bilocular and perpendicularly compressed at the line of junction; | the horse-chestnut, which is used in Switzerland for feeding sheep. ovules double in each cell, pendent or curved; fruit samaroidal ; The burdock or Nephelium, and the Sapindus saponaria or Indian seed dicotyledonous, exalbuminous, cotyledons irregularly con- soaptree of the West Indies, belong to this family. The seeds torted; radicle descending.

of all the soapworts, especially The Aceracece are trees with

the last named, contain a saponaopposite petiolate ex-stipulate

ceous principle, which in the case leaves, having regular flowers

of the Sapindus saponaria is arranged in cymes or corymbs.

turned to account in washing linen They all possess a saccharine,

in the West Indies. limpid, or lactiferous juice, which flows from the plant after incision.

SECTION LXXX.-HYPERI. One species, Acer saccharinum, or

CACEÆ, OR TUTSANS. sagar maple, is so rich in sugar

Characteristics : Calyx free; that considerable quantities are

sopals four or five, joined together extracted in Canada and other

to a variable extent; contorted in parts of North America. The

æstivation; stamens indefinite, sugar is identical with that ob

free, monadelphous or polyadeltained from the cane, but it has

phous; ovary three to five-celled a certain flavour which renders

or uni-locular; junction incomit less palatable than the cane

plete; ovules numerous, reflexed sugar.

or curved; fruit capsular or bac


family; it includes all the St. John's ceons, frequently by abortion uni

worts, many of which are grown in locular; seed dicotyledonous, exalbu

shrubberies, , and are remarkable for minous ; stem ligneous ; leaves opposite, digitate; flowers | their brilliant yellow blossoms. arranged in a terminal panicle.

The Hypericaceæ are distributed over the hot and temperate One of the most noticeable of the large trees belonging to this regions

of the globe, more especially of the northern hemisphere. family is the Asculus hippocastanum, or common horse-chesnut. All the ligneous species are intertropical. The bark of this tree contains a peculiar febrifugal principle Almost all contain, in addition to a volatile oil, resinous and called wsculin. In France starch is extracted from the seed of balsamic juices which flow abundantly from the ligneous species,

and which in the herbaceous ones may be found in the pellucid In the midst of its bitter, pulpy fruit are found the seeds, glands with which the leaves are studded. The tutsan which, when roasted, constitute the cocoa of commerce. (Androsamum officinale) is a native plant formerly employed in SECTION LXXXIV.-STERCULIACEÆ, OR STERCULIADS. medicine, but now fallen into desuetude. The Hypericum per

Characteristics : Calyx four or five-partite; petals hypogynous, foratum (Fig. 235) is so called in consequence of the sieve-like appearance of its leaves, dependent on the number of trans- five, imbricated in æstivation, often absent ; stamens indefinite

, parent glandular points scattered over their surfaces.

monadelphous; anthers two-celled, more or less complete ; stem

ligneous, covered with radiating hairs; leaves alternate, simple, SECTION LXXXI.-TERNSTRÆMIACEÆ OR CAMELLIACEÆ.

or digitate; flowers solitary, or in oymes or panicles. Characteristics : Leaves alternate, generally ex-stipulate ; Many species of Sterculiaceæe are cultivated in Europe. Presepals and petals of flowers for the most part imbricated in eminent amongst these is the baobab, which remains a small æstivation; stamens hypogynous, many in number, with adnate shrub in our green-houses, but which, in its own country, grows or versatile anthers; ovary superior; styles filiform; seeds to an enormous size. The Pachira insignis, a tree of Central dicotyledonous, exalbuminous, few in number, or solitary, at- America, has digitate leaves, elongated flowers of a bright-red tached to axile placentæ.

colour, the petals of which are spread out at their summits. The most important member of this family is the tea shrub The Pachira aquatica, or Carolinea princeps (Fig. 237), is a (Thea). The virtues of tea depend on a combination of an plant which bears very large and elegant flowers, the petals of astringent with a peculiar nitrogenised principle termed theine, which are yellow on their upper surface, green below, ornaalso in part to'a volatile oil.

mented with red filaments and yellow anthers. The Bombax, Two centuries have not yet elapsed since tea was first intro- or silk cotton-tree, so called from the woolly hairs which surduced to Europe as an article of drink. Everybody is aware round the seed, as in the cotton-plant, is a member of this that two species of tea exist–black and green tea. Both are family. produced by the same plant, and the difference between the two results from peculiarities of manufacture. Several attempts have been made to naturalise the tea shrub in Europe, but

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXII. invariably without success.

