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11. The

Henry goes too. 10. Where are the new tables which the joiner day. 10. Are you going with me this afternoon upon the ice? 11. No, has made ? 11. Havo you seen the beautiful carriage, in which it thaws already, and the ice may easily break in. 12. When it Mr. G. has taken his wife and children away? 12. When does your dawns I shall call for you for a walk. 13. It has showed the whole brother come back from Paris ? 13. He has already been back these of the day. 14. Does it rain already? 15. No, but it will soon bogin five days. 14. Do you wish to take a walk ? 15. No, I have already to rain. 16. How long has it rained ? 17. It rained till four o'clock. taken a walk round the town,

18. Does it thunder? 19. Yes, it thunders and lightens, and I fear it

will also hail. 20. Where were you when it snowed ? 21. I took EXERCISE 63 (Vol. I., page 302).

shelter in St. George's Chapel; for it not only snowed, but stormed 1. Gr war im Begriffe uns mitzutħcilen, was er geschrieben hatte, aber er and hailed. 22. I only tell you what I have heard. kurde turd die Anfunft eines Fremten unterbrochen. 2. Wann ist Ihr

EXERCISE 69 (Vol. I., page 311). frånlein Sowester nach Frankreich abgereist? 3. Sie ist vorgestern abgereist. 4. Sat fte tie Feine Maria mitgenommen? 5. Es wird sehr schwer sein, 1. Es schien tiefen Morgen als ob es regnen wollte, aber nun fångt frin Baragen mit ten Grundsäßen, gut welchen er fich bekennt, übereinstim, bas Wetter an schön zu werden. 2. Es ereignete fich, daß es regnete, gerade Inend zu machen. 6. Shr, tie ihr eure Freunde verlassen habt, seit feines als die Schlacht begann; und es tonnerte und hagelte den ganzen Tag Bertrauens würtig. 7. Gute Frauen sind die reizentste Klasse der Gesell. binturch. 3. Es hat diesen Winter geregnet, gehagelt, geschneit und itaft, fie trösten uns, erheben unser Gemütl, begrünten unser Glück, und gefroren. 4. So lange es regnet, kann ich nicht abreisen. 5. Es scheint, Haben feine Pastor, ale tie, welche wir ihnen mittheilen.

taß viele Frembe in diesem (Vasthofe sind. 6. Es giebt viele Dinge, die EXERCISE 64 (Vol. I., page 303).

wir nicht erklären können. 7. Sobald es tagt, werde ich bei Ihnen vorsprechen,

um zu gehen und den Aufgang der Sonne zu sehen. 8. Gibt es wohl etwas 1. We are growing older and older, and are sooner at our end than Etleres, als einem Feinde vergeben? 9. Wollen Sie morgen mit mir auf is agreeable to us. 2. It became so dark that we were not able to see our hands before our eyes. 3. At five o'clock it grows dark. 4. Do das Eis gehen? 10. Nein, ich fürchte, daß es schon thaut, und es würde you rise early in the morning ? 5. As soon as it is light, I leave my gefährlich sein, es zu wagen. 11. Sebald der Wind sich legt, wird es bed. 6. Shall you still emigrate this year to America ? 7. I intend regien. 12. In jeder Gesellschaft gibt es mehr Dummföpfe als Bösewichte, it, bat I do not think anything will come of it. 8. In the year one

und mehr Unwissente als Gelehrte. thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, France became a republic,

EXERCISE 70 (Vol. I., page 323). 2. God said, Let it be, and it was. 10. Is your new grammar already inisbed? 11. Not yet, but I hope it will be finished in a fortnight at 1. All exhalations and vapours which continually rise from the earth, the latest 12. What will become of me? 13. "It will be a hot day," collect in the atmosphere, and when they unite, rain, snow, mist, said an old warrior to his comrades a few hours before the battle. wind, and every other change of air results from them. 2. He who 14. The sun sunk in the sea, and it became night. 15. The sick man accustoms himself to work in his youth need not suffer want in his old on his couch says, with a sigh, “Will it, then, never be day?" and age. 3. The Ludwig street in Munich is distinguished by a row of the day-labourer, under the pressure of his work (says), " Will it not splendid. palaces. 4. Those persons who praise themselves very often soon be night ?" 16. The weather has already become rather cold. make themselves ridiculous. 5. The sons of Charles the Great were

obliged to practise theniselves in arms, in riding, and in swimming. EXERCISE 65 (Vol. I., page 303).

