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Sorun maren sie nicht zufrieben. 3. Das Unglüd dieser Familie war fo Könige und Fürsten pflegen mit sechs Pferden spazieren zu fahren. 11. Als groß, daß sie sogar fremde Leute um Unterstüßung baten. 4. Ich werde er hätte entfliehen können, versagten ihm seine Kräfte. 12. Das Golz wird Klbft mit einer Begleitung nicht abreisen. 5. Der Mond giebt und nicht so zum Bauen verwendet. 13. Er hat den größten Theil seiner Jugend auf nid lidt, als die Sonne, selbst wenn er am hellsten scheint. 6. Was Ihr wissenschaftliche Studien verwendet. 14. Reisen durch das Rheinthal find Freund aud sein mag. Sie werden es nicht erhalten. 7. Wer dieses junge angenehmer zu Fuß als zu Pferde. 15. Johann führt seine Schwester durch Fräulein auch sein mag, fie ist sehr unhöflich. 8. So liftig fie auch sein den Part spazieren, während ihr Vater spazieren reitet. mögen, irten sie sich doch zuweilen. 9. So groß auch meine Armuth sein

EXERCISE 124 (Vol. II., page 315). mag, twerte ich doch nicht muthlos werben. 10. Was die Neuigkeit auch feun mag, theile fie mir mit. 11. Was ihm auch für Vortheile dargeboten 1. The physician has advised me to go out as little as possible. 2. werden, er will sie nicht annehmen. 12. Was er auch für Fehler begangen Emily works as little as possible, in order to preserve the delicacy of

3. Children should be unemployed as little as possible at Ruben mag, ich werde ihm verzeihen. 13. Selbst in der Hiße der Schlacht, her hands. und unter dem Donner ver Kanonen, ritt der Feldherr ruhig hin und her. I any time. . 4. He speaks so little, in order to excite no attention. 5. 14. So groß auch mein Unglück sein mag, Niemand foll es erfahren. 15.

Ferdinand is now very little at home. 6. On my last journey I had

very little luggage with me. 7. Will you have some meat ? 8. Yes, Selbft ece König muß dem Gefeße gehorchen. 16. Selbst mein Gegner but only very little. 9. There remains nothing else for him but to pries meine Tapferkeit.

beg or to work. 10. There remains nothing else, you must act now. EXERCISE 120 (Vol. II., page 283).

11. Of all his property, there remained nothing else for him but a spot

of land. 12. Of all the flowers, this rose only remained. 13. of the 1. He who is careful in his youth, need not have cares in his ola whole regiment, he only remained. 14. I cannot get rid of these sorage 2. Study thyself, not only in the society of strangers, but also rowful thoughts. 15. In order to get rid of our false friends, we must sheu thou art alone, that thou mayest know thyself. 3. He who lend them money. 16. Grant him his request, in order to get rid of does not always study himself, never acquires self-knowledge. 4. The

him. 17. Now the sport.commenced afresh. 18. The plaster of the ancient Germans used generally to sacrifice to their gods in old groves

wall breaks off. 19. When the war re-commenced, he took the field doak. 5. Good children take care of their parents in their old age.

with a great army. 20. The gun went off as he was going to take it. 6. My friends are accustomed to drink water in the morning. 7. He

EXERCISE 125 (Vol. II., page 315). takes rest morning and evening. 8. We are accustomed to drink coffee instead of tea. 9. To take care of his health is his greatest con 1. Der Arzt rieth meiner Schwester, so viel als möglich zu Hause zu bleicern. 10. He is accustomed to work in the morning, and read in the ben. 2. Ein Lehrer follte seine Schüler so wenig als möglich unbeschäftigt afternoon. 11. He who fosters idleness, fosters sin also. 12. Cherish lassen. 3. Der Redner sprach mit großer Begeisterung, um die Aufmerksamvirtue and not wickedness. 13. He is not accustomed to rise before feit seiner Zuhörer zu steigern. 4. Die meisten Reisenden nehmen so wenig eight o'clock. 14. It is not the custom to say in America as in Ger. Gepäc als möglich mit sich. 5. Wollen Sie Aepfel haben? 6. Ich danke many. “I wish you a good appetite." 15. Man often troubles himself Ihnen, mein Herr, ich habe ganz genug. 7. Auguft ist ießt sehr viel zu about his subsistence more than is necessary.