LATIN STEMS (continued), The beautiful camellia (Camellia Japonica), with its white LANGUAGE, in one point of view, is a silent record of human and rose-coloured blossoms and dark, glossy green leaves, is a member of this family. It was originally brought from Japan, that the sun rises and sets; that upwards and downwards

errors. If we believed language, we should have still to believe and takes its name from a Moravian Jesuit, Camellus.

denote fixed relations, and that heaven is upwards alike at midSECTION LXXXII.—TILIACEÆ, OR LINDEN-BLOOMS.

night and mid-day; that good humour and bad humour are the Characteristics : Sepals five, caduceous; valvate in æstivation; offspring of certain liquids (Latin, humor, moisture) in the petals inserted upon a hypogynous disc, four or five or sometimes material frame; that temper and distemper were the results of absent; imbricate in æstivation, often supplied at their base the due or undue mingling of these diverse liquids ; that a with a scaly appendage ; stamens double in number or a mul- jovial man was born under the planet Jupiter (genitive case, tiple of that of the petals, all fertile, or the external ones Jovis), the emblem of a jolly god; that a man of saturnine dissterile, free or polyadelphous at the base ; ovary two to ten position owed his dull moroseness to his evil genius, Saturn; celled; ovules reflexed ; fruit capsular or indehiscent, coriaceous and that a mercurial fellow jumped about and frisked away or fleshy; seed dicotyledonous; embryo straight in the axis of because he had in him too much of the pagan god Mercury, the a fleshy albumen, sometimes absent; stem ligneous; leaves swift-footed messenger of Olympus. However, men suffer disordinarily alternate, stipulate ; flowers regular, solitary, or in asters (from the Latin, dis, not, bad; astrum, a star) without cymes or corymbs.

imputing the blame to their stars; though many are still under The Tiliaceæ for the most part are inhabitants of the tropical the vulgar delusion that our lot here depends on good luck and zone; they contain an abundant mucilage mingled with astrin- bad luck. Portents and prodigies in the skies and on the gent and resinous matters. The flower of certain species con earth are words which show how men were once alarmed by any tains a volatile oil; others possess a fleshy sapid fruit and unusual phenomenon. Even so late as the reign of Charles II. edible stems: The seeds of most species are oily. The lindens Englishmen had faith in portents. During the plague, the are generally diffused, and in much estimation on account of vision of a flaming sword, reaching from Westminster to the the beauty of their foliage and the sweet aromatic odour of Tower of London, seemed nightly to be present to the excited their flowers. The bark is fibrous, and sometimes turned to fancy of many of the residents in the metropolis, like the account in the manufacture of cordage. The wood, easily meteor-sword that hung over Jerusalem during the siege. The worked, is in repute amongst turners and sculptors. The appearance of a comet some months before had caused super. flowers, much sought after by bees, contain an abundance of stitious feelings of alarm in the weak-minded, and by such volatile oil, sugar, mucilage, gum, and tannic acid; their persons it was regarded with scarcely less terror than that with infusion is anti-spasmodic and diuretic. The oily seeds are which the Anglo-Saxons had beheld the comet which visited occasionally employed as a substitute for cocoa. For an

our hemisphere in the year 1066, on the eve of the Norman example of the leaves and blossoms of the common lime or invasion. linden-tree (Tilia Europea), see Lessons in Drawing, Vol. II., However, these false fears and vulgar errors are rapidly dis

appearing. Lunacy is preserved amongst us in the close emSECTION LXXXIII.-BUTTNERIACEÆ, OR BUTTNERIADS. brace of Westminster Hall, but we hence cease to believe that