6. The daring diver ventures to plunge himself in the roaring whirlpool. 1. Die Gegenwart kennen wir, von der Zukunft wissen wir nichts, und Ohre 7. The envious (man) injures himself more than others. 8. Frederick tem Meusden, ter ruhig die Zukunft erwarten fann. 2. Wurte Ihre the Great often stopped at Potsdam, in the palace of Sanssouci. 9. Styrester plößlish trant? 3. Nein, ste fühlte sdon acht Tage zuvor heftiges Goodness is its own reward. 10. The believer in affliction appears Leefneh. 4. Wollen Sie ein gelehrter Mann werten ? 5. Laßt uns

as a rock in the sea when the ocean billows rage about him. sach Gause geben, ehe es tumfel wird. 6. Die meisten Menschen werden great blue arch which we call heaven, is an immeasurable space, in tranf burd Bernachlässigung. "7. Mancher wurde ein ganz anderer Mensch, force with which the muscles contract and extend is very great.

which the earth, sun, moon, and innumerable stars move. 12. The nadrem er eine sorgfältigere Erziehung erhalten hatte. 8. Die meisten 13. Many people addict themselves so passionately to bad habits, that Neniden werten Scaven des Reichthums anstatt Herren desselben. 9. they consider them necessities of nature. 14. A child in the arms Sebab es Frühling wirt, belebt die ganze Natur sich wieder.

of its good parents is not afraid ; ,so the man who has confidence

in God. 15. The army collected together, and moved toward the river. EXERCISE 66 (Vol. I., page 310).

16. The enemy encamped around the town. 17. He distinguished 1. How old is this man? 2. He is not very old. 3. Has he much himself from all others by his brave behaviour. 18. He is afraid of money? 4. Yes, and he has also many friends and many enemies. nobody. 19. He criticises my neighbour's words. 3. Which boy has many apples and pears ? 6. One of the peasant's

EXERCISE 71 (Vol. I., page 323). soos has many apples, the other has many pears. 7. The one has noch zuccess, the other only grief and anxiety. 8. How much bread 1. Der Züngling grimt sich über den Verlust seiner Eltern. 2. Die has the baker ? 9. He has very much brend, but only a little Mutter war erfreut, als der Brief von meiner Schwester ihr vorgelesen wurde. floar. 10. This man has little money, but much intelligence. 11. These 3. Sie tröstete sich mit dem Gedanken, daß fie bald ankommen würde. 4. boots are much too large for me, and the shoes are a little too short Werten Sie lange in Italien verweilen? Nein, es ist nicht mein Wille. for my brother. 12. Will your uncle buy much powder ? 13. He will bay only a little, because he has too little money. 14. Who is that? 5. Gin ehrlicher Mann fürchtet nichts. 6. Die Slaven haben sich gegen 15. It is an old friend of the physician. 16. Who has good water die östreichische Regierung empört. 7. Die englischen Truppen zeichneten 17. The sailor has some. 18. Shall I have some books to morrow? sich durch ihre Tapferkeit in der Schlacht bei Waterlov aus. 8. Derjenige, 19. You will have some to-day already. 20. Has the peasant much welcher sich über das Unglück eines Andern frent, verdient nicht ten Beifall wheat? 21. He has not much.22. Has the blacksmith much steel ? der Tugendhaften. 9. Derjenige, welcher sich ärgert, wenn ein Anderer in 23. He has much. 24. Has he many nails ? 25. He has many seiner Gegenwart gelobt wird, ist ein Mensch, welcher nicht verdient, geliebt 21. Who has milk ? 27. The peasant has some. 28. Has he very und geehrt zu werden. 10. Derjenige, welcher fich freut, wenn sein Nachmuch? 29. He has enough.

bar geliebt wird, ist ein gutmüthiger Mensch. EXERCISE 67 (Vol. I., page 310). 1. Bir müssen vorsichtig in ter Wahl desjenigen sein, dem wir wichtige Angelegenheiten anvertrauen. 2. Diejenigen, welche übel von andern

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. trzen, sind oft idlimmer als die, teren Fehler fie bloßstellen. 3. Er be:

THE CRAB. funnte sie Religion, deren Ursprung gëttlich ist. 4. Dieser Knabe befist zu The word crab requires no definition, and the animal thus named sul Stolz und zu wenig Fleiß. 5. Das ist der Mann, burch bessen Hülfe is probably known to every reader. Whether the term be doet gerettet wurte. 6. Welches gefiel Ihnen am meisten? Dieses over rived by abbreviation from the Latin carabus (crabus, crab), or mes? Seince von Beiten. stermann verabscheut werten? •8. Wie viele Hüte þat jener Knabe? 9. from a Saxon root signifying to bite or grip, is matter of debate. fr hat trei. 10. Ber verkauft hier gutes Brod ? 11. Unser Väder

The latter origin is, however, the more probable. In this case perfaust sehr gutes Bret.

one primary meaning can be traced through crab, the crus

tacean; crab, the apple, from its biting taste; and crab, a machine EXERCISE 68 (Vol. I., page 311).

for lifting or gripping heavy weights. But this short word con. 1. There is very much fruit this year. 2. It is very beautiful weather veys little notion of the animal's structure, and is therefore of to-day. S. There are more poor people than rich. 4. It is really a no scientific value. What, then, does the reader say to the pleasure to take a walk this morning. 5. Are there also ravenous name Decapod, brachyurous crustacean ? * To many this long beasts in Germany ? 6. There are still many wolves in the mountains. 7. The hostile army is on its return (retreat). 8. Is there anythiug more beautiful than the rising of the sun ? 9. It has snowed the whole

* Decapod, ten-footed; brachyurous, short-tailed.

name will at once suggest the peculiar structure of the crab ; | these fights, claws, limbs, and shells are torn, wrenched, and others may feel inclined to regard it as pedantic. But as the cracked, with a fury and energy to which a battle between two meaning of the designation is simply this, that the crab is a game-cocks is but play. When a large crab has seized a smaller, crustacean with a short tail and ten feet, it is an exact descrip-1 he tears open the shell, and scoops out the flesh of his living tion of the animal.

captive. Perhaps, while the conqueror is enjoying his feast, a Our notices must be limited to a few only of the more re- still stronger crab will tear open the body of the victor, and feed markable species, their singular habits and peculiar structure. upon him. The most singular fact is, that a crab, while thus being The spider-crabs, so named from the great length of their legs, eaten, will actually continue to feed on the victim seized by him. are found on many parts of the south, west, and east coasts self. Here appears a total insensibility to suffering. A crab has of England. The large reddish, spine-backed spider-crab of been known to lose seven of its limbs in a fight, and immeCornwall (Maia squinado) has sometimes the front legs fifteen diately after to begin eating a captured mollusk, as if nothing inches long. _Though little prized as food, and contemptuously particular had happened. These furious battles are probably

[graphic][merged small]

called “spiders” by the fishermen, this crustacean was highly not so common when the crabs are in their natural state, as honoured by the ancient Greeks, who deemed it a “rational when pent up in a close marine tank. animal,” used it as a symbol of wisdom, and sculptured it on The small red crab (Carcinus menas) sold by the London the statue of "Diana of the Ephesians." Still more was this costermongers is, of course, to be classed with the edible genus honoured by receiving the name Maia, that of the mother kind, though grouped with the portunians, or paddling crabs. of Mercury; and it is probable that the month of May was it is easily found a little beneath the sand when the tide named from the same root. Thus the spine-backed spider-crab has gone down. One may be kept for several days in moist is not without a history.

sand only; and if the captor will give his crab a mussel, he The common edible crabs of the fish-shops (Cancer pagurus) will receive his reward by observing the grave earnestness though well known, require some notice. They are found on with which the crustacean scoops out the flesh with its handrocky parts of our coasts, the small animals inhabiting holes like claws. This crab is of a greenish tint when alive; the in the cliffs, but the larger and more experienced dwelling in deeper red colour of those on the stalls arises from the oxidation of waters. When caught and kept alone in an aquarium, one of the shell when boiled. these crabs may become tame and quite familiar; but if placed The voracity of the common crab renders it an easy prey with others of its race, a series of desperate battles will soon de to the fisherman, who has only to bait his wicker traps, called clare the degree to which the ferocity of the crab may extend. In "crab-pots,” or “ stalkers," with useless or decayed fish, and

sink them in a suitable place, when the eager crustaceans will When the hermit grows too large for the shell first approsoon enter. Readers have, doubtless, noticed in the shops priated, another is sought, and, after repeated trials, is fitted to huge specimens of the edible crab; these fellows, brought up the body. Thus new homes are provided as required. from deep waters, have sometimes weighed twelve pounds each. Of course we need not warn any reader not to place these