8. Es bleibt ihm nichts übrig, als care of its food in the summer against the winter. 17. The German Hause

, dabei können wir zu ihm gehen. emperor, Maximilian I., took care to restore the internal tranquillity sich seinem Schicfale zu unterwerfen. 9. Es blieb mir nichts Anderes übrig, d' Germany directly on his accession to the government.

als vor dem Feinde zu flieben. 10. Von au seiner Habe blieb nichts übrig,

als ein Garten. 11. Ich kann meinen Schnupfen nicht los werden. 12. EXERCISE 121 (Vol. II., page 283).

Gewähre die Bitte dieses falschen Freundes, dann wirst du ihn log werden. 1. Nehmt Gud vor denen in Act, welche glatte Worte, böse Gebanken 13. Wer hat den Fuß dieses Tisches abgebrochen? 14. Die Magd brach and ein falsches Herz haben. 2. Er forgt mehr für seinen Geist als für ihn ab, als sie das Zimmer reinigte. 15. Friedrich der Große 30g an der feizen Körper. 3. Wir pflegen, anstatt des Kaffees, Thee zu trinken. 4. Spiße seiner Armee in den Krieg. 16. Das gewehr ging los, sonst würde Die Griechen pflegten schon lange vor Christi Geburt der Kunst und Wissen er den Hafen geschossen haben. fcbaft. 5. Gr pflegt um sechs Uht aufzustehen. 6. Ich werde dieses Buch

EXERCISE 126 (Vol. II., page 340). in fldt nehmen, bis Sie wiederkommen. 7. Er pflegt seiner Gesundheit. 8. Habe acht auf dich, nicht nur Gesellschaft, sondern auch wenn du

1. The French conquered Spain by force of arms. 2. The avalanches allein bist. 9. Gute Kinder geben Acht auf das, was ihre Gitern ihnen in Switzerland often fall into the valleys with tremendous force. 3. jegen. 10. Wir müssen uns vor unsern Feinden in Acht nehmen. 11. They forcibly drag away the inhabitants of this country. 4. He could do

nothing with all his power, 5. The Greeks defended themselves against Der Hamster Forgt im Sommer für seine Nahrung auf den Winter.

the Persians with all their might. 6. The weaker man must necessaEXERCISE 122 (Vol. II., page 315).

rily obey the stronger. 7. Almost all Asia obeyed the will of the

Romans. 8. In order to proloog his life, he was necessarily obliged to 1. Those who go walking too often, at last accustom themselves to work, 9. Themistocles was forced to seek an asylum at the Persian idleness. 2. To take a walk half an hour after dinner is very condu- court. 10. My friend confidentially entrusted me with an important cive to health. 3. In Italy many drive out with mules. 4. One gene- secret yesterday evening. 11. After school was over, the children rally nees more gentlemen walking, than riding on horseback. 5. The played under the trees of the garden. 12. All present dressed accord. Taitors (literally, guests under cure) at Wiesbaden often ride on mules ing to the fashion of 1789. 13. On account of his official duties, he had upon the top of the Taunus mountains. 6. Journeys on foot are often little leisure left for pleasure. 14. Schiller could now devote himself store agreeable than in a coach or on horseback. 7. The Laplanders at his leisure to literary pursuits at Mannheim. 15. I have inadvernode in sledges, and make use of reindeer instead of horses. 8. He tently taken another umbrella. 16. Errors arise through misunderfeursely took his eyes off his relations, whom he had not seen for so standings and oversights. 17. Fortunately he could prove himself lozz a time, and rejoiced at their communications. 9. Most of the right by means of his passport. 18. Fortunately I had discovered the eficers have interceded with the general for this young soldier. 10. I danger, yet at the right time. 19. Fortunately I met him in the applied to my friends in my troubles; but wherever I turned, I saw street. 20. Fortunately no human life has been lost at this great cononly indifferent looks. 11. He stole my watch and some other articles flagration. 21. In jest, a person may take many liberties. 22, He without my observing it. 12. He who prides himself on his know alluded to this scene in a jocular way. 23. I am particularly fond of Hedge, thereby proves that he knows less than he boasts and wishes to the French language. 21. He was allowed to enter the prince's room make others believe.

