DOUBLE LETTERS OF THE W AND Y SERIES. them with monosyllabic names; thus, 1 tr should not be called

vă vě w wo wè wòö / yă yè yì yo yŭ yöö te, ar, but ter; per; s tel; pel, etc. A distinction is thus Skort. 1 al coll ul I o al made between p, ?, prononnced as two letters, and pl, pronounced as es in wag, wet , wit, was, ton, wood . yam, yet, (yi) yon, young, unite in par. 17 may be named - kess, b tess, 2sek

, etc.

one. The former would mean V, the latter So the compounds wah weh wee waw wo woo yah yeh yee yaw yo yoo

53. These double consonants are vocalised like the single ones; thus Long, Jalol lol lol ul 11 noi

1. tree, spray, Svapply, mutter. as in qualm, tay, ve, wall, woke, woa. (yah,) yea, ye, yawn, yoke, you

54. Shl, shr, shn, and rt, upward, and In, Int, dowa ward, must DOUBLE AND TREBLE CONSONANTS.

never stand A LONE, because they would then be read as other letters. INITIAL L AND R HOOKS. 55. DOUBLE CONSONANTS.--As the stroke s hooked, thus ), is not

being eqnally 47. The simple articulations p, 6, t, d, etc., are often closely united required for sr (the circle s joined to the downward r, with the liquids i and r, forming a kind of consonant diphthong, and serviceable), and as the dowuwarl r, hooked for rr , would be pronounced by a single effort of the organs of speech ; as in plough, almost useless, the two forms ) are given to fr, or, and their heavy brow, try, drink, etc. The natural way of expressing these com- strokes to vr, dr, as extra sigrs. These duplicate forms are distinbinations in writing would undoubtedly be by some marked and guished, in ordinary printing, thus :-"fr, vr, tr, år” represent the uniform modification of the simple letters. It is effected thus :

alphabetic forms įsic C, and “fr, vr, ór, r” the EXTRA P, with 1, becomes pl; \P, with r, becomes

pr; forms 210). The upward letters for w, wh, y, and both the | 1, with I, becomes s tl; | t, with r, becomes 1 tr. upward and downward k, may be hooked at the end for n, and halved As a curve cannot receive a hook on both sides of the stroke (for fort or d. A letter with an initial or final hook (or both an initial sach characters as I could not be written both accurately and and final book) may be written half-length for the expression of either

t ord; thus, klt or kld, v wt or wd, mnt or mnd, P (up) quickly), and as the r compounds are much more frequent than the l compounds, a hook prefired to a curve always adds r to the primary (down) Int or Ind, rnt or rnd, w wnt or wnd. letter (except in the case of 6 wl, explained par. 31), thus

56. Tick H.—The downward h may be reduced to a tick before

m, l, r, and before any hooked letter to which the tick can be joined ; ( th, with r, becomes ( thr; . f, with r, becomes e fr, as hm, r hhr, har. This tick h, when employed #, with 7, becomes unr; m, with r, becomes

mr. before m or 1, cannot be conveniently used when a first-place vowel

follows h. 48. A series of curved hooked letters to represent the addition of

EXERCISE 14. 1 is produced by making a large hook. Of this series, only A, vi, sh, nl, will be required in writing English, and these letters occur

Write in shortband and longhandbut seldom. The principle of hooking on I and r to the other letters, does not apply to the letters l and r themselves.

1. ro 49. The most useful letters in the carved I and r series, fl, vi, fr, or, tar, have duplicate forms, namely, the opposite curves of f and th in addition to the regularly formed letters ; because the downward r and do not require to be hooked for rr, sr.

3. 7. 1 2 50. In these hooked letters, the hook must not be considered as r, and the stem as the primary letter, but the whole form must be

4. taken to represent the consonant diphthong pr, considered as a whole ; and in no case can the r be read first ; thus cannot be considered as ry, and used for reap. The left-hand hook was selected for the r series, and the right-hand hook for the l series, in the straight letters,

EXERCISE 15. becanse the combinations pr, tr, etc., occur five times as often as pl, Write with the hook il, etc., and the left-hand hook is the best sign for writing, both when sceurring singly, and when joined to other letters.

