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READINGS IN GERMAN.-VIII.

Melonen liegen, unb die Zweige ber Bäume wurteil

mai-lo'-nen lee'-ghen, öðnt dee tsvi-gai dair boi'-mai võõr'-den fon 9.-Die vier Jahreszeiten. Dee feer yah"-ress-tsi-ten.

reifen Früchten niedergezogen. Das war erst ein rechtes

ri-fen früy'-ten nee"-der-gai-tso-ghen. Dass vahr eyrst ine rey'-tess ach wenn's te immer Winterbliebe! fagte Grnst, als

Die ad venss doch im'-mer vin'-ter blee'-bai! zahdh'-tai Errnst, alas Feft für unsern Grnst, ber nichts lieferbale Doft.

fest fu'r don'-zern Errnst, deyr niýts lee'-ber ahss alss o'pst. Dee it einen Mann von Schnee gemacht hatte, und im Schlitten 7 i-nen man főn shney gai-macht hat-tai, gặnt im shlit-ten sh"-nai tsite, zahdh'-tai zine fah'-ter, virrt balt fore-u”-ber zine, dnir

sagte sein Bater, wird bald vorüber sein, ter gefahren war. gai-fah'-ren vahr.

Winter ist schon vor der Thür, um den Herbst zu vertreiben. Sein Bater

sagte,

möchte diesen Wunsch in seine vin'-ter ist sho'ne fore dair tü'r, oom dain herrpst tsoo ferr-tri'-ben, Zine fah'-ter zahch'-tai, eyr möy'-tai dee'-zen vöõnsh in zi-nai Ach, fagte Ernst, ich wollte, daß er wegbliebe, und daß Streibtafel schreibert, und er that es.

acy, zahch-tai Errnst, 'ý vol-tai, dass eyr vey'-blee-bai, çont dass shripe-tah-fel shri'-ben, oont eyr taht ess.

es immer Herbst wire. Der Winter verging, kam der Frühling. Ernst stand ess im-mer herrpst vey'-rai, Dair vin'-ter ferr-ghink, ess kahm dair frü".link. Errnst shtant Wolltest du das wirklich ? fragte sein Vater. Wirklicy, mit seinem Bater bei einem Blumenbeete, auf welchem

Vor-test doo dass virrk'-lý? frahch'- tai zine fah'-ter, Virrk-lly, mit zi-nem fah'-ter by i'-nem bloo"-men-bey'-tai, ouf vel'-yem war seine Antwort. Aber, Fihr sein Vater fort, indem Gwacinthen, Aurifeln unb Narcissen Klübeten, und war

vahr zi-nai ant-vort. Ah'-ber, foor zine fah'-ter fört, in-deym' eyr hee-a-tsin'-ten, ou-ree'-keln öðnt narr-tsiss'-sen blü"-bai-ten, šðnt vahr die Schreibtafel

ber Tasche 309, fich toch cinnal, mot freuten ganz außer Fidy.

dee shripe"-tah'-fel ouss dair tash'-shai tso'ch, zee dachy ine-mabi'; ore froi'-den gants ou'-sser ziy.

was hier geschrieben

steht; T18 ist eine Freude tes Frühlings, sagte fein Vater; fie

vass here gai-shree'-ben shteyt; leess dochy. Dass ist i'-nai froi'-dai dess frü"-links, zahch--tai zine fah'-te"; zeo Ich wollte, daß es immer Winter wäre." mitt bald wieder vergehen.

"věl-tai, dass ess it'-mer vin'-ter vey'-rai.” firrt balt vee'-der ferr-ghey'-hen.

Und nun lies cinmal hier auf dieser Seite, wa fteht Ach, antwortete Ernst, wenn's toch immer Frühling wäre.

öðnt noon leess ine-mahl' here ouf dee'-zer zi'-tai, vass shteyt au, ant'-võr-tai-tai Errnst, venss doch im'-mer frü"-link vey'-rai. Denn ba? Shreib riesen Wunsch in meine Screibtafel, sagte sein

den dah ? Shripe dee'-zen vöðnsh in mi-nai shripe"-tah'-fel, zahch-tai zine „Ich wollte, daß es immer Frühling ware." Patet, und er that es.

"ly vol'-tai, dass ess im'-mer frü'-link vey'-rai." AH-ter, õõnt eyr taht ess.

und was auf dieser Seite hier? Ter Frühling verging, e$ fant der Sommer. Ernst ging öðnt vass ouf dee'-zer zi'-tai here? Dair fruk-link ferr-ghink', ess kahm dair zom'-mer. Errust ghink

„Ich wollte, daß es immer Sommer wäre." mit feinen Eltern und einigen Gespielen an einem warmen *ý vol-tai, dass ess im-mer zom'-mer vey'-rai." mit zi-nen er-tern Bont i-ni-ghen gai-shpee'-len an i-nem varr-men

