not Latin author. The term "Divinity” comprises the four Gospels members of the Church of England may substitute for the four and the Acts of the Apostles in Greek, the whole range of Bible Gospels a Greek author equivalent in extent. In addition to the History, the Thirty-nine Articles, and the Evidences of Religion. fixed subjects, each candidate must offer a portion of one Latin of the two authors, one must be a philosopher, the other an and one Greek author at least, of which one must be a poet and historian, and neither may be the same with either of the two the other an orator, and neither of which may be the same with which the candidate brought in for Responsions, unless he now either of the two offered for Responsions, unless he now brings themselves for the honour examination, must choose their two

offers as many as four authors. Candidates, unless offering in as many as four authors. Candidates, unless offering themselves for the honour examination, must choose their two or books from a list of philosophers and historians which is issued three books from a list of poets and orators which is issued every year in Easter Term. every year in Easter Term.

Among the authors usually offered to candidates from which Among the authors usually offered to candidates from which to make their selection, are the following. As before, only to make their selection, are the following. Portions only of specified portions are required :each author are usually required, both in the Pass and Class

Greek.

Latin. Schools, which are duly specified:

Plato.

Cicero.
Greok.
Latin.

Aristotle.

Livy.
Sophocles,
Virgil.

Herodotus.

Tacitus.
Demosthenes.
Horace.

Thucydides.
Homer.

Juvenal.

The following additional books are mostly offered by candi

dates for honours only :-
Plato.

Cicero.
Herodotus.

Bacon's " Novum Organon.”
Livy.
Thucydides.
Tacitus.

Bishop Butler's "Sermons" or " Analogy."

Some one or more of the Apostolical Epistles. The books under the line are especially for those who take Ecclesiastical History. in more than two authors. The following additional books are mostly offered by candi

Candidates for honours may make up their lists from eithe dates for honours only :

or both of the above lists. Logic, also, is indispensable fo

either the first or second class in the honour list. The examina Greek.

Latin.
Æschylus.

tion in Ancient History includes Chronology, Geography,
Lucretius.
Aristophanes.

Antiquities; and Latin and Greek Composition is also withi Terence.

its range.
Pindar.

Plautus.
Theocritus.
Catullus, with Propertius.

In the Mathematical School every candidate, to obtain the

Testamur, must satisfy the examiners in the first six books Candidates for honours may make up their lists from either Euclid, or in the first part of Algebra. The examination fd or both of the above lists, but may not offer a larger number honours comprises the whole range of Mixed as well as Paul of historians than of orators.

Mathematics ;. Mechanics, including Dynamics of Materi Acourate critical and philological scholarship, Greek as well Systems, Hydro-mechanics, Optics, and Astronomy, being usual as Latin Prose Composition and Versification, both in Latin offered by candidates for the highest honours. and Greek, with a view not only to accuracy but elegance, In the School of Law and Modern History, the pass-subject are also required in candidates for honours. Logic is indis- consist of either English History to the end of the reign

*-nither the first or second class in the honour list. Henry VII., and that part of English Law which relates

an

Things Real; or English History from the accession of Henry their constitution, the education, discipline, and duties of the VIII, to the death of William III., and that part of English students are the same in both colleges and halls; they lead a Law which relates to Persons and Things Personal. These are cænobitic life; dinner is served daily in the common hall; and the subjects most commonly in use (Lingard's “ History of Eng- divine service celebrated morning and evening in the chapel. land” and Stephen's "Blackstone” being the usual text-books), But for all students without exception-collegiate, aularian, but some variations are allowed. The honour examinations and unattached—the duties, discipline, examinations, and other extend over a far wider range of subjects.

exercises for degrees, and responsibility to the University as a In the School of Natural Science the pass subjects consist of body, are identical. The usual chapel role in the colleges and Mechanical Philosophy, Chemistry, and Physiology. Every can- halls is to attend once each week-day in the morning as a didate, to obtain the Testamur, must satisfy the examiners in rule), and twice on Sunday. In some few colleges week-day two out of these three branches of Natural Science, as well as in attendance at chapel has been dispensed with for students who some one of the particular sciences dependent on Mechanical prefer to answer a "roll-call” at an early hour to show that Philosophy, which includes Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, they are not spending their time inactively Sound, Light, Heat, Electricity, and Magnetism. The course The colleges are as follow:for honour-students is based on the above subjects, but requires

University,

Brasenose. a far more extensive knowledge than the pass-examination.

Balliol.

Corpus Christi. In each of these schools a Testamur is awarded to pass-men

Merton.

Christ Church. and class-men alike; the names of the class-men being printed

Exeter.

Trinity. alphabetically in four classes; the names of those who only

Oriel.

St. John's. satisfy the examiners without taking honours being added in a

Queen's.

Jesus College. separate division, also alphabetically arranged.

New College.