Characteristics : Calyx four or five-partite ; petals five, mental alienation is caused by the moon (Latin, luna, moon); hypogynous or absent ; æstivation valvate or contorted; stamens and if we still in good Saxon speak of the moon-stricken, we do in some species equal in number to the petals and opposite to so as we speak of star-gazers, without ascribing any influence them, in other species double or multiple this number; filaments to the heavenly bodies. ordinarily joined in the form of a cupola, tube, or column; One or two additional instances of the depravation of words ovary four or five to ten-called, uni-, bi-, or pluri-ovulate; ovules may be given. ordinarily ascendant, reflexed; fruit generally a capsule; seed The term officious is used in a bad sense ; an officious man is albuminous or exalbuminous; stem ordinarily woody, covered constantly interfering with what does not concern him. But in with radiating or bifurcated hairs ; leaves alternate, simple, the root of the word there is nothing questionable or offensive. stipulate; flowers regular, arranged in panicles, spikes, or Officium, in Latin, signifies duty. According to its derivation, glomerules.

an officious man is simply a man who attends to his duty. But These plants contain an abundant mucilage, to which is even so pure a virtue may be carried to excess. generally added a bitter, astringent, extractive matter. The perverted the attention does become if it is outward rather fruit of many species is saccharine; the seeds contain a fixed than inward, more apparent than real--if duty is a pretex, UT oil. The most celebrated plant of this natural order is the an excuse. "A misunderstood sense of duty prompts even ine cocoa-tree (Theobroma cacao, Fig. 236), a South American tree, sincere to meddle, and in meddling they become oficions the cultivation of which, however, has now extended to Africa subjoin two instances : in the first, officious is used in a good and Asia.

i sense; in the second, it is used in a bad sense :

page 9.

Excessire and

a law a book

"Yet not to earth are those bright luminaries


I gather, read leg, lect collect, legible, lecture.
Officious; but to thee, earth’s habitant."-Milton.

gentle leni, len

lenity, lenient, relent. " You are too officious


light levi, lief, lieu levity, reliej, relieve. In her behalf that scorns your services." --Shakespeare. Levo

I lift up

lever, elevate.
Lex (legis)

leg, legis legal, legislator. Why should the word resentment signify the harbouring of a

Liber (libri)


library. desire for revenge? Its component parts are very innocuous- Libellus a little book


libellous. namely, the Latin participle re, again; and the Latin verb Liber


liberty, liberal, libertine. sentio, I feel. Resentment, considered in its origin, is simply a Licet it is lawful licit

illicit. return of feeling. Are, then, ill feelings more prevalent than Lignum wood


ligneous, pyrolignous. good ones, that a return of feeling should be equivalent to Ligo

I bind lig, liga ligament, oblige, religion. retaliation? That retaliation should involve the bad feeling of Linquo I leave linqu

relinquish. Lietus (relictus) left


relict. revenge is not surprising, since its root is the Latin talio, which


I melt lique, liqui liquid, liquefaction. calls to mind the lex talionis, the law of repaying like for like

Lis (litis)
strife, laro-suit liti

litigation, litigious. *eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot' (Exod. Litera

a letter

literal, literature. ui. 24). The idea of revenge was moulded into the term long Locus

a place loc, loco locality, locomotion. before it became a part of the English language. Yet, while Longus long

long, longi longitude, oblong. resentment or a return of feeling is used in a bad sense, recom- Loqui to speak

loqui, loquy, colloquial, obloquy, loquapense or repaying is now used exclusively in a good sense. In

loqu, locu city, elocution. ventri

ventriloquist. Scripture, however, these words are used in a strictly judicial Venter (ventris) the belly


I play

ludi, lud delude, ludicrous. and juridical sense, thus: “Vengeance is mine; I will repay,


lus saith the Lord” (Rom. xii. 19).