Kennst tu, fuhr er fort, tie Hant, die tieses geschrieben Sommertage nach dem

nächsten

Dorfe, und fie blieben Kenst doo, foor eyr fort, dee hant, dee dee'-zess gai.shree'-ben zóm'-mer-tah'-gai nahch daim neyy'-sten dör-fai, dont zee blee'-ben

hat? tafelbit ten

ganzen Tag. Rund um fich her sahen sie hat ? da-zelpst dain gan'-tsen tahch. Roont com ziy heyr zah'-hen zee

babe ich geschrieben, antwortete Ernst grüne Saaten und

Wiesen, mit tausentfältigen Blumen Dass hah'-bai YÝ gai-shree-ben, ant'-vor-tai-tai Errnst, gru"-nai zah-ten öðnt vee-zen, mit tow-zent-fel-ti-ghen bloo'-men

Bater. lind was wünschtest tu ießt

eben? geschmidt,

und Auen, auf welchen' junge Pämmer tanzten Fah-ter. 5ðnt vass vünsh-test doo yetst ey'-ben ? si-shmtekt', dont ou'-en, ouf vel-gen yöðng'-ai lem'-mer tants'-ten

Ernst. Ich wünschte, daß e$ immer Herbst Teint möchte. It muthwillige Füllen ihre Sprünge machten.

Errnst. rý vünsh'-tai, dass ess im'-mer herrpst zine möy'-tai. Wat moot-vil-Ir-gai ful'-len ee'-rai shprüng'-ai mach-ten.

Das ist toch sonderbar genug, fagte der Vater. Sie aben Kitiden und anderes Sommerobst, und Dass ist doch zon'-der-bahr gai-noo'ch', zahch-tai dair fah'-ter. Im Zee ah-ngen kirr-shen šnt an'-dai-ress zom'-mer-o'pst, gånt

Winter wünschtest bu, taß es Winter, im Frühling, daß es lieben fich'& den ganzen Tag über recht wohl sein.

vin'-ter vünsh'-test doo, dass ess vin'-ter, im frü"-link, dass es lee #son ziy'ss dain gan'-tsen tahch ü"-ber reyt vole zine,

Frühling, im Sommer, daß es Sommer, und in Herbst, daß es fragte ber Vater beim Zurücgehen,

fru"-link, im zồm'-mer, dass ess zom'-mer, dont im herrpst, dass ess Nyt vahr, franch-tai dair fah'-ter bime tsoo-rück"-ghey'-hen, dair Sommer hat doch auch seine Freuten ?

Herbst bleiben möchte. Denk cinmal nach, was folgt tvob! tim'-Iner hat doch ouch zi’-nai froi'-den?

herrpst bli'-ben möy'-tai. Denk ine-mahi' nahdh, vass folyt vole antwortete Ernst, ich wollte, daß es immer Sommer

taraus? Oh, ant-vör-tai-tai Errost, rý vol®-tai, dass ess im'-mer zom-mer

da-rouss'? mire! mußte auch dieses in die Schreibtafel seines

Ernst. Daf alle Jahreszeiten gut fint rag'-rai! Eyr moss'-tai ouch dee'-zess in dee shripe"-tah'-fel zi’-ness

Errnst. Dass al-lai yah"-ress-tsi-ten goo't zỉnt. Sater: ichreiben.

Pater. Ja, daß fie alle reich an Freuden, reich an man terss shri'-ben.

Fah'-ter. Yah, dass zee al'-lai ri'y an froi'-den, ri'y an man" Cublich fam der Herbst. Die

ganze
Familie brachte nigfaltigen

ber

Gaben sind, undtab fiebe Ent-lvý kahm dair herrpst. Dee gan'-tsai fa-mee'-IY-ai brach"-tai någ-fall-ti-ghen gah’-ben zint, dont dass dair leoʻ-bai gro'-ssai gť: enige Tage in einem Weinberge zu. 6s war nicht mehr viel besser seine Welt eingerichtet hat, als wir armen i-al-gai tah-gai in i-nem vine'-berr-gai tsoo. Ess vahr niýt meyr feel bess'-ser zi’-nai velt ine"-gai-rry'-tet hat, alss veer arr-men je teig als im Sommer, aber die Luft war sanft und der Menschen verstehen. zo hice ales im zom'-mer, ah-ber dee 188ft vahr zanft cònt dair men'shen ferr-shtey'-hen. Die Weinstoce waren mit reifen Trauben

Midt wahr,

der

große (Von

VOCABULARY. Dee vine'-stöck-kai vah'-ren mit ri'-fen trou'-ben Jahreszeit, f. season. Ach, oh, alas. Schlitten, m. sledge. Sehangen; auf den Misbeeten sah man wohlschmedende (Jahr, n. year; Zeit, Wenn's, contraction, Gr möchte, that he hai-karz-en; out dain mist-bey-ten zah man vole’-shmeck-ken-dai f. time.)

if it.

should.

Gimme beiter. hum-nel hi-ter.

Name.

L HOOK,

R XOOK.

N TOOK.

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pass,

causes.