13. I hope you will not suppose I offended you without special permission, purposely? 14. God forbid! I never did or would believe anything so tud of you. 15. I hope you will not remain at home during this beau

EXERCISE 127 (Vol. II., page 340). tiful weather. 16. Oh, no! I have no inclination to spend such a beau 1. Die Einwohner Holstein't vettheitigten sich mit all ihrer Macht gegen tiful day within the four walls of my room. 17. There are several die Dänen. 2. Wilhelm der Groberer unterjochte England mit Geivalt der who have applied for this office, viz.,

the following. 18. I cannot help Waffen. 3. Diese tapfern Soldaten bahnten sich ihren Weg mit furchtthanking you very heartily. 20. When I wished to shoot at the wore barer Gewalt durch die Reihen der Feinde. 4. Man hinderte ihn gewaltsam my gun nigsed fire.

an der Flucht. 5. lieben Sie die deutsche Sprache ? 6. Ja, ich liebe sie, EXERCISE 123 (Vol. II., page 315).

aber vorzugsweise liebe ich die italienische Sprache. 7. Jeft ist er besonders

mit der deutschen und spanischen Sprache beschäftigt. 8. Glüdlicher Weise 1. Er konnte nicht umhin, seinen Tabel auszusprechen. 2. Bewahre fand ich meinen Freund zu Hause. 9. Er ist genöthigt, den Befehlen feiner tafe Betr, vør Sünde. 3. 3d fonnte nicht umhin, das Unrecht, welches Borgelegten zu gehorchen. 10. Die meisten Leute Fleiden sich nach der franzo ich erlitten hatte

, zu vergeben. 4. Indem er dieses fagte. sant er ohnmächtig fischen Mode. 11. 3d nahm unwiffentlich den Hut eines Antern. 12. ziever. 5. Die werden langsam nach dem Parte reiten. 6. Die Königin Blüdlicher Weise enttedte mein Freund die Gefahr, welche

ihm brohte

. 13. Eet gestern fpazieten. 7. Dieser Kaufmann thut groß mit seinen Meich. Scherzweise sagte er mir manche Wahrheit. 14. lInter vier Augen fönnen trimern. 8. Der Araber reitet mit unglaublicher Schnelle. 9. Wenn die Sie manche Beleidigun en sagen. 15. Die Fürsten Deutschlands verfahren alten Mitter in den Krieg ritten, so waren ihre Pferde gepanzert. 10. eigenmächtig im Regieren ihrer Länder.

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXII. (Althæa cannabina), a native of various parts of Central Europe,

which has purple flowers, and the stem of which yields a good SECTION LXXXV.-MALVACEÆ, OR MALLOW-WORTS.

substitute for hemp. Such are a few of the species of this Characteristics : Calyx free; valvate in æstivation ; petals natural order now familiar in gardens.' hypogynous, ordinarily joined together into a staminiferous

SECTION LXXXVI.-GERANIACEÆ, OR CRANESBILLS. tube ; contorted in æstivation ; stamens indefinite, monadelphous, with uni-locular anthers; seed dicotyledonous ; embryo curved ; Characteristics : Calyx free; petals hypogynous or imper. leaves alternate, stipulate.

fectly perigynous, in number equal to the sepals or fewer ; Stem herbaceous or ligneous, usually supplied with radiating equal in the Geranium, reduced to four or two in the Pelar. hairs ; flowers complete, regular, axillary, solitary, or fasciculate, gonium ; contorted in æstivation, caduceous ; stamena ordinarily or in a cyme; pollen in large grains, globular, hispid; carpels double in number to the petals; bi-serial ; all fertile (Geranium) ordinarily numerous, some

or partly sterile (Erodium, times five; three or four ova

Fig. 243; Pelargonium, Fig. ries verticillate around a pro

244), filaments partially monalongation of the floral axis,

delphous; carpels five, applied sometimes agglomerated into a

to the prolongation of the capitulum, either free or par

axis, and constituting a fivetially coherent. Ovules in.