Perhaps the most remarkable of our British crustaceans is crabs in an aquarium containing other marine creatures ; the the hermit crab (Pagurus Bernhardus). There is no mistaking hermits will kill them all. If, however, a tank can be arranged this red and yellow tinted crab, as he runs along the sand, for hermits only, the peace will probably be kept for some dragging with him the whelk or other shell which he has appro- time, they having a wholesome respect for each other's pugpriated for his house. Most readers are aware that this family nacity, and acting on the international principle, “ If you wish of crabs is without any shell on the hinder part of the body. peace, be ready for war." Were this all, we might simply note the fact as a remarkable The name "hermit" seems to have been given by those who deviation from the usual structure of crustaceans. We should fancied a resemblance between each crab in its shell and a also infer that the animal's habits were suited to its peculiar lonely hermit in his cell. In the West Indies these crustaceans formation, and that no sense of a deficiency in its covering are called “soldiers," their thorax case suggesting the notion would be felt by the creature. But this is not so; the crab does of a warrior's breastplate. feel the absence of its protection, and remedies the want by The habits of the pea crab (Pinnotheres* pisum) are not less seizing on the shells of other animals, and inserting the unde- remarkable than those of the hermits, and demand a few sen

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1. 2. STAGES IN THE METAMORPHOSIS OF THE SHORE CRAB. 3, 4. STAGES IN THE METAMORPHOSIS OF THE SPIDER CRAB.

6. THE HERMIT CRAB. 7. THE LAND CRAB,

5. THE PEA CRAB.

fended part of its body into the appropriated asylum. If the crab tences. These pinnotherians are sometimes not above one-tenth finds the empty shell of a whelk, or any other of a suitable size of an inch long, are of a pale-red colour, and inhabit the shells and shape, the naked part of its body is so firmly fixed in the of living mussels. The common edible mussel may often be Dorel home that it is easily drawn after the animal. If no empty found with one of these small pea crabs dwelling very comshell can be found, then the fierce crab seizes a whelk, eats the fortably inside the shell, without apparently giving any vietim, and appropriates its house. When one of these hermits annoyance to the mussel. The softness of their carapace comis seen, the fore part of the body is alone visible, the rest being pels these small crustaceans to find so strange a shelter in the concealed in the cleverly adapted home. To enable the crab homes of living mollusks. What service the crab renders the thue to crouch into a shell it was necessary to deprive it almost mussel is debated, though the old naturalists were very clear entirely of the two hinder pairs of legs, which are therefore upon the matter, holding that the tenant gave warning to its only rudimentary limbs. The observer may wish to have a protector of approaching foes, the mussel then closed its shell, complete view of so strange a crustacean. Let him be cautious; and both were safe. “Thus,” remarks one writer, " the little the hermit is sharp in temper, and a pinch from its mandibles crab pays a good rent, by saving the life of his landlady." will not be soon forgotten. See how bravely the creature Sometimes a whole family of pea crabs will be found thus defende its house ! Shrinking back as far as possible, it draws living with their guardian in the atmost harmony, Some in the small claw, bars the entrance with the large one, and naturalists, however, hint that the mussel would gladly eject hods this in readiness to seize the enemy. Should the hermit the intruders if it were possible. Cockles, oysters, and other at last be gripped without damage to fingers, it is even then mollusks, are also patronised by the pea crabs. question whether its body will not be torn asunder in the endestour to drag it out. This tenacity of hold arises from a * Mussel protectors ; so named from the notion that these small crabs peculiar grasping apparatus on the tail.

guarded the pinna, or mussel, from the cuttle-fish.