Wunsch,m.wish, desire Sprung, m. spring, Erst, first, only, not 44. When the diphthongs vi, a ow, are written by themselves Schreibtafel, f. pocket gambol.

till now.

for the words I, how, I is placed ABOVE the line, and i how on the book, tablet. Kirsche, f. cherry. Fest, n. feast, festival. line. When either of these diphthongs commences a word, the first

(schreiben, to write.) Obst, n. fruit. Lieber, rather, dearer; place is the most convenient; as ) eyes, no ounce; in other Ver, prefix, away. Sid es wohl sein lassen, lieber essen, to preBlumenbeet, n. flower

cases they are both more easily written in the third place; as, to make one's self fer to eat. bed. (Beet, n. bed comfortable. Vorüber, past, over.

v spike, ^ vow. [in a garden.]) Recht, very, right. Vertreiben, to drive 43. When a FIRST-PLACE vowel comes either before or after the Außer, out of, beside. Zurück, back.

away, to expel. first consonant of a word, the vowel may be more conveniently written Bald, soon.

Müssen, to be obliged. (treiben, to drive.) first, and the consonants afterwards. Einige, pl. some. Herbst, m. autumn. Wirklich, really. 46. The vowel eh is always modified by a following r in English, Gespiele,m.play.fellow Zubringen, to spend Kennen, to know. so that no distinction is required between the vowels in mate and Nächst, next. Heiß, hot.

Fortfahren, to con. mare. In Scotch, French, German, Italian, etc., in which this deep Dorf, n, village. Heiter, serene,cheerful tinue.

a occurs independently of r, it may be represented by two dots parDafelbst, there.

Weinstoc, m. vine. Tasche, f. pocket. allel to the consonant, in the second vowel place. This sign may also Grün, groen. (seed. (Stock, m. stick.) Seite, f. page, side. be employed in English Phonography, if the writer chooses

. Those Saat, f. cornfield, Reif, ripe.

Sonderbar, singular, who distinguish the vowels in pass and passive, and do not pronounce Wiese, f. meadow. Traube, f. grape.

strange. Tausend

, thousand; Mistbeet, n. hot-bed. Nachdenken, to reflect the former as in father, may use two dots for it; thus, o pass fältig, adj. fold. (Mist, m. manure.) | Folgen, to follow.

SINGLE AND DOUBLE CONSONANTS.
Schmüden, to adorn. Zweig, m. branch. Mannigfaltig, mani.
Aue, f. meadow. Niederziehen, to bend

fold.

ar in 1 Muthwillig, playful, down. (ziehen, to Einrichten, to arrange. wanton.

pl . draw, march, (richten, to right, pee P, pea

pr pa ! pt Füllen, n. colt, foal. move.)

judge.)
bee B, bee bl br bn

J

bd LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-V. tee T, tea 1 tl

tr 1 tn J

Ult

1 THE CIRCLE S AND THE STROKE S.

dee D, day
di l dr do Jdd

1 35. The circle s is generally used in preference to the stroke s ; thus,

e sake, ip sat, op sought, bo piece, Itask. chay CH,chair / chl / che chacht In such words, the vowel is placed and read to the stroke-consonant, jay J, jam jl je

7 ja jd and not to the circle s, to which no vowel can be placed or read. Observe particularly that the circle s, at the beginning of a word, is kay K, come

ka always read FIRST, and at the end of a word it is always read last. It may be made double-sized for ss ; thus

gay G, go

gl
gr
ga

gd
passes,
ro cause,

fr 36. When a work begins with a vowel followed by s or 2, or

ef F, fie

fa 6

it ends with a vowel preceded by s or 7, the stroke s or z is used ; thus,

vee V, vie

vd ) ice, .) ease, 2 ask, ). see, ~). mercy, y noisy. 37. The stroke s is used whenever it is necessary to place a vowel

ith TH, thin (

thr () thn 6th

( to this consonant ; thus, o science, chaos.

thee 'TH, then (

thr) thn ( thd ( 38. The stroke z is used in all words that begin with z; as, zeal, Zion.

es S, see )

S
st

d 1 st )
VOCALISATION OF WORDS.
zee Z, zeal )

zd) 39. The poil has already been informed, in Lesson 3, that when a vowel comes between two consonants, it is possible to write it either ish SH, she

2
after the first or before the second; thus-
or
or

zhr
zhee ZH, vision
keep.

zhn Dzhd cape, As the three rules for writing the vowel under such circumstances

em M, me are of some importance, inasmuch as from the frequency of their ap

md plication much diversity in the writing of phonographers would ensue en N, no

nl c from the neglect of them, we shall here repeat them. As to their most important features, these three rules may be comprised in this ing NG, sing

ner ngn one :- Take care not to write the vowel sign in an angle between two letters; as

el L, law

la roll \, which might be read either kee-p or k-ahp: for nick-nack, is not so clear as i nick-nack.

ar R, ray

R The three following rules embrace the greater number of cases. 40. FIRST-PLACE Vowels are written after the first consonant; as

whay L not pack; not call.

W wh Y Hmp or mb, mr, men, wl, Ir. se č. 9

90 41. SECOND-PLACE Vowels are written after the first consonant when LONG, and before the second when short: thus

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 7 gate, 7 get, 1 coat, . - cut.

Short.
Independently of the heaviness or lightness of the vowel sign, it is

Long.
ă
i
ŭ oo ah eh

Ö thus known whether a second-place vowel is long or short.