celled bi-ovulate ovary; seed serted into the central angle

dicotyledonous, exalbuminous, of the cells, ascendant or

curved ; cotyledons bent or horizontal, curved. The styles

contorted; stem herbaceous are free above. Fruit some

or ligneous; leaves stipulate, times formed of many shells

opposite; the upper ones somocoherent by their margins to

times alternate; flowers coma variable extent; sometimes

plete, regular, or irregular a loculicidal capsule with sep

(Pelargonium), occasionally tiferous valves, sometimes in.

solitary, arranged sometimes dehiscent, dry, or fleshy. The

in a bi-floral cyme; styles cotyledons are bent or mutu

joined into a column, which is ally embedded. Albumen albu

larger than the floral axis ; minous, not very abundant.

ovules ascendant, at first The Malvacece abound in the

curved, then demi-reflexed. tropics, their number dimi.

Species of this natural order nishing towards either pole;

are chiefly found in the extratheir chief property depends

tropical regions, more espeon a mucilage which abounds

cially at the Cape of Good in the greater number, whence

Hope; they contain tannic the Malvaceæ are celebrated

and gallic acids, on which sefor their emollient properties.

count they were formerly emIn certain species there exists,

ployed as astringents in medical in addition to the mucilage, a

practice. The Pelargoniuns free acid, generally the oxalic,

contain & volatile oil, which the presence of which causes

imparts to them a very powerthem to be refrigerant, antibi.

ful but at the same time agreelious, and antiscorbutic. The

able odour. The Pelargonium. seeds contain a fixed oil. Some

roseum and Pelargonium capispecies possess tenacious fibres,

tatum yield an essence possess. others seeds which are covered

ing the odour of roses, which is with a substance resembling

sometimes employed as & mawool.

terial wherewith otto of roses Among the indigenous spe

is adulterated. cies of this tribe the marsh

SECT. LXXXVII.-BALSAMI. mallow (Althea officinalis, Fig.

NACEÆ, OR BALSAMS. 240) is most common.

Characteristics : Sepals free, The plants of the Cotton

unequal, petaloid ; petals five sub-family (Gossypium, Fig.

hypogynous, unequal; stamena 241), which belongs to this

five; carpels five, united to a natural order, are indigenous

five-celled ovary ; ovules supeto Asia and America. Many 239. THE INDIAN CRESS (TROPÆGLUM).

rior, pendent, reflexed; capsule species are now cultivated on Section of flower of the tropwolum ; 2, stamen and anther ; 3, lower five-celled, five-valved, dehisa large scale in every part of petal, with a hair-like fringe at base; 4, upper petal ; 5, fruit; 6, cent; seed dicotyledonons, exthe intertropical zone. The fruit, with one of the lobes taken away, and another bisected to albuminous; embryo, straight; laniferous material which enshow seed.

stem herbaceous, succulent; velopes the seeds is the sub

flowers axillary. stance cotton. It has been known and used in Egypt from The Balsaminacec are for the most part natives of temperate times of great antiquity, and is now distributed over the whole and tropical Asia. The genus Impatiens, so called on account world. Several remains of Greek literature have been handed of the elasticity of its seed-capsules, which, on being touched, down to us written on cotton. Cotton seeds yield on expression dart out the seeds to a considerable distance, has furnished a fixed oil useful for a variety of purposes.

numerous varieties to horticulture. The common balsam plant, Numerous foreign Malvacece are now cultivated in Europe ; Impatiens balsamina, is an annual, a native of India, now for example, the Malope trifida, an annual of Northern Africa, rendered double by culture, and furnishing innumerable varieties. the stem of which rises to the height of about two feet, and The Impatiens repens is a Cingalese species, the representation which bears flowers of a deep-rose colour ; "the Kitaibelia, a of which is subjoined (Fig. 245). It has only been recently inbiennial Hungarian plant, having lobed leaves and white troduced into European culture. flowers; the hollyhock, or Althea rosea, a Chinese plant, the varieties of which are extremely numerous ; the tree mallow, or SECTION LXXXVIII.-TROPÆOLACEÆ, OR INDIAN CRESSES. Lavatera arborea, a native of Central France, bearing large Characteristics : Calyx five-partite, bi-labiate, petaloid; petals leaves and violet-coloured flowers; and the hemp-leaved althæa five, unequal, inserted at the base of the calyx ; stamens eight,