1. abridge, abroad, April, acre, across, address, agree, altar, archer. 51. If the Right hand be held up, with the first finger bent, the 2. baker, banner, batter, butter, beaver, beggar, brace, bridge, brick. outline of tr will be seen ; and by turning the hand round to the 3. copper, cooper, crib, cram, crape, crash, crawl, cress, cruel, crow. following positions, all the double consonants of the pr series will be

4. dagger, decree, dinner, diver, drab, dram, draw, drover, dreary. formed; thus

5. eager, either, elder, empress, father, favour, fetter, fibre, free, froth.

6. grab, grace, grade, Greek, grapes, Hebrew, honour (o, nr), hatter. tr

7. increase, jabber, keeper, ladder, ledger, leper, lever, lodger, lucre.

8. major, maker, manner, meagre, negro, neither, nipper, neighbour. pr


9. oppress, other, otter, over, owner, opener, offer, ochre, ogre. 10. packer, paper, phrase, potter, pray, preach, prig, prime, pucker. 11. quaker, quaver, rammer,

Jo bi / 7

/ / م ا ل
ان کا 3

2 ز

ادم بره

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rather, reaper, rider, river, rigour, robber. 12. sceptre, shiver, shrug, shriek, shrill, silver, skipper, spider, sugar. 13. taper, tatter, thrash, three, throb, tiger, trace, trail, truck, trill.

14. upper, usher, utter, viper, vapour, wafer, wager, water, writer. If the Left hand be held up, in the same way, the outline of tl will Write with the hook Ibe seen; and by turning the hand round to the following positions, all the double consonants of the pl series will be formed.

1. able, ably, addle, amble, angle, ancle, apple, apply, applause.

2. battle, bauble, beadle, black, blade, blame, blaze, blight, blush. tl

3. cable, cackle, clad, claim, clar, clash, clear, clime, club, clutch.
4. dabble, daggle, devil
, double, dribble, eagle, eclat

, edible, employ. 5. fable, fickle, fiddle, final, flame, flap, flash, fice, flight, flower. chi

6. gable, glare, glass, gleam, gloat, globe, gloom, glory, glow, glue.

7. hackle, hobble, idle, imply, kennel, kettle, label, ladle, legal, libel. kic

8. metal, muckle, muddle, needle, nettle, nibble, nipple, noble, nobly. 9. o'clock, paddle, pannel, papal, patter, people, pickle, place, platter.

10. quibble, rabble, radical, rattle, riddle, reply, rankle, ripple. 52. When speaking of these double consonants, as, for instance, 11. shuffle,' shuttle, simply, stable, staple, steeple, stifle, suitable. in a phonographic class, it will be found convenient to pronounce 12. table, tackle, title, tittle, tipple, total, treble, triple, tunnel, vocal.


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| Persevēro, 1, to porse-Semen, semạnis, n., succurri,succursum, DEPONENT VERBS-THIRD CONJUGATION.


3, to aid, succour(with

Pestis, -is, f., the plague. Simulatque (simul and dat.).
EXAMPLE.—Loquor, I speak.

Quotiescunque, as often atque), as soon as. Ulciscor, ulcisci, altas
Chief Parts : Loquor, loqui, locutus sum,

Superior, -ðris, m., a sum, 3 (with acc.),

Revertor (perfect), re-

superior, conqueror. avenge yourself, Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle.

verti (participle), re- Superior discedo, I punish.

come off conqueror. Sing. Loquor, I speak, Loquar, I may

versus, 3, to return

Visum, -i, Dhe, sight, ap-
Loqui, to Loquens,

Succurro, succurrere,

(E. R. reverse).

pearance. Loquéris. Loquāris. Loquère, lo

EXERCISE 114.-LATIN-ENGLISH. quïtor, speak

1. Salus hominum non veritate solum sed etiam famâ nititur... thou, etc.

Cives, cum hostibus pacti, pace fruiti sunt. 3. Deum et divimum Loquitur, Loquatur. Loquitor.

animum cogitatione complectimur. 4. Lacte, carne, multisque aliis Plu. Loquimur. Loquamur. [quiminor.

rebus vescimur, 5. Cavete ne ulciscamini inimicos vestros. 6. Romani Loquimini, Loquamini. Loquimini, lo

Numidis hoc polliciti sunt. 7. Namidi perseveraverunt bello urgere Loquuntur. Loquantur. Loquuntor.