Wadham. For the degree of M.A. no examination is required. For

Lincoln.

Pembroke. degrees in Divinity, Law, Medicine, and Music, special exercises

All Souls.

Worcester. must be performed, examinations passed, and requirements

Magdalen. satisfied, particulars of which can be obtained from the Pro

The five halls arefessors of the respective faculties, and from the Registrar of the University, E. W. Rowden, Esq., D.C.L., of New College,

St. Mary Hall.

St. Alban Hall. whose official residence is at the Old Clarendon in Broad Street,

Magdalen Hall.

St. Edmund Hall. and whose kindness and courtesy in imparting information can

New Inn Hall. bat be gratefully acknowledged by the writer of this sketch of

In most of the colleges both scholarships and fellowships are the University and its curriculum.

now open to public competition, the latter being the more

free of the two from local restrictions. In: New College, Christ II. PRIVATE HALLS.

Church, and St. John's, a strong connecuon still subsists beThere are two other ways of going through the University of tween these societies respectively and the schools of Winchester, Oxford than by entering it as an unattached student. The Westminster, and Merchant Taylors, in a corresponding order. first of these is by matriculating at a private hall, of which Exeter has still a connection with Devonshire; Queen's with societies there are now two, known as Charsley's Hall and the North of England; Brasenose with Hereford, Marlborough, Benson's Hall, so named, according to the statute De Aulis and Manchester, and (by its rich Hulmeian foundation) with Privatis, after the licensed masters who preside over them- certain other parts of Lancashire ; Jesus College with Wales; painely, Mr. W. H. Charsley, M.A., and the Rev. R. M. Benson, Pembroke with Abingdon School and the Channel Islands; and M.A., both members of Christ Church. Two other private Worcester with certain parts of Worcestershire; but a large halls have existed since the statute above referred to was number of scholarships and exhibitions are now open to the passed, but both' were short-lived, and Mr. Charsley is the first most unrestricted competition. Few scholarships are now master who has achieved any success as the head of such an in- worth less than £80 per annum; many as much as and more stitation. His hall, however, is the resort of a class of pupils who than £100; and any economical student who can add £20 or have, for the most part, larger means than those who enter the £30 a-year to the income of a scholarship, can go through the University avowedly as frugal stadents, the terms being some-University in comfort and respectability. Scholars are usually what high. It is popular, and has many members on its books. expected to be candidates for honours; and any one who has the Mr. Benson's hall is opened for the benefit of those who ability to procure election to a scholarship can only be preintend not only to live in a strictly economical manner, but vented from offering himself for honours either by failing health to conform to a course of study and discipline more ascetic or idleness. For the former cause, allowance will be readily than that of the normal collegiate life. There are also several made. The latter, or failure in the schools (vulgo, plucking), stadents on the books of this hall.

may terminate the tenure of a scholarship. Several of the halls III. COLLEGIATE LIFE.

have scholarships or exhibitions as helps to economical men; It is not to be thought that, because the writer of these pages but they are, for the most part, of less value than in the colleges. has thrown the bulk of the matter relating to the University It must also be mentioned that of the five halls, three--viz., st. course into the portion assigned to instructions for young men Mary Hall, St. Alban Hall

, and St. Edmund Hall-—offer special wishing to matriculate as unattached students, he, on that advantages to students who are resolutely determined to live account, undervalues the collegiate system, or would recommend according to a rule of economy. At the same time every reaany youths intending to go through the University to do so as sonable comfort, joined to the social advantages of the cænobitio anattached students, if they can procure the means to do so life, is secured by membership of one of these societies. But as members of a college or hall. The collegiate system and whatever temptations to extravagance the normal collegiate life life possess advantages, privileges, and safeguards, both educa- may present, any one can, with entire comfort, bring his annual tional and social, which the unattached student is without; and battel bills—including room-rent, tuition, kitchen and battery will no doubt continue to flourish, a strong support and help to the expenses, i.e., all necessary food and drink (except wine and Joninger system which has just been superadded in the University. luxuries), coal

, and washing—within £90; while in some of the There are in the University nineteen colleges and five halls, halls stricter frugality has reduced this sum to £60. It is the chief difference between these respective sets of societies hoped that these few facts may serve to prove that Oxford has being that the colleges are corporate bodies, each endowed to not yet come to the condition of being no longer a place for the support a body of Fellows, who elect their own Warden, Provost, poor scholar.” Rector, Master, President, or Principal; while the halls have no such endowment, and their Principals, with one exception,

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXI. are appointed by the Chancellor of the University. In the colleges the tutors are mostly appointed by the Head out of the

SECTION LXXV.-AURANTIACEÆ, OR CITRON-WORTS. body of Fellows ; in the halls the Principals are responsible for Characteristics : Calyx free, monosepalous ; petals hypogynous, the tuition, and for the most part undertake the chief portion free, or almost free, in number equal to the parts of the calyx, of it themselves, assisted by competent lecturers or assistant- with which they are alternate ; imbricated in æstivation ; stamens tutors appointed by themselves. With these differences in in number double or in multiples of the number

of the petals.