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vr

va 6

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sn

zn

( shr

| shn 2 sht دل shl

Up, down

down, up

down, up

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42. THIRD-PLACE Vowels are written before the second conso 1 II IllIt nant; asnot 7 kit; V not proor.

ell, ill, olive, up,

foot. alms, ale, eel, all, ope, 43. If the second consonant is the circle o, the vowed must i Misle, ow Mowl

, ū n / tune, ai 4 ay, oi oil

, will necessarily be written after the first consonant ; thus, of muscle.

The diphthongs i, ow, wi, may be written in ANY position.

am,

food.

DOUBLE LETTERS OF THE W AND Y SERIES. them with monosyllabic names; thus, 1 tr should not be called

vă vě w wo wè wòö / yă yè yì yo yŭ yöö te, ar, but ter; per; s tel; pel, etc. A distinction is thus Skort. 1 al coll ul I o al made between p, ?, prononnced as two letters, and pl, pronounced as es in wag, wet , wit, was, ton, wood . yam, yet, (yi) yon, young, unite in par. 17 may be named - kess, b tess, 2sek

, etc.

one. The former would mean V, the latter So the compounds wah weh wee waw wo woo yah yeh yee yaw yo yoo

53. These double consonants are vocalised like the single ones; thus Long, Jalol lol lol ul 11 noi

1. tree, spray, Svapply, mutter. as in qualm, tay, ve, wall, woke, woa. (yah,) yea, ye, yawn, yoke, you

54. Shl, shr, shn, and rt, upward, and In, Int, dowa ward, must DOUBLE AND TREBLE CONSONANTS.

never stand A LONE, because they would then be read as other letters. INITIAL L AND R HOOKS. 55. DOUBLE CONSONANTS.--As the stroke s hooked, thus ), is not

being eqnally 47. The simple articulations p, 6, t, d, etc., are often closely united required for sr (the circle s joined to the downward r, with the liquids i and r, forming a kind of consonant diphthong, and serviceable), and as the dowuwarl r, hooked for rr , would be pronounced by a single effort of the organs of speech ; as in plough, almost useless, the two forms ) are given to fr, or, and their heavy brow, try, drink, etc. The natural way of expressing these com- strokes to vr, dr, as extra sigrs. These duplicate forms are distinbinations in writing would undoubtedly be by some marked and guished, in ordinary printing, thus :-"fr, vr, tr, år” represent the uniform modification of the simple letters. It is effected thus :

alphabetic forms įsic C, and “fr, vr, ór, r” the EXTRA P, with 1, becomes pl; \P, with r, becomes

pr; forms 210). The upward letters for w, wh, y, and both the | 1, with I, becomes s tl; | t, with r, becomes 1 tr. upward and downward k, may be hooked at the end for n, and halved As a curve cannot receive a hook on both sides of the stroke (for fort or d. A letter with an initial or final hook (or both an initial sach characters as I could not be written both accurately and and final book) may be written half-length for the expression of either

t ord; thus, klt or kld, v wt or wd, mnt or mnd, P (up) quickly), and as the r compounds are much more frequent than the l compounds, a hook prefired to a curve always adds r to the primary (down) Int or Ind, rnt or rnd, w wnt or wnd. letter (except in the case of 6 wl, explained par. 31), thus

56. Tick H.—The downward h may be reduced to a tick before

m, l, r, and before any hooked letter to which the tick can be joined ; ( th, with r, becomes ( thr; . f, with r, becomes e fr, as hm, r hhr, har. This tick h, when employed #, with 7, becomes unr; m, with r, becomes

mr. before m or 1, cannot be conveniently used when a first-place vowel

follows h. 48. A series of curved hooked letters to represent the addition of

EXERCISE 14. 1 is produced by making a large hook. Of this series, only A, vi, sh, nl, will be required in writing English, and these letters occur

Write in shortband and longhandbut seldom. The principle of hooking on I and r to the other letters, does not apply to the letters l and r themselves.

1. ro 49. The most useful letters in the carved I and r series, fl, vi, fr, or, tar, have duplicate forms, namely, the opposite curves of f and th in addition to the regularly formed letters ; because the downward r and do not require to be hooked for rr, sr.

3. 7. 1 2 50. In these hooked letters, the hook must not be considered as r, and the stem as the primary letter, but the whole form must be

4. taken to represent the consonant diphthong pr, considered as a whole ; and in no case can the r be read first ; thus cannot be considered as ry, and used for reap. The left-hand hook was selected for the r series, and the right-hand hook for the l series, in the straight letters,

EXERCISE 15. becanse the combinations pr, tr, etc., occur five times as often as pl, Write with the hook il, etc., and the left-hand hook is the best sign for writing, both when sceurring singly, and when joined to other letters.

1. abridge, abroad, April, acre, across, address, agree, altar, archer. 51. If the Right hand be held up, with the first finger bent, the 2. baker, banner, batter, butter, beaver, beggar, brace, bridge, brick. outline of tr will be seen ; and by turning the hand round to the 3. copper, cooper, crib, cram, crape, crash, crawl, cress, cruel, crow. following positions, all the double consonants of the pr series will be

4. dagger, decree, dinner, diver, drab, dram, draw, drover, dreary. formed; thus

5. eager, either, elder, empress, father, favour, fetter, fibre, free, froth.