Carthaginienses. 8. Romani aduisuri sunt. 9. Romani se admisurog IMPERFECT TENSE.

esse dicunt. 10. Cumulatam gratiam reddiderunt Romani. 11. Sing. Loquebar, I was Loquerer, I

Romani Numidis polliciti sunt, si perseverarent bello urgere Carthespeaking, etc. might speak.

ginienses, se adnisuros esse, ut cumulatam gratiam redderent. 12. Loquebaris. Loquerēris.

Nemo parum diu vixit, qui virtutis perfectæ functus est munere. 13. Loquebatur. Loqueretur.

Visa in somnio contemnunt sapientes. 14. Simulatque experrecti Plu. Loquebamur. Loqueremur.

sumus, contemnimus visa in somnio. 15. Aristotěles, Zeno, innumeLoquebamini. Loqueremini.

rabiles alii, e patriâ profecti, nunquam domum reverterunt. 16. Nolla Loquebantur. Loquerentur.

tam detestabilis est pestis quæ non homini ab homine nascatur. 17. FIRST FUTURE TENSE.

Non sum uni angulo natus. 18. Patria mea totus hic est mundus. Sing. Loquar, I shall

Locuturum Locuturus, 19. Sunt ingeniis nostris semina innāta virtutum. 20. Hannibal cum speak, etc.

esse, to be on the point Romanis congressus est in Italia, 21. Hannibal cum Romanis conLoqueris.

on the point of speaking. gressus, semper discessit superior. 22. Hannibal, quotiescunque cum Loquetur.

of speaking.

Romanis congressus est in Italiả, semper discessit superior.
Plu. Loquemur.


Ad aliquid, to strive sum, s, to struggle Quo, whither.


out, to do our best. Recens, -tis, recent, Sing. Locûtus sum, Locutus sim,


Adipiscor, adipisci, Excedo, excedere, ex fresh. . I spoke, etc, I may have


adeptus sum, 3, to cessi, excessum, 3 Regia res est, it is like spoken.

attain, acquire.

(with abl.), to go out a king, or trorthy v Locutus es. Locutus sis.

Avidus, -a, -um, eager of, or beyond (E, R. a king. Locutus est. Locutus sit.

for, greedy of.


Regius, -a, -um, royal. Plu. Locuti sumus. Locuti simus.

Careq, 2, to be without. Irascor, irasci, iratus Stultitia, -2, f., felly Locuti estis. Locuti sitis.

Consuetudo, -inis, f., sum, 8, to be angr ja (E. R. stultify). Locuti sunt. Locuti sint.

acquaintance. Lapsus (labor), Jallon, Tendo, tendere, tetenDefetiscor, defetisci,


di, tentum, 3, to Sing. Locutus eram, Locatus essem,

defessus sum, 3, to Nefas (indeclinable), stretch, ertend. be weary.

1., wickedness, some- Ubicunque, schereste I had spoken, I might have

Diuturnitas, -ātis, etc.

thing too bad to be spoken,

length of time. Locutus eras. Locutus esses.

spoken of (from for, Ubicunque gentium,

Eläbor, elabi, elapsus fari, fatum). Locutus erat. Locutus esset.

in whatever part of Plu, Locati eramus.Locuti essemus

sum, 3, to slide, get Patior, pati, passus the world,

sum, 3, to suffor. Vicinitas, -&tis, 1., Locuti eratis. Locuti essetis. Locuti erant. Locuti essent,

Enitor, enisus, enixus Proprius, -a, -um, one's neighbourhood.

oun, peculiar. SECOND FUTURE TENSE. Sing. Locûtus


1. Optimi cajusque animus maxime ad gloriam immortalem nititur. spoken, etc.

2. Hostes diuturnitate pugnæ defessi sunt. 3, Hostes, diuturnitate Locutus eris.

pugna defessi, prælio excedebant. 4. Adeptus est virtutem. 5. UbiLocutus erit.

cunque gentium erit vir bonus, ab amicis diligetur. 6. Qui virtutem Plu. Locuti erimus.

adeptus erit, ubicunque erit gentium, a nobis diligetur. 7. Avida est Locuti eritis.

periculi virtus. 8. Virtus quid passura sit non cogitat. 9. Arida est Locuti erunt.

periculi virtus, et quo tendat, non quid passura sit cogitat. 10. AuGLRUNDS.