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hypogynous; ovary three-celled, uni-ovulate ; ovules pendent, yellow flowers of no great, beauty, and belong to an entirely reflexed; fruit succulent or dry, composed of three shells or different order, namely, that of the Brassicacer, or Crucifers. samaroidal; seed dicotyledonous ; embryo exalbuminous,

SECTION LXXXIX.-LIMNANTHACEÆ. straight; stem herbaceous, succulent, diffused or voluble; leaves peltate, the inferior leaves opposite and stipulated, Characteristics : Calyx free ; petals inserted upon

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240, MARSH MALLOW (ALTHÆA OFFICINALIS). 241. COTTON PLANT (GOSSYPIUM). 242. SECTION OF FLOWER OF COTTON PLANT. 243. HERON'S BILL (ERODIUM). 244. STORX'S BILL (PELARGONIUM). 245. CREEPING BALSAM (IMPATIENS REPENS). 246. PINK LIMNANTHES (BIMNANTHES ROSEA).

the superior leaves alternate and without stipules; flowers almost perigynous disc, three or five; æstivation convolute; axillary.

stamens six or ten; carpels three or five, coherent, uniThe Tropæolaceæ inhabit the entire of Central America. The ovulate ; ovules erect, reflexed; fruit composed of two or genus Tropæolum (Fig. 239) is cultivated in Europe. The three achænia; seed dicotyledonous, exalbuminoas; embryo Tropæolum speciosum, a native of Patagonia, bears a handsome straight. scarlet flower. The Indian cress, with its broad, buckler-like The members of this natural order are indigenous to North leaves and flowers of all shades, from the faintest primrose to a America, generally annuals, growing in marshy places; their rich crimson brown, is often erroneously called nasturtium. leaves soft and glistening, alternate, their flowers regular. Tho The nasturtiums, however, are hardy aquatic plants, bearing Limnanthes rosea (Fig. 246) is a native of California. This

new

or
oss

eass

an egg

parri

small natural order is placed by Lindley with the Tropæolaceæ, Non

not

non

nonentity, nonage. with which it agrees in many particulars. It differs from it, Norma

a rulo

norm enormous, normal. however, in having regular flowers, perigynous stamens, and Novus

nov

novice, innovate, erect ovules.

Nox (noctis) night

nox, noct equinox, nocturnal. Nubo

I marry nub connubial

Nuptus married nupt nuptials.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXIII. Nudus

naked nud nudity, denude.
LATIN STEMS (continued).

Nuge

trifles nug nugatory.

Numerus a number numer numeration, innumerable. Ir words degenerate, they also improve. As a nation refines, Nuncio I tell nunci, nounc annunciation, renounce. its thoughts refine. What, therefore, was originally material Nutrio I nourish nutri nutriment, nutritious. becomes intellectual. 2 The intellectual, too, may pass into the Octo

eight

oct

octagon, octave. moral, and the moral may be elevated into the spiritual. Our Oculus an eye ocul oculist, ocular,

Oleo

I smell ol most purely spiritual terms were all physical in their origin.

olfactory, redolent. What a wide difference there is between birth and the new birth; Onus (oněris) a burden

Omnis

all

omni omnipresent, omnibus. oner

onerous, exonerate. between generation and regeneration. Spirit in its original Latin

Opto

I wish

opt adopt, option, is merely breath or breathing. Heaven, the state of spiritual Opus (opěris) work

oper

operose, operation. blessedness, if viewed derivatively, is merely the heaved-up Orbis

a circle orbi orbicular, orbit. place, as hell is the covered place; hellyer is still used in some Orno

I deck

orn

ornament, ador. parts of England for a coverer--that is, a tiler or slater, a Oro

I beg

ora

oration, orator. house-coverer. And what is virtue? Originally, but the quality Os (oris)

the mouth

oral, adoration, orifice. of vir---that is, a man! And what was that quality ? Valour;

Os (ossis)
a bone

ossify, osseous. he was emphatically the man who was most brave.