6. grab, grace, grade, Greek, grapes, Hebrew, honour (o, nr), hatter. tr

7. increase, jabber, keeper, ladder, ledger, leper, lever, lodger, lucre.

8. major, maker, manner, meagre, negro, neither, nipper, neighbour. pr

chr

9. oppress, other, otter, over, owner, opener, offer, ochre, ogre. 10. packer, paper, phrase, potter, pray, preach, prig, prime, pucker. 11. quaker, quaver, rammer,

Jo bi / 7

/ / م ا ل
ان کا 3

2 ز

ادم بره

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rather, reaper, rider, river, rigour, robber. 12. sceptre, shiver, shrug, shriek, shrill, silver, skipper, spider, sugar. 13. taper, tatter, thrash, three, throb, tiger, trace, trail, truck, trill.

14. upper, usher, utter, viper, vapour, wafer, wager, water, writer. If the Left hand be held up, in the same way, the outline of tl will Write with the hook Ibe seen; and by turning the hand round to the following positions, all the double consonants of the pl series will be formed.

1. able, ably, addle, amble, angle, ancle, apple, apply, applause.

2. battle, bauble, beadle, black, blade, blame, blaze, blight, blush. tl

3. cable, cackle, clad, claim, clar, clash, clear, clime, club, clutch.
4. dabble, daggle, devil
, double, dribble, eagle, eclat

, edible, employ. 5. fable, fickle, fiddle, final, flame, flap, flash, fice, flight, flower. chi

6. gable, glare, glass, gleam, gloat, globe, gloom, glory, glow, glue.

7. hackle, hobble, idle, imply, kennel, kettle, label, ladle, legal, libel. kic

8. metal, muckle, muddle, needle, nettle, nibble, nipple, noble, nobly. 9. o'clock, paddle, pannel, papal, patter, people, pickle, place, platter.

10. quibble, rabble, radical, rattle, riddle, reply, rankle, ripple. 52. When speaking of these double consonants, as, for instance, 11. shuffle,' shuttle, simply, stable, staple, steeple, stifle, suitable. in a phonographic class, it will be found convenient to pronounce 12. table, tackle, title, tittle, tipple, total, treble, triple, tunnel, vocal.

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LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXII.

| Persevēro, 1, to porse-Semen, semạnis, n., succurri,succursum, DEPONENT VERBS-THIRD CONJUGATION.

vere.
seed.

3, to aid, succour(with

Pestis, -is, f., the plague. Simulatque (simul and dat.).
EXAMPLE.—Loquor, I speak.

Quotiescunque, as often atque), as soon as. Ulciscor, ulcisci, altas
Chief Parts : Loquor, loqui, locutus sum,

Superior, -ðris, m., a sum, 3 (with acc.),

Revertor (perfect), re-
PRESENT TENSE.

superior, conqueror. avenge yourself, Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle.

verti (participle), re- Superior discedo, I punish.

come off conqueror. Sing. Loquor, I speak, Loquar, I may

versus, 3, to return

Visum, -i, Dhe, sight, ap-
Loqui, to Loquens,
etc.

Succurro, succurrere,
speak.
speak.

(E. R. reverse).
speaking.

pearance. Loquéris. Loquāris. Loquère, lo

EXERCISE 114.-LATIN-ENGLISH. quïtor, speak

1. Salus hominum non veritate solum sed etiam famâ nititur... thou, etc.

Cives, cum hostibus pacti, pace fruiti sunt. 3. Deum et divimum Loquitur, Loquatur. Loquitor.

animum cogitatione complectimur. 4. Lacte, carne, multisque aliis Plu. Loquimur. Loquamur. [quiminor.

rebus vescimur, 5. Cavete ne ulciscamini inimicos vestros. 6. Romani Loquimini, Loquamini. Loquimini, lo

Numidis hoc polliciti sunt. 7. Namidi perseveraverunt bello urgere Loquuntur. Loquantur. Loquuntor.

Carthaginienses. 8. Romani aduisuri sunt. 9. Romani se admisurog IMPERFECT TENSE.

esse dicunt. 10. Cumulatam gratiam reddiderunt Romani. 11. Sing. Loquebar, I was Loquerer, I

Romani Numidis polliciti sunt, si perseverarent bello urgere Carthespeaking, etc. might speak.

ginienses, se adnisuros esse, ut cumulatam gratiam redderent. 12. Loquebaris. Loquerēris.

Nemo parum diu vixit, qui virtutis perfectæ functus est munere. 13. Loquebatur. Loqueretur.

Visa in somnio contemnunt sapientes. 14. Simulatque experrecti Plu. Loquebamur. Loqueremur.

sumus, contemnimus visa in somnio. 15. Aristotěles, Zeno, innumeLoquebamini. Loqueremini.

rabiles alii, e patriâ profecti, nunquam domum reverterunt. 16. Nolla Loquebantur. Loquerentur.

tam detestabilis est pestis quæ non homini ab homine nascatur. 17. FIRST FUTURE TENSE.