gustus dominum se appellari non est passus. 11. Animalia alia rationis Gen. Loquendi, of speaking.


expertia sunt, alia ratione utuntur. 12. Animo elapso, corpus nihil Dat. Loquendo, to speaking. 1. Locûtum, to speak.

valet. 13. Valet apud nos clarorum hominum memoria, etiam mortuAcc. Loquendum, speaking. 2. Locutu, to be spoken. orum. 14. Regia res est, succurrere lapsis. 15. Proprium est stultitiæ, Ab. Loquendo, by speaking.

aliorum vitia cerněre, oblivisci suorum. 16. Ut plurimis prosimos, After this model conjugate the following deponent verbs :- Amicitie, consuetudines, vicinitates habent aliquid voluptatis. 19.

eniti debemus.


17. Irasci iis quos amare debemus est nefas. Sequor, sequi, secutus sum, to follow; fungor, fungi, functus sum Carendo magis quam fruendo intelligimus bona nostra. 20. Amicitiæ, (with abl.), to discharge ; labor, labi, lapsus sum, to fall; obli

consuetudines, vicinitates quid habeant voluptatis, carendo magis inviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum (with gen.), to forget.

telligimus quam fruendo. 21. Semper recentes defessis succedebant. VOCABULARY.

EXERCISE 116.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Ad aliquid, for an ob- | Discedo, discedere,dis- i Nascor, nasci, natus 1. Happiness depends on virtue. 2. Does happiness depend on ject.

Jessi, discessum, 3, sum, 3, to be born, to man? 3. No, happiness depends on God. 4. We ought to do our Adnitor, 3, to strive for. to depart.

arise; part. future, best to cultivate virtue. 5. The father embraced his son. 6. The Angulus,-i, m., a corner. Expergiscor, experi nasciturus (E. R. son avenged the death of the father. 7. The king promised a reward. Complector,complecti, gisci, experrectus nascent).

8. Did the queen promise a reward to your sister? 9. The soldiers complexus sum, 3, to

sum, 3, I arise. | Nitor, niti, nixus, or will endeavour to attain heaped-up glory. 10. In the morning they embrace.

Fruor, frui, fructus nisus sum(with abl.), arose and departed. 11. They have well discharged the duties of life. Congredior, congrědi, and fruïtus sum, to 3, to lean, to depend 12. Aristotle and Zeno discharged the duties of preceptors. 13. When congressus sum, 3, enjoy.


on, endeavour. will your friends return home? 14. They returned home yesterday. to come together, meet, Gratia, -æ, f., gratitude, Paciscor, pacisci, pac- 15. They went from their country, and will never return. 16. This

fight (E. R. congress). favour, thanks (E.R. tus sum, 3, to make plague is borne in the minds of men. 17. Where is your country? Cumulo, 1, to heap up grateful),

a treaty or agree. 18. My country is the world. 19. The seeds of vice are inborn in (E. R. accumulate). Innascor, 3, to be born ment.

human souls. 20. The general fought with the enemy. 21. As ofter Detestabilis, -e, to be in.

Parum diu, too short a as the English generals fought with their enemies, they came off coushunned, detestable.


querors. 22. The mind of every very good boy very greatly loves his


parents. 23. The good strive for salvation (literally, safety of soul). explain this thing, I shall seem not to be narrating a life, but to be 21. Boys and girls live on milk. 25. The scholars have discharged writing a history. 10. I do not fear that I shall satisfy you by writing. their duties. 23. Pity the fallen, O God. 27. Suceour the poor. 28. 11. I do not fear you will do anything timidly, anything foolishly. It is peculiar to folly to do good to no one.

12. I do not fear that the moderation of my life will prevail too little You may make great progress in a knowledge of syntax, as

against false rumours. you pass on through these exercises on the formation of the

EXERCISE 113.-ENGLISH-LATIN. verbs, if you will carefully mark the various forms and con 1. Verentur parentes, regem timent. 2. Tyranni timentur. 3. Ty. structions that come successively under your notice. With a

rannos timebunt. 4. Parentes meos verebor. 5. Non vereor ne verbis viow to aid you in this, I mark any considerable deviation : for te expleam. 6. Timetis in hostium castra introire. 7. Vereor

ne frustra legam; de patriâ metunnt ne excidatur. 8. Timeo ne example, when a verb has its object not in the accusative case,

mater veniat. but the objective, I introduce the abbreviation cum dat., which præcepta sua ago. 11. Metuunt ne patruus mortuus sit. 12. Metuo