Otium

oti

otiose, negotiate, Ovum

ou Happy, too, is a word which has undergone a favourable

oval, oviform.

Pactus transformation. You see its primitive meaning in happen and Pando

having agreed pact compact, pact, paction.

I spread pand, pans expand, expanse. mishap. Hap, originally, was applied to a good or a bad event, Pausus (passus) spread pass compass, to pass. signifying occurrence merely. But in this world of goodness, Par

equal

par parity, imparity, the general tenor of events is such as to promote men's good; Pareo I appear

par

apparent. hence to receive its haps is to be happy, and to be exceptional Pareo

I bring forth par parent, viviparous. in regard to its haps is to be unhappy :

Vivus (vivi) alive

vivi vivify, vivid.

Paro “Such happes which happen in such hapless warres,

I prepare

par, pair reparation, repair. Pastus fed

past repast, pasty.
Make me to tearm them broyles and beastly larros.”

Gascoigne.
Pater

a father

pater, patri paternal, patrimony.

parricide. There are words represented as of recent origin which may Patior I suffer

pati

patient, impatient. claim some age. The word Rationalist owes not its birth to Passus suffered pass passive, passion. the influence of recent German philosophy, but was used under Pauci fero

pauci paucity. the Commonwealth to designate a sect then new which idolised Pax (pacis) реаса

paci pacify, pacific. Pecco

I sin

ресс reason. Nor is the term Christology of German origin, but

impeccable, peccadillo,

Pectus seems to have been invented by Dr. Thomas Jackson in the

the breast pector (pectoris)

expectorate. seventeenth century. The verb to progress is often disallowed

Peculium as an Americanism, but it is found in Shakespeare :

private

pecul property

peculation. "Let me wipe off this honourable dew

Pecunia money

pecun

pecuniary. That silverly doth progress on thy cheeks."

Pello

I drive pel expel, impel. "King John," Act. v. Sc. 2.

Pulsus

driven puls repulsion, expulsion. Pendo

I hang, weigh pond depend; pendulum, stipend.
LATIN STEMS.

Pensus
hung

pensive, compensate. Latin Words. Meanings. Stems, English Words.

Pene

almost
pen

peninsula. Mel (mellis) honey meli mellifluous.

Peto

I seek, aim at pet centripetal, competition. Melior

better

melior meliorate, amelioration. Centrum a centre centr central, centrifugal, Memor mindful memorable, memorial.

Pictus

painted pict depict, picture. Mens(mentis) the intellect ment mental, dementate.

Piscis

a fish pisc piscatory. Mergo

I plunge

merg
immerge, emerge.

Placidus pleasing placid placid, placidly.
Mersus
plunged
immersion, emersion.

Placo

I appease plac placable, implacable. Metior I measure met mete, moter, meteyard.

The word nonentity recalls the days of the schoolmen, or Mensus

measured mensu commensurate, mensuration. monkish philosophers of the Middle Ages, who subtilly, proMille

a thousand mill millennium, millenary. Miror I gaze, wonder mir mirror, admire.

foundly, and perseveringly speculated on metaphysical topics, Miser wretched miser miserable, a miser.

striving to invest the dogmas of the Church with a philo* Mitis

mild
miti mitigate.

sophical dress and certitude. Entity or being, and nonentity or Mitto I send

remit, commit, permit. no-being, were among the counters with which they played their Missus

miss

missionary, missive. clever intellectual game; which, like most other games, secured Modus mod mode, modify.

little else than amusement. Mola

a millstone mol emolument, molar. Moles

"Fortune is no real entity, nor physical essence, but a mere relative mol demolish, a mole. Molestus troublesome

signification."--Bentley.
molest molestation.
Mollis

soft
molli mollify, emollient.

“With real munition he did fortify
Moneo
I warn
admonish.

His heart."-Daniel, Monitas warned monit monitor.