delusion, illusion. « To me belongeth vengeance, Lumen (luminis) light

lumin Luminary, illumination, and recompense” (Deut. xxxii. 35). Here, vengeance merely Luna

the moon

lunatic, sublunary. means the penal retribution which follows the infraction (or Lux (lucis) light


lucid, pellucid. breaking) of the law. To attribute vengeance to God, in the sense Macies



{ procedure

leanness maci

emaciate. of revenge or mere retaliation, is the height of moral absurdity. Macula

a spot macul immaculate. The word knave meant once no more than lad, nor does its Magnus great

magni magnify, original (kenabe), in German, now mean more. Villain was


wickedly male, mal malevolent, malversation, volen

benevolont. simply a peasant. A boor was a farmer ; a varlet, a serving- Volo (volens) I wish

vert, vers convert, converse, versatile. man; a churl, a strong fellow. Time-server was used two hun Verto (versus) I turn


I entrust or bid mand mandate, command. dred years ago quite as often in an honourable sense as in a dis


I stay

man, main permanent, remain. honourable one. Conceits had once nothing conceited in them. Mansio

a staying

manse, mansion.

I flow


a hand Latin Words.

manu, mani manual, manipulation, Meanings. Stems.

English Words.


the sea

marine, maritime, Genitas

gen, genit

progeny, progenitor. Genns (genéris) kind

Mars, the Ro-
gener, genera generation, degenerate.

Mars (Martis)
man god of Smart

glacial, glacier.

war Gradus

graduate, retrograde, in- Mater (matris) a mother a step

mater, matri maternal, matricide. gradu, gress gredient, aggression. Retro


The word progenitors has for its corresponding Saxon term Gramen (graminis) grass gramini graminivorous.

forefathers; the term ancestors is used in nearly the same sense,

only the latter simply points out those who have gone before Gratis

heavy gravi gravity, gravitate. Grex (gregis)

us, our predecessors; the former includes the idea of descent: a flock greg gregarious, egregious,

they of old were our progenitors, we are their offspring; they Hæreo

I stick

adhere, coherent.
cohesion, adhesion.

were our forefathers, we are their children or descendants. Hæres (hæredis) an heir hered, herit hereditary, inhorit.

• The word degenerate denotes that which has lost the qualities Halo I breathe hal

exhale, inhale.

of the kind (genus, generis) or race. Haurio(haustus) I draw haust exhaust.

“ The which thing declareth that men which have caste down their Homo homi, hum homicide, human.

minds from the dignity of their nature, are so degenerat, and growen Hortor I advise hort exhort.

out of kinde, that thei seeme vtterly to be brute beastes." --Caluino Hospes (hospitis) a guest, a host hospit, host hospitable, hostess.

(Calvin), "Foure Godlye Sermons." Hostis an enemy hosti hostile.

To graduate is to take a degree or step in learning in one of Humus the ground hum inhume, exhume.

the universities. On entering a university, a young man is said Idem

the same

to matriculate (mater, a mother), because he becomes the child Ignis fire

igni, igno ignition, igneous. or pupil of the institution, which in regard to knowledge and Infra below infern infernal.

discipline is his mother. After passing through a course of Insula

an island insula insulate, insular. Pene

instruction, he, on proving fit and worthy by examination, takes almost pen

peninsula. Intra, intus

a degree—that is, by receiving certain tokens, as the privilege within inter, inti internal, intimate. Iter (itineris) a journey itiner itinerate, itinerary.

of putting after his name B.A. or M.A., which is the same as again iter iteration, reiterate,

calling himself, in the one case, Bachelor of Arts, or, in the Itum

to go

exit,. circuit, transit, se- other case, Master of Arts, he is declared and made known as
I lie

adjacent. [dition. having made proficiency in a greater or less degree in university Jactus thrown ject inject, conjecture.

a yoke jug

“Invest me with a graduate's gown, Junctas joined junct adjunct, conjunction.

Midst shouts of all beholders,
I swear jur
conjure, adjure.