Non sum uni angulo natus. 18. Patria mea totus hic est mundus. Sing. Loquar, I shall

Locuturum Locuturus, 19. Sunt ingeniis nostris semina innāta virtutum. 20. Hannibal cum speak, etc.

esse, to be on the point Romanis congressus est in Italia, 21. Hannibal cum Romanis conLoqueris.

on the point of speaking. gressus, semper discessit superior. 22. Hannibal, quotiescunque cum Loquetur.

of speaking.

Romanis congressus est in Italiả, semper discessit superior.
Plu. Loquemur.

VOCABULARY.
Loquemini.
Loquentur.

Ad aliquid, to strive sum, s, to struggle Quo, whither.
PERFECT TENSE.

after.

out, to do our best. Recens, -tis, recent, Sing. Locûtus sum, Locutus sim,

Locutus,

Adipiscor, adipisci, Excedo, excedere, ex fresh. . I spoke, etc, I may have

having

adeptus sum, 3, to cessi, excessum, 3 Regia res est, it is like spoken.

spoken.
attain, acquire.

(with abl.), to go out a king, or trorthy v Locutus es. Locutus sis.

Avidus, -a, -um, eager of, or beyond (E, R. a king. Locutus est. Locutus sit.

for, greedy of.

excess).

Regius, -a, -um, royal. Plu. Locuti sumus. Locuti simus.

Careq, 2, to be without. Irascor, irasci, iratus Stultitia, -2, f., felly Locuti estis. Locuti sitis.

Consuetudo, -inis, f., sum, 8, to be angr ja (E. R. stultify). Locuti sunt. Locuti sint.

acquaintance. Lapsus (labor), Jallon, Tendo, tendere, tetenDefetiscor, defetisci,

the fallen. PLUPERFECT TENSE.

di, tentum, 3, to Sing. Locutus eram, Locatus essem,

defessus sum, 3, to Nefas (indeclinable), stretch, ertend. be weary.

1., wickedness, some- Ubicunque, schereste I had spoken, I might have

Diuturnitas, -ātis, etc.

thing too bad to be spoken,

length of time. Locutus eras. Locutus esses.

spoken of (from for, Ubicunque gentium,

Eläbor, elabi, elapsus fari, fatum). Locutus erat. Locutus esset.

in whatever part of Plu, Locati eramus.Locuti essemus

sum, 3, to slide, get Patior, pati, passus the world,
away.

sum, 3, to suffor. Vicinitas, -&tis, 1., Locuti eratis. Locuti essetis. Locuti erant. Locuti essent,

Enitor, enisus, enixus Proprius, -a, -um, one's neighbourhood.

oun, peculiar. SECOND FUTURE TENSE. Sing. Locûtus

EXERCISE 115.-LATIN-ENGLISH. I shall have

1. Optimi cajusque animus maxime ad gloriam immortalem nititur. spoken, etc.

2. Hostes diuturnitate pugnæ defessi sunt. 3, Hostes, diuturnitate Locutus eris.

pugna defessi, prælio excedebant. 4. Adeptus est virtutem. 5. UbiLocutus erit.

cunque gentium erit vir bonus, ab amicis diligetur. 6. Qui virtutem Plu. Locuti erimus.

adeptus erit, ubicunque erit gentium, a nobis diligetur. 7. Avida est Locuti eritis.

periculi virtus. 8. Virtus quid passura sit non cogitat. 9. Arida est Locuti erunt.

periculi virtus, et quo tendat, non quid passura sit cogitat. 10. AuGLRUNDS.

gustus dominum se appellari non est passus. 11. Animalia alia rationis Gen. Loquendi, of speaking.

SUPINES.

expertia sunt, alia ratione utuntur. 12. Animo elapso, corpus nihil Dat. Loquendo, to speaking. 1. Locûtum, to speak.

valet. 13. Valet apud nos clarorum hominum memoria, etiam mortuAcc. Loquendum, speaking. 2. Locutu, to be spoken. orum. 14. Regia res est, succurrere lapsis. 15. Proprium est stultitiæ, Ab. Loquendo, by speaking.

aliorum vitia cerněre, oblivisci suorum. 16. Ut plurimis prosimos, After this model conjugate the following deponent verbs :- Amicitie, consuetudines, vicinitates habent aliquid voluptatis. 19.

eniti debemus.

18.

17. Irasci iis quos amare debemus est nefas. Sequor, sequi, secutus sum, to follow; fungor, fungi, functus sum Carendo magis quam fruendo intelligimus bona nostra. 20. Amicitiæ, (with abl.), to discharge ; labor, labi, lapsus sum, to fall; obli

consuetudines, vicinitates quid habeant voluptatis, carendo magis inviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum (with gen.), to forget.

telligimus quam fruendo. 21. Semper recentes defessis succedebant. VOCABULARY.

EXERCISE 116.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Ad aliquid, for an ob- | Discedo, discedere,dis- i Nascor, nasci, natus 1. Happiness depends on virtue. 2. Does happiness depend on ject.