9. Quid times ne mater veniat ? 10. Quia contra means that the verb requires its object to be in the dative case. ne Dei ira in hanc urbem incidat. 13. Vita tua contra calumniam But I cannot impress it too deeply on your mind, that it is valebit

. 14. Ne verearis ne vita tua contra malorum calumniam non mainly by your own observations, by your own reflections, gene- valeat. 15. Vereris ut tibi prodesse possim. 16. Ne verearis nequid nally by your own studies and efforts, that you can acquire an stulte faciam. 17. Frater meus non veretur nequid stulte faciam. acquaintance with the Latin, or, indeed, any other branch of knowledge. There are many, very many peculiarities which I have not here space to point out. You, too, have difficulties of

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XIV. which I am not aware. It is only by attention and diligence

POLYZOA (BRYOZOA) AND TUNICATA. on your own part that the one can be learned and the other In the last lesson we concluded our necessarily short account of overcome. Study every lesson in all its parts and relations those animals which belong to Cuvier's great branch of articuwith the utmost care. Go over every lesson again and again. lated animals. We turn from a description of these to review What you do not see now you will see by and by; and what those classes which belong to the other great collateral branch you do not understand now you will understand hereafter. of molluscous animals with some degree of regret. For while

the Mollusca present many points of interest, and, like all the KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.

works of God, are well worthy of study, yet their peculiar

excellences are less attractive in their nature than those of the EXERCISE 110.--LATIN-ENGLISH. 1. You had scarcely confessed your fault, when your father pitied great divisions, according to the nature and object of their

Articulates. The organs of animals may be classified under two FOL. 2. You had already admitted that you had erred, when you functions : namely, those which animals possess in common denied it again. 3. We had not yet entreated your assistance, when yon promised it to us. 4. We had scarcely confessed our want, when with plants, and which minister to the nutrition of the individual you most freely promised us your assistance. 5. There is great power and the reproduction of its kind ; and those which belong exin philosophy when it heals our minds, and removes vain anxieties. clusively to animals, and subserve the objects of motion from 6. The arts afford us great assistance when they severally support place to place, the perception of outward objects, and the search themselves independently. 7. Teachers serve their country well (de- for, collection, and capture of these. The first class, which are, serta mell of their country), when they instruct the youth by the study of course, the more general and necessary, are called the organs of riseful letters. 8. When philosophy heals our minds, we ought to of organic life ; while the last are superadded to the others, and give up ourselves wholly and thoroughly to it. 9. All pitied you, are called the organs of animal life. It is true that the first since you were in wretched (circumstances), not in consequence class of organs must lie at the foundation of all life, and are,

wickedness, but on account of fortune. 10. Since the soldiers taared dangers, they dared not to fight with the enemies. 11. The therefore, in one sense, the most important; but since the other coretous (man), though he is extremely rich, will not admit that he class seems to be the connecting link between mere vegetative has enough. 12. Take pity on us; O citizens, relieve our want. 13.

existence and the self-conscious life of man, with all its mental Let each defend his son. 14. No one, beholding the whole earth, phenomena, we cannot but regard these last as of a higher order. will doubt concerning the providence of God. 15. The citizens, Now the excellence of the Mollusca is, as we have before stated, thinking that the enemies were about to attack the city, strove most in the perfection of their organs of organic life, while the Articuenergetically to drive them back. 16. I come to promise (about to lates exhibit a marked superiority in the organs of animal life. promise) you my assistance. 17. It is the duty of a young man to We are, therefore, now turning from those animals whose organs reverence his elders. 18. You ought in every way to relieve the want of sense, locomotive apparatus, nervous and muscular systems, of the eitizens. 19. Who knows not that you have served the republic and

correlated instinct have been such sources of wonder, to well ? (that you have deserved well of the republic). 20. I hope that examine animals in which these organs and systems of organs you will pity me. EXERCISE 111.–ENGLISH-LATIN.