“They must have the assistance of some able military man, and Mors (mortis) death morti, mort mortify, immortal. Mos (moris),

convenient arms and ammunition for their defence."-Bacon.
a manner mor moral, moralist.
Multus

many
multi multiform, multitude.

The word adoration, etymologically considered, signifies a Munitus fortified munit munition, ammunition. kissing of the mouth to a visible object of worship-in token Munus(muněris) a gift

remunerate.

of reverence and as expressive of worship. Murus

a wall
mur immure, mural.

The term peculation means the making of that your own
Muto
I change mut mutable, commute.

which is not your own. Peculation, as derived from peculium, Natus

born

nat
native, natal.

private property, wears a socialist aspect, and seems to say, " la Navis a ship

naval, navigate. Ago I drive

propriété c'est le vol :” that is, “private property is plunder,"

agile, agitate. Necto

I tie, bind

noct
connect, disconnect.

a truly monstrous and anti-social doctrine.
Nexus
a bond
annex, connexion.

“A real circular motion is always accompanied with a centrifugal Nego I deny negative, negation.

force, arising from the tendency which a body always has to proceed Nihil nothing nihil annihilate, nihility.

in a right line." -Moclaurin, "Account of Newton's Philosophical DisNomen(nominis) a name nomin nominal, denominate. coveries."

pens

memor

mer's

sent
a measure

a mass

mon

munor

nar ag

neg

{

popul

I carry

prob

LATIN STEMS.

of the deponent while we say he deposes, not depones; though of Latin Words. Meanings. Stens.

English Words. old depones was used in England :the common

"And further Sprot deponeth," etc.--"State Trials." Plebs

} pies

plebeian. people

The retina, or eye-net, the immediate seat or rather instruPlenus plen plenitude, replonish.

ment of vision, is the net-like expansion of the optic nerve, on Pleo

I fill
ply, plot supply, complete, expletive.

which objects are drawn, and from which they are made visible Plico

I fold

plic complicated. Ploro I wait plor deplore, implore.

by the mind. Plumbum lead plumb, plum plumber, plummet.

Reticulated denotes that which is made like net-work. Hence
Pono
I place

pon
depone, exponent.

the meaning of reticule or little bag made of net-work, some time Positus placed

pos, posit
impose, position.

since much in use among ladies. Populus the people

popular.

To ruminate is to pass and repass the food through the rumen Porto port portable, export.

or gullet in order to its repeated chewing. Hence the phrase to Poto I drink pot potion, potable.

chew the cud. Metaphorically, to ruminate is to muse, to reflect Prada plunder preda predatory, depredation.

calmly :Pravus wicked prav depravity.

As when a traveller, a long day past, Precor I pray

prec

deprecate, imprecate. Prehendo I take hold of. prehend

* In painful search of what he cannot find, apprehend

At night's approach, content with the next cot, Prehensus takon

prehens apprehension. Pretium

There ruminates awhile his labour lost." a price preci appreciate. Probo I prove prob probable, probation.

In prose we say to ruminate on, that is, to meditate upon :Probas good probity.

“He practises a slow meditation, and ruminates on the subject."Padens

} modest (pudentis) prudent impudent,

Watts, “On the Mind."

Bankrupt, a term of French extraction, properly denotes a Puer a boy

puer puerile. Pugna a fight pugnacious, impugn.

trader or money-dealer whose bank or bench is broken, the last pugn I prune, put)

condition of commercial destitution : Puto in order, put amputate, reputation, dis.

“A bankrupt is defined a trader who secretes himself, or does cortain think pute.

other acts tending to defraud his creditors." --Blackstone.
Putris
rotten

putr
putrefaction, putrid.

The terms rustic and rural differ in their application, the first Quæro I seek, ask quir, quer query, inquire.

being said of persons, the second of things. Rustics are often Quæsitus asked quisit, question, inquest,

insensible to the loveliness of rural scenes. quest inquisition, requisition. Quassus shaken agitated cuss discuss, percussion.