Jessi, discessum, 3, sum, 3, to be born, to man? 3. No, happiness depends on God. 4. We ought to do our Adnitor, 3, to strive for. to depart.

arise; part. future, best to cultivate virtue. 5. The father embraced his son. 6. The Angulus,-i, m., a corner. Expergiscor, experi nasciturus (E. R. son avenged the death of the father. 7. The king promised a reward. Complector,complecti, gisci, experrectus nascent).

8. Did the queen promise a reward to your sister? 9. The soldiers complexus sum, 3, to

sum, 3, I arise. | Nitor, niti, nixus, or will endeavour to attain heaped-up glory. 10. In the morning they embrace.

Fruor, frui, fructus nisus sum(with abl.), arose and departed. 11. They have well discharged the duties of life. Congredior, congrědi, and fruïtus sum, to 3, to lean, to depend 12. Aristotle and Zeno discharged the duties of preceptors. 13. When congressus sum, 3, enjoy.

1

on, endeavour. will your friends return home? 14. They returned home yesterday. to come together, meet, Gratia, -æ, f., gratitude, Paciscor, pacisci, pac- 15. They went from their country, and will never return. 16. This

fight (E. R. congress). favour, thanks (E.R. tus sum, 3, to make plague is borne in the minds of men. 17. Where is your country? Cumulo, 1, to heap up grateful),

a treaty or agree. 18. My country is the world. 19. The seeds of vice are inborn in (E. R. accumulate). Innascor, 3, to be born ment.

human souls. 20. The general fought with the enemy. 21. As ofter Detestabilis, -e, to be in.

Parum diu, too short a as the English generals fought with their enemies, they came off coushunned, detestable.

time.

querors. 22. The mind of every very good boy very greatly loves his

ero,

parents. 23. The good strive for salvation (literally, safety of soul). explain this thing, I shall seem not to be narrating a life, but to be 21. Boys and girls live on milk. 25. The scholars have discharged writing a history. 10. I do not fear that I shall satisfy you by writing. their duties. 23. Pity the fallen, O God. 27. Suceour the poor. 28. 11. I do not fear you will do anything timidly, anything foolishly. It is peculiar to folly to do good to no one.

12. I do not fear that the moderation of my life will prevail too little You may make great progress in a knowledge of syntax, as

against false rumours. you pass on through these exercises on the formation of the

EXERCISE 113.-ENGLISH-LATIN. verbs, if you will carefully mark the various forms and con 1. Verentur parentes, regem timent. 2. Tyranni timentur. 3. Ty. structions that come successively under your notice. With a

rannos timebunt. 4. Parentes meos verebor. 5. Non vereor ne verbis viow to aid you in this, I mark any considerable deviation : for te expleam. 6. Timetis in hostium castra introire. 7. Vereor

ne frustra legam; de patriâ metunnt ne excidatur. 8. Timeo ne example, when a verb has its object not in the accusative case,

mater veniat. but the objective, I introduce the abbreviation cum dat., which præcepta sua ago. 11. Metuunt ne patruus mortuus sit. 12. Metuo

9. Quid times ne mater veniat ? 10. Quia contra means that the verb requires its object to be in the dative case. ne Dei ira in hanc urbem incidat. 13. Vita tua contra calumniam But I cannot impress it too deeply on your mind, that it is valebit

. 14. Ne verearis ne vita tua contra malorum calumniam non mainly by your own observations, by your own reflections, gene- valeat. 15. Vereris ut tibi prodesse possim. 16. Ne verearis nequid nally by your own studies and efforts, that you can acquire an stulte faciam. 17. Frater meus non veretur nequid stulte faciam. acquaintance with the Latin, or, indeed, any other branch of knowledge. There are many, very many peculiarities which I have not here space to point out. You, too, have difficulties of

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XIV. which I am not aware. It is only by attention and diligence

POLYZOA (BRYOZOA) AND TUNICATA. on your own part that the one can be learned and the other In the last lesson we concluded our necessarily short account of overcome. Study every lesson in all its parts and relations those animals which belong to Cuvier's great branch of articuwith the utmost care. Go over every lesson again and again. lated animals. We turn from a description of these to review What you do not see now you will see by and by; and what those classes which belong to the other great collateral branch you do not understand now you will understand hereafter. of molluscous animals with some degree of regret. For while

the Mollusca present many points of interest, and, like all the KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.

works of God, are well worthy of study, yet their peculiar

excellences are less attractive in their nature than those of the EXERCISE 110.--LATIN-ENGLISH. 1. You had scarcely confessed your fault, when your father pitied great divisions, according to the nature and object of their