My head with ample square-cap crown,
Jos (juris)
right, law juris, juri jurisdiction, juridical.

And deck with hood my shoulders."-Smart. Jutns assisted jut

adjutant, coadjutor. Juvénis youth juveni juvenile.

Egregious (from e, out of; and grex, a flock or crowd) denotes torn lacer lacerate.

a person who is out of, that is, does not belong to, the multiLedo I strike lid collide.

tude ; one who is extraordinary and distinguished. Egregious is struck lis collision.

generally employed in a bad sense :Lapis (lapidis) a stone lapid lapidary, dilapidate. Latus carried

" Thus have I adventured to expose the egregious folly, and to un. lat

elate, translation. Latus

lat, lati
latitude, dilate,

mask the extreme corruption of heart, which assumes the buffoon or Latus (latěris) a side later

lateral, equilateral.

the philosopher indifferently, to laugh at misery and enth, and make Legatus an ambassador legat

a mockery both of law and religion.”—Warburton.

legate, delegation. Legatio a gift · lega legacy, legatee.

Religion is here given as from ligo, I bind. This seems the

best etymology. Viewed in this light, religion is the source of • Legatio is a Latin word of the Middle Ages.

obligation. Religion, placing man in immediate connection

a man






with the Creator, deduces from that connection men's obliga-Quint-like a resident ruler as Charles's daughter, the Duchess tions : first, to God, from whom they are; and next, to each of Parma. other, whom for God's will, and God's sake, they are to love Notwithstanding that she was obliged, in order to carry ont and serve.

Philip's policy, which was much less liberal than his father's, Delusion and illusion, though much alike both in derivation to govern the people somewhat more sternly than they had been and import, yet differ somewhat. The common idea is that of wont to be governed, the duchess was popular enough ; and as misleading. By delusions others mislead and cheat us; by she had many ties of sympathy with the people, she was a illusions we mislead and cheat ourselves. Delusions are sub- guarantee to the Netherlanders that so long as she ruled they stantial shows, presented in order to mislead; illusions are would not be oppressed. dreams and fancies which arise in an ill-regulated mind; the But the Duke of Alva! That was a very different matter. former are mostly dishonest, the latter are always weak; the Although his name was not so famous, or infamous, as it beformer are preconcerted, the latter are spontaneous.

came after he retired from the Low Countries, it was known PARSING AND COMPOSITION.

to the people as that of a bigoted Spanish soldier, who had For your exercise in parsing and composition take the ensu. narrow ideas of his duty, but a tremendous energy in carrying ing letter of Mrs. Barbauld. Give an account of every part out those ideas-as the name of one who made no secret that of it as well as you can. Convert it into simple sentences; he considered his highest duty to God and man was to root ont and having studied it carefully, close the book and write down heresy wherever he had the chance, not stopping to criticise the from memory all you recollect of it. Then correct your copy means adopted, so the end were attained. Well might the by the original. Having done so, write a letter to a friend, if Lowlanders fear when such a man was coming, with a numerous possible, on similar topics.

and well-appointed army at his back, to supersede the duchess"July 28, 1803.

regent. They knew not what instructions he carried, what "I am glad to find that you have spent the spring so pleasantly. power his commission gave him, but they could read the signs But when you say you made the excursion instead of coming to Lon of the times as well as any statesman in Europe, and they saw don, you forget that you might have passed the latter end of a London in Alva and the Spanish army nothing but oppression, and most winter in town after enjoying the natural spring in the country. We have been spending a week at Richmond, in the delightful

shades of likely bloodshed, to come. The political and municipal instiHam walks and Twickenham meadows. I never saw so many flower tutions of the country were far too free to be to the liking of ing limes and weeping willows as in that neighbourhood. They say, an absolutist like the King of Spain or his lieutenant, and the you know, that Pope's famous willow was the first in the country: people feared lest assaults should be made upon those institaand it seems to corroborate it, that there are so many in the vicinity. tions accordingly. But still more they feared for what the Under the shade of the trees we rend Southey's 'Amadis,' which I new governor might bring against that freedom to worship suppose you are also reading. As all Englishmen are now to turn God according to the dictates of their consciences, which they knights-errant, and fight against the great giant and monster, Buona- had hitherto virtually enjoyed. parte, the publication seems very reasonable. Pray are you an alarmist? One hardly knows whether to be frightened or diverted