are made a secondary consideration to those of the alimentary, 1. Peccata sua fassi sunt. 2. Peccata sua fatebuntur. 3. Fassine secretory, excretory, and reproductive systems. However deluerunt peccata ? 4. Peccata sua non fatebitur. 5. Soror mea peccata sive may be the analogy between instinct and reason, we cannot fassa est. 6. Adolescentes negant se peccata fassuros esse. 7. Religio but feel a certain kind of sympathy with creatures endowed hominum animis medetur. 8. Solum religio vera hominum animis with great active powers, and who adapt these to the attainmederi potest. 9. Religio semper bonorum animos sanavit. 10. O ment of ends which the reason declares desirable. Perception mi pater, miserere mei. 11. O Deus, miserere nostri. 12. O Deus, and volition--the power of knowing and acting—may, in a certain hominum cunctorum miserere. 13. Conjux quisque tuetor uxorem sense, be attributed to insects ; and although these powers are, suom. 14. Adolescentes, milites domos suas oppugnaturos rati, pra doubtless, very different in their nature to the powers which wetu se interfecerunt. 15. Artes ipsæ singulæ artifices tuentur, Tuentarne artes ipsæ se ? 17. Artes artifices tuitæ sunt, et tuentur, pass by the same name of which we are conscious, yet they et tuebuntur. 18. Intuere coelum, et Deum vereberis. 19. Virtutem have something in common, and in their manifestation they are intuentes, homines fiunt sapientes. 20. Præclare de republicâ meritus

so alike, that it is only by a strict analysis that we can dissociate est. 21. Regina præclare de republicâ merebitur. 22. Milites præ- them. Prove as we may that the habits and instincts of the elare de patriâ meriti sunt. 23. Præclare de domo mereri non possum. honey-bees, as manifested in their social economy, in the collec21. Intnetur virtutis exemplar. 25. Fatetur peccata, et veniam impe- tion of wax and its application to the construction of their adtrat. 35. Confessi peccata veniam impetravēre. 27. Quum peccata mirable cell architecture, in storing the pollen of flowers for confessi sitis, veniam impetrabitis.

feeding their young, and of honey for winter food, are evidences EXERCISE 112.- LATIN-ENGLISH.

of no higher perception and powers, so far as the insects are 1. Why do we not fear the veterans ? because not even they them- concerned, than those which are shown by ourselves when we felves wish to be feared. 2. We venerate you, Romans; and if you so wink our eyes when a grain of sand is blown towards them, or desire, we even fear you. S. Let her not be afraid to enter into the when we snatch away our hands from a scorching flame; yet bouse of another. 4. I fear that I am walking out with this ornament our imaginative faculty will not permit us so to regard the subfor the sake of (exciting) love rather (than for anything else); 5. I ject. Perhaps the connection between instinct and reason is ascertained that it is demolished. 6. I fear that Dolabella will not be not quite so delusive after all, and probably we may have to able to benefit us sufficiently. 7. I received your letter, by which I look for the origin of many of the opinions as well as the pracunderstood that you were afraid, lest the former (letter) had not tices of men in those instincts which we possess in common been delivered to me. 8. He was afraid, lest he should hurt the mind with the lower animals. To say the least of it, the glory and dl Divitiacus by the punishment of that man. 9. I fear if I begin to the wisdom of the great Creator loses nothing by being in part

attributed to the little winged creature from which it is re- is directly from the Hydroid Calenterata. These creatures are flected.

compound animals—that is, the product of a single egg or reproIn the Mollusca instincts are not wanting, and locomotive | duced animal may grow into a multitude of similar heads or and perceptive powers are also evidenced; but they are wholly parts, each one of which has all the essential organs of life, and inferior in these faculties to the Articulates, and in turning to can live when detached; hence their name Polyzoa, or multiple them we feel to be turning from the higher modes of life to the animals. The plant-like growth of these compound animals is a lower. The body of the in

process of budding, but it is sect is so fitted for rapid and

carried on in very various dexterous action that it seems

directions. Aceording to these to have become almost ethe

directions and methods, very real; while in the slug the

various aggregate forms are very senses seem to be dulled

produced. In many instances to suit the requirements of the

it results in an incrustation coarser material parts.

composed of closely-set cells. For a further contrast of

These crusts spread from & the Articulata and Mollusca

point, and often closely invest we must refer the reader to a IV.