Articulates. The organs of animals may be classified under two FOL. 2. You had already admitted that you had erred, when you functions : namely, those which animals possess in common denied it again. 3. We had not yet entreated your assistance, when yon promised it to us. 4. We had scarcely confessed our want, when with plants, and which minister to the nutrition of the individual you most freely promised us your assistance. 5. There is great power and the reproduction of its kind ; and those which belong exin philosophy when it heals our minds, and removes vain anxieties. clusively to animals, and subserve the objects of motion from 6. The arts afford us great assistance when they severally support place to place, the perception of outward objects, and the search themselves independently. 7. Teachers serve their country well (de- for, collection, and capture of these. The first class, which are, serta mell of their country), when they instruct the youth by the study of course, the more general and necessary, are called the organs of riseful letters. 8. When philosophy heals our minds, we ought to of organic life ; while the last are superadded to the others, and give up ourselves wholly and thoroughly to it. 9. All pitied you, are called the organs of animal life. It is true that the first since you were in wretched (circumstances), not in consequence class of organs must lie at the foundation of all life, and are,

wickedness, but on account of fortune. 10. Since the soldiers taared dangers, they dared not to fight with the enemies. 11. The therefore, in one sense, the most important; but since the other coretous (man), though he is extremely rich, will not admit that he class seems to be the connecting link between mere vegetative has enough. 12. Take pity on us; O citizens, relieve our want. 13.

existence and the self-conscious life of man, with all its mental Let each defend his son. 14. No one, beholding the whole earth, phenomena, we cannot but regard these last as of a higher order. will doubt concerning the providence of God. 15. The citizens, Now the excellence of the Mollusca is, as we have before stated, thinking that the enemies were about to attack the city, strove most in the perfection of their organs of organic life, while the Articuenergetically to drive them back. 16. I come to promise (about to lates exhibit a marked superiority in the organs of animal life. promise) you my assistance. 17. It is the duty of a young man to We are, therefore, now turning from those animals whose organs reverence his elders. 18. You ought in every way to relieve the want of sense, locomotive apparatus, nervous and muscular systems, of the eitizens. 19. Who knows not that you have served the republic and

correlated instinct have been such sources of wonder, to well ? (that you have deserved well of the republic). 20. I hope that examine animals in which these organs and systems of organs you will pity me. EXERCISE 111.–ENGLISH-LATIN.

are made a secondary consideration to those of the alimentary, 1. Peccata sua fassi sunt. 2. Peccata sua fatebuntur. 3. Fassine secretory, excretory, and reproductive systems. However deluerunt peccata ? 4. Peccata sua non fatebitur. 5. Soror mea peccata sive may be the analogy between instinct and reason, we cannot fassa est. 6. Adolescentes negant se peccata fassuros esse. 7. Religio but feel a certain kind of sympathy with creatures endowed hominum animis medetur. 8. Solum religio vera hominum animis with great active powers, and who adapt these to the attainmederi potest. 9. Religio semper bonorum animos sanavit. 10. O ment of ends which the reason declares desirable. Perception mi pater, miserere mei. 11. O Deus, miserere nostri. 12. O Deus, and volition--the power of knowing and acting—may, in a certain hominum cunctorum miserere. 13. Conjux quisque tuetor uxorem sense, be attributed to insects ; and although these powers are, suom. 14. Adolescentes, milites domos suas oppugnaturos rati, pra doubtless, very different in their nature to the powers which wetu se interfecerunt. 15. Artes ipsæ singulæ artifices tuentur, Tuentarne artes ipsæ se ? 17. Artes artifices tuitæ sunt, et tuentur, pass by the same name of which we are conscious, yet they et tuebuntur. 18. Intuere coelum, et Deum vereberis. 19. Virtutem have something in common, and in their manifestation they are intuentes, homines fiunt sapientes. 20. Præclare de republicâ meritus

so alike, that it is only by a strict analysis that we can dissociate est. 21. Regina præclare de republicâ merebitur. 22. Milites præ- them. Prove as we may that the habits and instincts of the elare de patriâ meriti sunt. 23. Præclare de domo mereri non possum. honey-bees, as manifested in their social economy, in the collec21. Intnetur virtutis exemplar. 25. Fatetur peccata, et veniam impe- tion of wax and its application to the construction of their adtrat. 35. Confessi peccata veniam impetravēre. 27. Quum peccata mirable cell architecture, in storing the pollen of flowers for confessi sitis, veniam impetrabitis.

feeding their young, and of honey for winter food, are evidences EXERCISE 112.- LATIN-ENGLISH.

of no higher perception and powers, so far as the insects are 1. Why do we not fear the veterans ? because not even they them- concerned, than those which are shown by ourselves when we felves wish to be feared. 2. We venerate you, Romans; and if you so wink our eyes when a grain of sand is blown towards them, or desire, we even fear you. S. Let her not be afraid to enter into the when we snatch away our hands from a scorching flame; yet bouse of another. 4. I fear that I am walking out with this ornament our imaginative faculty will not permit us so to regard the subfor the sake of (exciting) love rather (than for anything else); 5. I ject. Perhaps the connection between instinct and reason is ascertained that it is demolished. 6. I fear that Dolabella will not be not quite so delusive after all, and probably we may have to able to benefit us sufficiently. 7. I received your letter, by which I look for the origin of many of the opinions as well as the pracunderstood that you were afraid, lest the former (letter) had not tices of men in those instincts which we possess in common been delivered to me. 8. He was afraid, lest he should hurt the mind with the lower animals. To say the least of it, the glory and dl Divitiacus by the punishment of that man. 9. I fear if I begin to the wisdom of the great Creator loses nothing by being in part

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