The land crabs (Gecarcinus*) present us with the remarkable ing apparatus, consisting of thousands of fine filaments, may fact of terrestrial animals breathing by gills. Most fish die if be seen in action. out of the water for a few minutes, but a long submersion in The crab's heart is placed just under the carapace, and is the sea would actually kill these crabs. The gecarcinians visit simply a strong muscular pouch or ventricle, from which the the shore once a year only, for the purpose of depositing their blood is sent over the body, and also to the gills, resembling in eggs in the water. During the rest of the year these animals this respect the action of the human heart. The blood is mostly live in moist holes, in woods and rocky crevices, hiding in the colourless, though sometimes a bluish tint may be noticed. day, and coming out to feed at night. The land crabs have The nervous system of the crab consists of numerous ganglia a peculiar apparatus near the gills for holding water, so that (nervous centres) placed in the abdomen and chest, from which the branchiæ are always kept moist. The species of gecar- the fine nerve-threads radiate through the body. The most im. cinians inhabiting the South Sea Islands, and feeding upon portant of these nerves are beautifully exhibited in the hermit cocoa-nuts, are said to visit the sea-shore every night to dip crabs dissected by Professor Owen, and now to be seen in the their gills in the water.

museum of the College of Surgeons. The mountain crab of Jamaica is declared by epicures to The eyes are compound; each consisting of numerous sis. make a most delicious stew when caught at the proper time sided tubes, every one of which forms a distinct eye or eyelet. and seasoned with lime juice.

These organs being placed on short tube-like bodies, retractile We must now make a few remarks on the general structure in some species, all such crustaceans are called "stalk-eyed." and physiology of these crustacea. Though crabs are classed with The crab's ears are supposed to be concealed under a plate, decapods, they have, in strictness, but eight feet, the front pair on the lower part of the second antenna. If this plate be reof limbs being mandibles, which serve as hands, and are not moved, a fine membrane will be seen, covering a cavity filled intended to aid progression. The well-known sideway motion with a fuid, in which the nerve of hearing is visible. of crabs is a necessary result of the peculiar manner in which The carapace, or shelly covering of the crab, corresponds to the joints of the legs are hinged one to the other. Lost limbs the epidermis, or outer skin, in man, but forms, in reality, the are usually restored at moulting time, when the crab throws off skeleton of the crustacea. It generally consists of about its old shell. After a claw has been torn away, the blood ves- twenty-one flat shelly rings, and is formed of oarbonate and sels and nerves shrink at the point of separation, and from the phosphate of lime. The peculiar coloaring matter is produced hollow thus formed the new limb afterwards grows. A crab by the inner skin, or corium, and becomes, under the action of which had lost seven legs in battle, recovered them all about boiling water, of a reddish hue. The lime, phosphorus, carbon, three months after, when the shell was cast. The new limbs and other elements forming the shell, are secreted by the were perfect in all respects, but somewhat smaller than the animals from the sea water. former set.

The crab has found a place in heraldry, several old families These repeated castings of so hard a shell, and the extrica- having adopted this crustacean among their insignia; and tion of all the complex limbs from their stony covering, are not even that warlike and chivalrous king, Francis I. of France. the least remarkable phenomena in a crab's life. When the did on one occasion, at least, introduce the animal into his animal ceases to increase, these changes doubtless cease; but shield. This, however, is said to have been a satirical allusion during growth several such unclothings must occur. Crabs to the hesitating movements of the English army in France, have been taken covered with oysters of seven years' growth, under the Duke of Suffolk, in 1523. a clear proof that during the whole of that period the shell All crabs discharge a most useful duty, being in fact the had not been cast. These crabs had, of course, ceased grow- scavengers of the sea, consuming the dead animal matter which ing. How a creature of so complex a form withdraws its would otherwise do much to corrupt the waters along the coasts. body from the tightly-fitting shell, leaving the latter, to all ap- Thus even the voracity of the crab promotes the well-being of pearance, entire, is a puzzling problem. So completely does the natural world, and consequently benefits the human race. the rejected covering retain its form that an observer might easily mistake it for another but smaller crab than its late owner. We say smaller, because the animal after moulting is LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXVII. always larger than the coat it has just put off.

We now resume and continue the table of latitudes and longiThe operation is by no means a pleasant one, if we may tudes of places in the Continent of Europe, commenced in our judge by the symptoms of decided “ illness” shown by the last lesson (see page 389, Vol. II.). crustacean. It ceases to eat, wriggles about, rubs against the rocks, and acts like a creature "out of sorts.” A thin skin is

TABLE OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF PLACES IN prepared under the shell before this is thrown off, and the under

EUROPE. coat soon hardens into a new covering. If we take up one of the shells soon after the moult, we may, with close inspection,

Name of Place. Country, etc. Latitude. Longitude. generally detect a crack where the crust was split when the body was being drawn out. It has been lately ascertained that the crab undergoes a co

Cefalu
Sicily

14° 3' E. plete metamorphosis, all the changes having been traced from Cephalonia (1.) Mediterranean the egg to the perfect crab. The first form of the young crus

Mediterranean

Cerigo (I.) tacean is utterly unlike the parent, and was formerly a puzzle to Chalons-sur-Saone .