monadelphous or polyadelphous ; filaments ordinarily flat and ovary in the form of a cup; ovary generally from two to fiveuni-serial ; style simple ; stigma capitular; berry with thick rind celled, some plants of the genus having as many as ten or and pulpy endocarp ; seeds provided with a raphe, and fre- twelve cells ; style single; ovules one, two, or four in number, quently containing numerous embryos; embryo dicotyledonous, attached to axile placentæ; fruit succulent or capsular, with exalbuminous, straight; radicle superior.

loculicidal dehiscence; seeds few in number. The Meliaceu The Aurantiaceæ are for the most part natives of tropical Asia, are trees or shrubs, natives for the most part of the tropics. but they are now distributed over all parts of the globe where the They contain acrid and bitter astringent principles, by virtue of temperature is sufficiently high to be congenial to their culture. which they are tonic and stimulating. The Melia Azederach Their leaves are alternate, without stipules, often growing at (Fig. 232) is a tree growing in Persia and Syria, sometimes called the extremity of a flattened petiole, solitary or in corymbs. The the Margosa tree, but which has been naturalised in Mediterbark, the leaves, calyx, petals, filaments, and epicarp, are all ranean Europe and North America. It has febrifugal prosupplied with vesicles containing volatile oil.

perties. This beautiful family is, chemically, remarkable for its vola

SECTION LXXVII.-MALPIGHIACEÆ, OR MALPIGHIADS. tile oil and aromatic bitter constituents, and its free acids (principally malic and citric). The citron (Citrus) is the prin Characteristics : Calyx free, five-partite, each division ordinarily cipal genus of the family. The orange (Citrus

furnished with two glands at the base ; petals aurantiacum), originally a native of the East

five, either inserted upon the receptacle or upon Indies, is now cultivated in almost all tropical

a hypogynous or sub-perigynous disc; imbricated and warm temperate countries. In France, how

in æstivation; stamens double in number to ever, it requires protection during the winter.

that of the petals, sometimes all of them fertile,

[graphic]

231. THE LEMON-TREE (CITRUS LIMONUM). 232. THE

MARGOSA (MELIA AZEDERACH). 233, MALPHIGIA
VOLUBILIS.

The citron (Citrus medica) is the most useful species of the genus ; | in other cases partly sterile ; filaments ordinarily coherent at its berry, sometimes termed the bitter

orange, is not edible, but their base; ovary composed of three carpels, rarely two, either from it are extracted many delicions perfumes

, and its pulp incorporated with the axis or free at the summit, giving makes an excellent confection. It is from the flowers of this rise to three or two uni-ovulate cells; ovule reflexed, attached to species that chernists obtain the essence of neroli. All its a pendent funiculus ascending by its free extremity; fruit comvarious parts are in point of fact more aromatic than similar posed of two or three scales, ordinarily samaroidal; seeds in

. parts of the orange-tree. The lime (Citrus limetta), and the verted, dicotyledonous, exalbuminous, rarely straight, cotyledons lemon (Citrus limonum), are all members of the genus Citrus; ordinarily bent on themselves; radicle superior. all yield, from almost every part of their substance, an odorous The Malpighiaceæ are usually trees or shrubs, for the most volatile oil. The celebrated Eau de Cologne is nothing more part covered with hairs, which sometimes degenerate into than a solution

of volatile oils extracted from many genera of prickles, though not invariably. The leaves are ordinarily Aurantiacere and dissolved in alcohol.

opposite, single, devoid of stipules. Inflorescence, a cyme or The citron was not introduced into Europe until subsequently corymb. This order takes its name from the Malpighia, or to the period of Alexander the Great's Asiatic conquests. It is Barbadoes cherry, so called after Professor Malpighi of Pisa

. a native of Persia and Mesopotamia.

This plant is nearly allied to the Galphimia, another of the SECTION LXXVI.-MELIACEÆ, OR MELIADS.

same family, whose name, as the reader may see, is the word Characteristics : Leaves usually alternate, simple, or pinnate,

“Malpighia " transposed. and without flowers, hypogynous, and generally symmetrical, ar

SECTION LXXVIII.-ACERACEÆ, OR MAPLES. ranged either in a panicle, corymb, cyme, or spike; the calyx Characteristics : Calyx free, with four or five divisions, cadu. and corolla having three, four, or five divisions ; stamens mona- ceous ; petals four or five, alternate with the sepals, inserted delphous, and twice as many in number as the petals, with ses upon a hypogynous diso ; estivation imbricate ; stamens four sile anthers; disc hypogynous, and sometimes surrounding the to twelve, ordinarily eight; ovary free, composed of two carpels,

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