sea-weeds and rocks. They former lesson. It suffices here

seem to have a special parto mention one or two points

tiality for the shells of other of general structure which are

1. Mollusca, exercising, however, intimately connected with the

a discrimination by affixing habits of these creatures.

themselves rather to the shells First, since the Mollusca are

of the less locomotive bivalve less adapted for locomotion

Mollusca than to those of the than other animals, the re

univalves. Thus they have quirements which swift loco.

the benefit of a slight change motion dictates are not in

of place without being subject sisted on with such strictness.

to abrasion by constant loco. Rapid locomotion necessitates

motion. These incrustations what is called bi-lateral sym

so much resemble the clothing metry—that is, that the body

of moss which spreads over shall be precisely alike on both

stones and walls, that some sides. This, accompanied with

naturalists have applied the an elongated form, whose axis


name of Bryozoa to these is in the line of locomotion, is

animals, a term which signifies the form best suited for ad.

moss-like animals. The crusts vance, A ship is better than

are to be found by any one a tub for locomotion, and the

who examines objects which keel must not only be straight,

are generally covered by the but the hold must not be lop

sea, and, when examined by sided. Thus we found that in

the naked eye, they look like the insect every part, down to

fine lace of different patterns. the shape of the nerves in its

So great is the diversity and netted wings, is accurately re

beauty of these forms that presented by its counterpart

they repay even this superfion the other side. In the

cial investigation. The PolyMollusca, however, this sym

zoa have existed from a very metry is not essential, and it

early period in the history of is liable to be dominated by

the earth, and they then had other requirements. A pecten

the same habits, as a class, as (scallop) lies on its side, and

they now have. This is evihence has one side flat and the

dent from the fact that no other rounded. A snail has its

one can make a collection of body rolled into a spiral for

fossil shells without also colcompactness' sake, and for the

lecting many of the Polyzoa convenience of having a large

attached to them. In these orifice for its respiratory chamber; that spiral is not equi

cases they are usually attached I.

to the outside of the shells. lateral, but twisted to one side.

When they are found covering Secondly, since rapid locomo

the inside of the shell, of tion is not the first object, the walls of the body represent a

course this is a proof that the

shells remained for some time rounded bag to contain the

at the bottom of the ancient viscera, rather than a fulcrum,

sea after the death of their upon which lever-like limbs are plied; and hence it is al. POLYZOA. — I. Flustra. II. PLUMATELLA RErens (one POLYP) CUT OPEN vered with the mud or sand

owners, before they were coways soft and flexible, and the


of the deposit in which they

are found embedded. One but lobes or protrusions of

comparatively recent formathe bag wherewith to crawl or grasp, not to raise or propel. I tion is so full of the remains of these creatures as to be called Thirdly, since protection is not sought in flight, it is afforded the Coralline Crag of Suffolk. This name was given when the in a structure which would impede flight, and the creatures, creatures were supposed to resemble coral polypes

(Actinizon), when on the defensive, retract and

nullify all their feeble loco- and now that they have been discovered to be of higher standing motive apparatus, casting themselves wholly on the defensive in the animal scale, and, in fact, to belong to an altogether efficiency of their shells.

different sub-kingdom, of course the name is inappropriate. The lowest class of the Mollusca is widely different from the Sometimes the crusts do not cling closely to the substance more typical classes, and the structure of its representatives from which they spring, but rise up from it. In such cases the seems to indicate that the starting point of the molluscous classes free frond may be flattened, being, in reality, two crusts




back to back, and mutually supporting each other. This is the rightly considered to be of high physiological importance, and case with the ordinary sea- mat (Flustra maxima), which is one quite sufficient to determine that the Polyzoa belong to the ef the largest of these compound animals, and may have been great and distinguished sub-kingdom of the Mollusca, and may often mistaken for a sea-weed by the casual observer. In other from henceforth cut their acquaintance, the humbler polypi. cases the stems, instead of being wide and flat, may be much The cells which compose the outer skeleton of the Polyzoon narrower, presenting single or double chains of cells, which are, of course, all for the protection of the animals. Whether branch and spread freely in the water. In some rarer instances they are tubular, as in the Plumatella, cup or cradle-shaped, as the whole compound animal is locomotive, the crust, with its in the Scrupocellaria, or like pouches, as in many other forms, many cells, and their contained simple zooids, travelling, by they always furnish retreats into which the whole animalcule, common consent, in one direction. It will be seen by the above with its delicate tentacles, can be withdrawn. When so withdrawn, description that the outward form of these creatures is closely however, the animal has only retired within itself, for the cell, paralleled by those of the Coelenterata, and when to this out- whether composed of chalky, horny, or gelatinous substance, is ward resemblance is added the fact that each of the simple really the external wall of the creature, strengthened by, or conanimals which occupy the cells has a head almost precisely simi- sisting of, deposits of their substances. In order that the lar to the Hydro

so-called head may 204, it is not sur.