Chalons-sur-Marne : 1 zoologists, who, while they named it Zoea, could only guess at Charkoff, or Kharkov Russia its nature. These creatures, after casting their shells, pass into Chartres

France the second state, in which they bear some resemblance to a Chelmsford | England

0 28 E. shrimp. From this condition they at length emerge as per

Cheltenham

England fect crabs. This metamorphosis has now been proved to occur

Cherbourg
France

1 37 W. in no less than seventeen genera of short-tailed decapods.

Cherson, or Kherson Russia

32 32 E. The first hint of these transmutations was given by Slabber, a

Chester
England

2 54 W.

Chichester Dutch naturalist, a hundred years ago; and the truth was Christiania

England

0 47W.

Norway gradually proved by Mr. Vaughan Thompson, Mr. Couch, and Christiansand. Norway. M. Milne-Edwards.

Christianstad. Sweden. The crab, of course, breathes by gills or branchiæt as they Christiansund. Norway. are often called. These occupy two cavities in the chest, the Christinestad. Russia water being admitted to them through a slit in the side of the Cilli

Austria thorax, and ejected by an opening near the mouth. The

Civitavecchia

Italy animal is able to regulate the outflow of water from the gills

Clausnitz
Saxony

13 29 E.

Clear (Cape) by a movable plate which, turning on a pivot, can be opened or

Ireland

9 32 W. Clermont France

5 shut at pleasure. By raising the carapace a little, the breath. Cleve

Prussia

51 47 Coblenz

Prussia • The Greek for land crab. + The Greek for gills. Coburg

Germany

15

380

1' 15 15

59

France
France

20 38 E. 23 O E 4 20 E.

52 E. 36 19 E. 1

29 E.

47
58
26

5W

38 36 48 46 49 48 50 51 49 46 53 50 59 58 56 63

55 38 39 12

51

54
8
1

10 48 E. 7 55 E.

9 E. 7 46 E. 21 27 E. 15 16 E. 11 48 E.

11
14
6

12
50
51
49

25

5 3 E. 6

9 E. 735 E. 12 59 E

31

50 50

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11

.

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53

.

63

53

Coimbra.
Colchester
Cologne .
Como
Constance
Constantinople
Copenhagen
Corfu (L.)
Corinth.
Cork
Coron, or Messenia

(Galf of)
Courtray.
Coutances
Coventry.
Cracow,
Cremona,
Cronstadt
Cuxhaven
Dago (L)
Dantzic, or Danzig
Darmstadt
Daventry
Deal Castle
Delft
Derby
Dieppe
Dijon
Dixwoude
Dorchester
Dordrecht, or Dort.
Dorpat
Dover Castle :
Dresden.
Deontheim, or

Trondhjem.
Dublin
Dundee
Dunkirk,
Darazzo.
Durham.
Dasseldorf
Eddystone Lighths.
Edinburgh
Eisenach
Elba (L.).
Elbing
Elsinore.
Ely
Emden
Enkhuizen
Erfurt
Escorial, The .
Erreux
Exeter
Paro
Faroe Islands
Ferrara
Ferrol
Finisterre (Cape)
Fiume
Flensborg
Florence.
Flushing
Folkestone
Fontenoy
Foreland N.
Poreland s.
Innkfurt-on-the-

Maine.
Frankfurt-on-the-

Oder
Frejus
Falda
Gell, St. .
Gallipoli.
Gap
Gata, Cape de.

Norway. Ireland Scotland. France Turkey England. Germany English Channel Scotland Germany Mediterranean Sea Prussia Denmark England. Prussia Holland Prussia Spain France England. Portugal. Atlantic Ocean Italy Spain Spain Austria Denmark Italy Holland. England. Belgium England. England.