With very many of the Netherlanders the doctrines of the on seeing people assembled at a dinner-table, appearing to enjoy ex- Reformation had found a cordial welcome, so that it is not tremely the fare and the company, and saying all the while, with a perhaps exceeding to say that one-third of their number were most smiling and placid countenance, that the French are to land in a Protestants. Charles the Fifth, himself a rigid Catholic, half fortnight, and that London is to be sacked and plundered for three allowed, while he disapproved, the spread of the Reformation days-and then they talk of going to watering-places. I am sure we among his people. No persecuting measures had been taken do not believe in the danger we pretend to believe in ; and I am sure to secure uniformity during his reign; and though the Catholics that none of us can even form an idea how we should feel if we were complained of toleration, and did what they could to stir up war forced to believe it. I wish I could lose, in the quiet walks of litera- against it, the Protestants were allowed to meet in their own brother is going to publish ‘Letters to a Young Lady on English places of worship. But now it was felt-and there had been Poetry. He is indefatigable. 'I wish you were hall as diligent, several straws showing which way the wind was likely to blow say you. 'Amen!' say I. Love to Eliza and Laura, and thank the. -- that all this was about to be changed. What had been former for her note. I shall always be glad to hear from either of attempted in France was to be attempted in the Netherlands, them. How delightful must be the soft beatings of a heart entering and, as it seemed, with much better chances of success. The into the world for the first time, every surrounding object new, fresh, Inquisition was to be imported as part of the baggage of the and fair-all smiling within and without! Long may every sweet Spanish army, and the Protestants of the Low Countries were illusion continue that promotes happiness, and ill befall the rough hand to be brought into slavery by it. In France, where the that would destroy them!"

Huguenots numbered over two millions, and included among

their ranks some of the most influential of Frenchmen, the HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXXII.

attempts of the League-with its Guises, its Lorraines, and its

Mayennes--to thrust the Inquisition upon the land, were met by ALVA'S MASTER.—THE NETHERLANDS.

a stubborn organisation of singularly brave men, who had MANY & stout heart quailed, and many a brave man feared, in moreover the countenance, and could procure the material the cities of the Netherlands, when it was known there, towards support, of several foreign powers, enemies to their enemies. the close of the year 1567, that Ferdinand, Duke of Alva, was In the Netherlands there was not any such organisation, coming with an army from Spain to assume the government of at least not then, nor was there, as it seemed, the slightest the provinces. Under the regency of the Duchess of Parma, prospect of one being formed. It seemed at first sight that daughter of their beloved Charles Quint (Charles the Fifth, the provinces were utterly at the mercy of the Spaniards, men Emperor of Germany, King of Spain and the Indies, Duke of in whose composition the quality of mercy was left out-bigots, Burgundy and the Low Countries), they had lived contented sincere in their bigotry, and cruel by their nature against enough, save that occasionally they complained of the number everything that thwarted it. Only those whose trust was not and weight of the taxes, and resented grumblingly any attack in the arm of flesh only, who believed indeed that there was a that was made upon their old commercial and municipal privi. God who judgeth the earth, One who could "mock the counsel leges. They adored the memory of Charles the Fifth, the of the wise and valour of the brave "-only such men did not grandson of their own Mary of Burgundy. Charles had dwelt despair. Long and bitter was the struggle, dark and frightful among them, known them as it were intimately, preferred to was the night, but with the morning came joy, albeit a subdued live in their country rather than in any other spot in his one, and the result of the struggle was to show the world once dominions, and ever got back to it again as soon as he could again that the victory is not always to the strong. when the exigencies of public business took him out of it. His Alva came, the Duchess of Parma was superseded, and the rule was kindly, though it did not brook rebellion, but then no worst fears of the Netherlanders were justified. Both in politic one wanted to rebel against Charles Quint. Under his rule the and religion their liberty was to be taken away, and that by Netherlands were happy and flourishing, more so than they means which showed an almost brutal indifference to all their had been at any previous period of their history. When he tenderest susceptibilities. The system of local self-governmen abdicated in favour of his son, Philip II. (in 1556), and it was was changed for government by soldiers, troops were quartered found that the new king intended to live in Spain, the Nether. in all the large towns, and the smaller places followed o landers thought themselves fortunate in having so Charles necessity the example of submission into which their large