be protruded or prising that they

retracted from the should have long

cell at pleasure, it been confounded

is, of course, newith them. A

II. cessary that some month, surrounded

considerable part by a circle of ten

of the outer wall tacles capable of

which joins it to motion, is charac6

the hard part of teristic of both

the same should the compound Hy

be soft and flexi. drozoa and the

ble. A reference compound Poly

to the illustration zoa; but it was III,

of Plumatella will early observed that

show the relation the tentacles of

of the flexible to the latter were

the hard part of always clothed

the wall, and the with cilia, while

muscles by which those of the former 4

the head is pulled were unfurnished

back. This illuswith them. The

tration will also reader of these

show the character lessons will re

of the alimentary mernber the na

canal, and how it tore of the organs

is bent upon itself, called cilia, and the


so that the after nature of their ac

part passes up tion as described 2.

close to the first when the Rotato

descending porria were treated of.

tion. This By the aid of these

rangement of the organs currents

food canal is very are set in motion

constant in the and directed to


Polyzoa, and is wards the funnel.

dictated by the shaped mouth, and Tunicata.—I. PEROPHORA LISTERI. II. SALPA MAXIMA (ONE OF A CHAIN TO SHOW CIRCULATION).


animal can only cles of food are Refs. to Nos. in Figs.--I. 1, nervous ganglion; 2, atrial chamber and outlet; 3, respiratory pharynx protrude one end procured in addi

with its slits ; 4, stomach ; 5, portion of heart; 6, growing bud. II. 1, front opening ; 2, hind of its body from tion to that which ditto; 3, 3, places of attachment to chain of salpæ ; 4, respiratory band ; 5, heart; 6, mass of the cell, both the can be obtained by viscera. III, 1, tentacles ; 2, pharynx ; 3, stomach; 4, anus; 5, oviduct; 6, anal opening; 7, entrance and the the action of the oval opening. IV. 1, test, or tunic; 2, muscular coat; 3, third tunic; 4, the same reflected exit must be at whole tentacle, or on the pharynx; 5, perforated pharynx; 6, endostyle ; 7, anus.

that end, Muscles of many of these

originating from acting together, when they seize a larger prey in the same way the bottom of the hard part are attached to the stomach and as the Hydrozoa obtain the whole of their food. A difference of throat, so as to pull these parts back when the head is withthis superficial character, founded on organs which clothe the drawn. In the re-entering angle between the mouth and arms a outside of the animals, did not at first seem sufficient to justify single ganglion is found, and this sends a few nerves round the any great division being constituted between the Polyzoa and throat and to the body walls, in some, at least, of these creaCoelenterata polypes, and hence they were called ciliated tures. The reader will have gathered from the illustration and polypes. But it was soon found that this external difference description that while some of these creatures have all the bodywas associated with a fundamental difference in the internal cavities of their simple zooids in communication with one organs. The food collected by the ciliary action is passed not another, others have these completely separate. In both cases, into the general cavity of the body, to be there retained, and however, the simple animals seem, in many respects, dependent the refuse to be ejected again from the mouth, as in the true in some measure on the general structure. Thus many of them polypes, but into a definite stomach, and passed through this have external organs not possessed by each cell, but only by along a complete tube, completely shut off from the general some of them, which organs, nevertheless, minister to the wants. cavity of the animal, which contains the nutritive fluid, and is of all. These external organs are very singular, and are of bounded by the hard cell wall. Thus we have, as in all the two kinds. One kind is like a vibrating whip, and the other higher animals, a tube within a tube, and a distinction and resembles the head and beak of a bird. Both are endowed with division between the raw material of nutriment and the changed a power of motion which is apparently automatic. It is supand elaborated product of digestion; and this distinction is posed that the whips constantly stir the water, so as to bring



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