COMPOSITION, Quatuor four

quat, quadr quaternion, quadrangle. Angulus

Form into a sentence each of these with their proper preposia corner angl, angul angle, angular. Queror I complain quer querulous.

tions Quinque five quinqu quinquennial.

Words,

F. R.
Radix (radicis) a root

radic
radical, eradicate.
Confide in,

fido, I trust. Ramus a branch ram

ramification.
Conform to,

forma, form.
Rasus
scraped t'as (ras) erase (razor).

Congenial with,

genus, kind. Ratio (rationis) reason rat

rational, rate.
Congratulate on,

gratulor, I congratulate. Rectus straight recti rectilineal, rectify.

Connect with,

necto, I bind. Linea a line line linear, lineament.

Conscious of,

scio, I lenow.
Rego
I rule

reg
regal, rogalate.
Consecrate to,

sacer, sacred..
Rectus
ruled

rect
roctor, director.
Consent to,

sentio, I feel, think.
a net
roti reticulate, retina.

Consign to,

signum, a sign,
Rideo
I laugh

rid
deride, ridicule.

Consist of, in, with,
Bisus

sto, I stand.
laughed at
risible, derisive.

Consistent with,
Rigo
I water rig
irrigate.

Consult, and consult with, consul, a counsellor.
Rodo
I gnano rod
corrode, erode.
Contend with, against,

tendo, I stretch
Rosus
gnared
corrosion, erosion.
Contiguous to,

tango, I touch. Rota a wheel rota rotation, rotary. Contrast with,

Rete

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traho, I draw. Rumen(ruminis) the gullet rumin ruminate.

Contrary to,

contra, opposite. Ruptus broken rupt bankrupt, eruption.

Conversant in, with, about, versor, I am engaged in. Ros (ruris) the country rus, rur rustic, rural.

Convert to, into,

verto, I turn. Sacer (sacri) sacred sacri, sacer sacrifice, sacerdotal.

Convict of, Sal (salis)

vinco, I overcome.
salt

sali
saline.

Convince of,
I lear sali salient.

Copy from, after

copie, a transcript. Saltus leapt sault, sult assault, insult.

Correspond to, with,

respondeo, I answer. Salvus safe salu salvation, salvage.

Covenant with, for,

venio, I come. Sanctus holy sanct sanctify, sanctuary.

Care of,

cura, care. enough satis, sati satisfy, satiate.

To consist of, to consist in, and to consist with, have each a Satur full satur saturate.

different meaning. To consist of has reference to the materials Scando I climb scond ascend, descend.

of which an object is made up; to consist in has reference to Scindo I cleave scind rescind.

the substance or essence of a thought; to consist with has I lonow sci

science, prescience. Scribo I write

reference to the character or dignity of an agent or actor. It scrib

scribe, inscribe. Scriptus written script scripture, postscript.

consists with the character of a wise man to expound doctrines Scrator { I search dili-}

in which the welfare of his fellow-men consists : that exposition scrut scrutiny, inscrutable.

he makes by words which consist of sounds, or by books which Scurra a scoffer scurrility.

consist of letters. The wealth of a nation consists not so much Sectos cut

sect
dissect, sectarian.

in the number as the heart, the intelligence, and the sinews of Sedeo I sit

sed, sid
sedentary, preside.

its inhabitants.
seated

session. Semen (seminis) seed

semin disseminate, seminary.
half
semi sømicircle, semivowel.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXIII. Expletives are words not needed for the sense, bat used merely CHROMIUM-URANIUM-ARSENIC-ANTIMONY, to fill up and round off the sentence. Of course expletives are to be avoided :

CHROMIUM.

SYMBOL, Cr--COMBINING WEIGHT, 52-5.
“While expletives their feeble aid do join,
And ten low words oft creep in one dull line."— Pope.

THE chief ore of this metal is chrome iron-stone, whose compo

sition (FeO,Cr,0,) is similar to that of magnetic iron ore, but The term depone, in law phraseology, is used by the Scotch where the sesquioxide of iron is replaced by the correspondwhere we ase depose. The distinction

is arbitrary, for we speak | ing oxide of chromium. The metal may be reduced by carbon

Salio

Satis

Scio

8Curr

Sessus

sess

Semi

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