brethren were surprised. The Netherlands were occupied as into the strife, and came promptly to an untimely end. But a hostile country; the irresponsible prerogative of martial law the great nobles, the men of influence and fortune, hesitated was substituted for the known laws of the land ; and the harsh- to guide the storm of their countrymen's indignation against ness and insolence of military commanders usurped on the the oppressors, until they were satisfied that nothing was to judgment-seat the place of magisterial calmness and equity. be got by other means, and until, when satisfied of that,

This was meant only as a foundation on which to build the things were actually ready for the tremendous contest. Thero hateful Inquisition. When the people were bound hand and was no lack of patriotism, of self-denial, self-sacrifice, or foot by an army, it was supposed they might be made to personal courage in the Dutch, Flemish, and Brabant nobles, accept this darling project of Philip. But there was a limit but they felt themselves constrained to hope, almost against to the patience even of the Datchmen and Belgians.* There hope, that so dreadful a sorrow as that which threatened, was a line over which they could not be pushed without re. would not be thrust upon their country. They felt it to be sistance; and when the people found that the Inquisition was their duty, in spite of what was daily going on through among them, they rose in spite of the presence of the Spanish Spanish instrumentality, to try-as the Long Parliament did soldiery, so that throughout the provinces there was nothing in England before the Civil War--every constitutional means but tumult. It was a state of things well pleasing to Alva, of easing the people's burdens before they committed themwhose cruel disposition took delight in the prospect of dragoon- selves and the country to open war with the government. ing the people into submission, of getting rid, by the way, of They tried and failed. The crafty Spaniard who governed mundry inconvenient nobles, and at the same time of doing pretended to listen to their remonstrances, and made a show what his bigotry told him was a service acceptable to God, of asking their advice, but he simply wanted to gain time, viz., the punishment and eradication of heresy.