56 51 41 54 51 50 55 50 42 54 56 52 53 52 50 40 49 50

53

25 21 28

7 18 47 13 11 57 59 46 10

2 24 22 42 58 46

0 43 0 0 50 29 53 19 46 47 26

5 34 23 9

Gibraltar Girgenti. Glasgow Glastonbury Gloucester Gluchoi Gluckstadt Gotha Gothland (I.) Gottenborg Gottingen Gouda Gradisca Gratz Gravelines Greenwich Grenoble Grodno Guastalla Guelders, or Geldern Haarlem. Hague Halberstadt Halle Halmstad Hamburg Hammerfest Hanover. Harlingen Hartlepool Havre Helgoland (I.). Helsingborg Helsingfors Hellevoetsluis. Heraclia. Herenthals. Hernösand Holar Holy I. Holyhead Horsham Huntingdon Hyères. Iglau Ilchester Ingolstadt Innsbruck Ismail Ivica (I.) Jaroslav Jassy Jersey (I.) Johannisberg Kalaga Kaminietz Kasan Kasköe Kertch Kidwelly Kiel Kiev Kinsale Klanenfurt Klin Kola Königsberg Koslov Kostroma Kragero. Krems Kursk Lagos Lancaster Landsberg Landscrona Langres. Laon Laybach. Launceston Leasowes Leghorn.

10 23 E.
6 16 W.
2 58 W.
2 39 E.
19 26 E.
1 35 W.
6 46 E.

16 W.
3 11 W.
10 19 E.
10 15 E.
19 25 E.
12 36 E.
0 15 E.
7 12 E.
5 17 E.
11

O E.

11 W. 1 9 E. 3 31 W. 7 52 W. 7 OW. 11 37 E. 8 15 W.

16 W. 14 27 E.

9 26 E. 11

14 E. 3 35 E. 1 11 E. 3 27W. 1 27 E. 1

23 E.

Spain Sicily Scotland. England. England. Russia Prussia Germany Baltic Sea Sweden Germany Holland. Austria . Austria France England, France Russia Italy Prussia Holland Holland Prussia Prussia Sweden Germany Norway Prussia Holland England. France North Sea Sweden Russia Holland Turkey Belgium. Sweden Iceland England. Wales England. England. France Austria. England. Bavaria Austria Tarkey Mediterranean Sea Russia Moldavia English Channel Prussia Russia Russia Russia Russia Crimea Wales Prussia Russia Ireland Austria Russia Russia Prussia Russia Russia Norway Austria Russia Portugal England. Bavaria Sweden France France Austria England. England. Italy

36° 8' N. 5° 21'w 37 18 13 23 E. 55 51

16 W. 51 9

2 33 W. 51 52 2

15 W. 57 33 28 56 E. 53 47 9 24 E. 50 57 10 42 E. 57 30 18 30 E. 57 39

59 E. 51 32 9 56 E. 52 1

42 E. 45

13 30 E. 47 4 15 26 E. 51 0

2 6 E. 51 28 0 0 45 12

5 42 E. 53 41 23 49 E.

55 10 39 E. 51 31 6 19 E. 52 23 4 38 E. 52 3

18 E 51

11 3 E. 51 29

11 59 E. 56 39 12 49 E. 53 33 10 O E. 70 38 23 39 E. 52 23 9 42 E. 10

24 E. 54

1 11 W. 49 29 0 6 E. 54 11 7 58 E. 56 2 12 42 E. 60 14 24 57 E 51 50

7 E 41 0 27 57 E. 51 11

51 E. 62 35 17 49 E 65 34 20 35 W. 55 40 1 47 W. 18

39 W. 51 3

0 20 W, 52 20

0 11w. 43 7

5 E. 49 23 15 35 E. 0

2 41 W. 48 47 11 25 E. 47 17 11 24 E. 45

22 28 50 E, 38 54 1 26 E. 57 36 40 12 E. 47 10 27 37 E, 49 13

7 W. 53 37 21 49 E. 54 32 36 18 E. 48

26 33 E. 55 47 40 3 E. 62 17 21 19 E. 45 22 36

29 E. 45 4 18 W. 54 19 10 8 E. 50 27 30 S6 E. 51

8 32 W. 46 37

19 E. 56 22 36 48 E. 68 47 33 2 E. 54 42 20 80 E. 45

33 22 E. 57

40 57 E. 58 52 9 29 E. 48 25

15 36 E. 51

36 13 E. 37 10 8 37 W. 54 3

48 W. 48

51 E. 55 52 12 49 E. 47 53 5 20 E. 49 34 3 36 E. 46 3 14 31 E. 50 48 4 21 W. 53 27

1 59 W. 43 33 10 18 E

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