and to mature his plans for getting them into his net. Alva's powers were of the fullest. There was no need to Greatest of all the noblemen in the provinces was the Prince send to Madrid for instructions, though reinforcements were of Orange, known in history as William the Silent. Of vast demanded and sent. The risings which took place in most of estates and fortune, second to none in rank, of extraordinary the large towns were put down with Spanish cruelty; men were ability and indomitable will, he was eminently fitted to be the hanged summarily over their own doors ; the prisons were not leader of his country. He was of those who tried everything erowded, for the Spanish system was too “thorough” to be rather than rebellion to bring the Spaniards to their senses. hampered with prisoners, its judicial procedure too simple to He was the first to see that nothing but rebellion would do, the be fettered with a sliding scale of punishments according to first who set seriously to work to organise and draw to a head offences, and so Death got his due, and more ; and there was that spirit of resistance which was rife throughout the country, mourning of widows and orphans wherever the Spanish officers Being a man who kept his own counsel, and who never made set up their courts. These first risings were the expression of a feint till he was ready to strike, he succeeded in keeping spontaneous, natural resistance to tyranny, not the result of clear of Alva's toils, though not of his suspicion. Convinced organised rebellion. The Netherlanders formerly, under their when he saw the Inquisition actually established, its victims counts and dukes, had been so tetchy and independent as to of both sexes publicly burned by scores, whole townships ruthhave acquired a notoriety in Europe as the most rebellious and lessly butchered, in return for trivial signs of disaffection, and unmanageable of subjects, and had dared on several occasions a reign of terror begun, that there could be but one end of it to provoke and resist the wrath of so hard and haughty a all, he kept out of the Spanish monster's way, and gave him. lord as Charles the Bold, of Burgundy. But under more self heart and soul to the cause which, but for him-unless a judicious and larger-hearted government, especially that of their miracle had been wrought-must have perished miserably. now persecutor's father, they had forgotten the art of factious The spark which fired the train of every Netherlander's fury Dess, and scarcely knew what it meant to rebel. Now they was the seizure, mock trial, and execution of Counts Egmont had to learn hurriedly, and in the face of cruel necessity, the and Horn at Brussels. These noblemen fell victims to their long disused science, and to unite heart and hand in a com own generous impetuosity, which led them, in the discharge of mon cause, which was not only the cause of patriotism, but of what they deemed to be their duty, to place themselves at the humanity. It was seen very clearly that unless a stop were mercy-save the mark !-of the Duke of Alva. They were put, or at least a protest raised, against the policy of which exceedingly popular, and in their blood was quenched the last the Duke of Alva was the exponent, both the name and form spark of allegiance towards the Spanish king. Many merchants of political independence were gone, and the hitherto free and skilled artisans left the country, and brought to England Netherlanders must become the slaves of Spain. This fact the wealth and industry which helped so materially to enlarge brought over to the ranks of the malcontents even those who, the commercial prosperity of that country during the time of being Catholics, might not have been disposed to stir against Elizabeth ; but there remained enough of willing hearts and the Inquisition. The attempt to subvert civil liberty struck a strong bodies to bear the cause of the Prince of Orange stifly chord in all hearts which vibrated right through the land. But up, and to resist even to death, and beyond the power of death, most of the Catholics resented the Inquisition with nearly as the wicked attempts of the Spaniards to tread down their much anger as the Protestants, the result being that every brethren. man, woman, and child in the Low Countries, with a few In 1572 William the Silent put himself at the head of the ignoble exceptions, was ready, from one motive or the other, to Beggars, as the insurgents were contemptuously called, and rebel against Alvaism. Remonstrants were treated as mutineers, gave the Spanish soldiers something else than unarmed burghers deputations to Spain to beg the interference and protection of and defenceless women to practise on. Alva took the field, and Philip were insulted and maltreated, and orders were given to made preparations on an extensive scale for crushing the rethe Duke of Alva to "quiet” the provinces.

bellion; but his wary opponent, possessing an intimate know. The spirit of rebellion unguided, not concentrated but dif- ledge of the country, and having the sympathies of all nonfused, could only expose those in whom it dwelt to revengeful combatants—all the fighting men were with him-avoided any destruction, without in any way helping them to the goal they decisive actions, and practised his troops in skirmishes and aimed at. Organisation, and some definite object to be gained small engagements with the enemy. Aware, however, of the throngh it—these were necessary to success; and for these the importance of securing the sea-coast, in order to keep up his people looked, naturally enough, to the nobles, their country. communications with England and to ensure supplies, he made men, who lived among them, knew their ways and thoughts, a dash at Brille, captured it, and having fortified the place, and were thoroughly identified with themselves. At first the began fitting out cruisers to prey upon Spanish commerce. pobles held back. They were shy of entering upon an enter. The war went on with dreadful fury. The raw levies of the prise wherein the alternative of success—success against the insurgents were no match in the open field for the splendidlypower and resources of the mightiest empire in the world—were trained troops of Spain, and they had more courage than discredeath for themselves and their followers, and ruin, thorough tion even in the defence of their besieged towns. The result was and complete, for their families. A few generous spirits, and a that the Netherlanders experienced defeat after defeat, each few with little save their own heads to lose, entered precipitately loss being followed up by barbarous executions of prisoners,

and the captured towns being exposed to all the brutality of a • The existing kingdoms of Holland and Belgium were at this time licentious soldiery. But no disaster could daunt the spirit of fucluded in the Netherlands, of which there were seventeen provinces. I the Prince of Orange : bowed down though he was with the

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