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chagrins de cette cruelle journée furent oubliés. M. et Mme frère est-il chez vous! 30. Non, Monsieur, il est avec un de mes Dérambert, Auguste et Fanny étaient fous de joie ;16 c'est à parents. 31. Est-il marié! 32. Il n'est pas marié. 33. Le capitaine peine si dans les premiers moment ils songèrent à remercier H. est-il mario? 34. Il s'est marié la semaine dernière. 35. Il & celui qui leur avait rendu leur enfant; mais après avoir baigné épousé Mlle. H. de larmes le visage du petit malheureux, après l'avoir pressé

EXERCISE 129 (Vol. II., page 266). mille fois contre leur cæur, ils se jetèrenta? au cou du marchand feet wide. 3. How long is your garden 4. It is twenty-five yards

1. Is your house large? 2. It is fifty feet long and twenty-five en le comblant de bénédictions.

in length and twelve in breadth. 5. How large is this book? 6. It Mais, Moustache ! de quelles caresses ne fut-il pas l'objet ! is eighteen inches long, thirteen wide, and three inches thick. 7. Is c'était à qui (o) le choierait,' le flatterait, l'embrasserait. L'in your house longer than this! 8. It is longer by two feet. 9, How telligent animal paraissait (P) prendre part au bonheur géné- deep is this well! 10. How high is that steeple ? 11. It is three ral; il courait d'Auguste à Fanny, de Fanny à Alfred dont il hundred and fifty-three feet high. 12. How tall is that officer? 13. léchait les petites mains avec un air de contentement inexprim

He is tall. 14. How much taller than his brother is that Scotchman? able. On aurait dit qu'il se rappelait le service20 qu'aupara- 15. He is taller by the whole head. 16. Are you not much taller vant, les trois enfants lui avaient rendu, et qu'aujourd'hui il se

than I? 17. I am three inches taller than you. 18. How is that

stuff sold a yard? 19. It is sold three francs a mètre. 20. Does not trouvait heureux d'avoir pu leur témoigner sa reconnaissance, en

brown sugar sell dear? 21. It sells cheap. 22. How many letters sauvant l'un d'eux.

do you write a week? 23. I only write six a week. 24. How much COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

do you pay a week for your rent ? 25. I pay only ten francs a week. 1. Comment paraissait alors le 10. Où s'arrêta-t-il enfin !

EXERCISE 130 (Vol. II., page 266). marchand ? 11. Qu'aperçut alors le marchand ?

1. Quelle grandeur a le jardin de M. votre père? 2. Il a vingt-cinq 2. Où s'était-il placó? 12. L'enfant était-il mort?

mètres de longueur et dix de largeur. 3. La maison de votre cousin 3. Que dit-il tout à coup ? 13. Que fit ensuite le marchand ?

est-elle grande ? 4. Elle a cinquante-six pieds de longueur et quarante 4. Quelle était la contenance du 14. De quoi les parents s'étaient- de largeur. 5. Votre maison est-elle plus grande que la mienne ! € chien lorsqu'il reparut?

ils munis ?

Elle est plus grande que la vôtre de dix pieds. 7. Savez-vous quelle 5. Qu'est-ce que ses gestes indi. 15. Ouvrit-il bientôt les yeux ?

profondeur a ce puits? 8. Il a vingt-cinq pieds de profondeur, et six quaient ?

16. Les parents montrèrent-ils de largeur. 9. Combien ce drap se vend-il le mètre? 10. Il se rend 6. Que dit le maître ?

beaucoup de joie ? 7. Quelle fut la question de la 17. Que firent-ils après avoir em- pour votre travail? 12: Je reçois cinquante francs par semaine pour

quarante-cinq francs le mètre. 11. Combien recevez-vous par semaine mère ?

brassé le petit garçon ?

mon travail. 13. Combien votre ami paie-t-il par mois pour sa pension? 8. Quelle réponse fit le mar 18. Moustache fut-il oublié ?

14. Il paie soixante-dix francs par mois. 15. Etes-vous plus grand chand ? 19. Que faisait-il alors ?

que votre cousin ? 16. Je suis plus grand que lui de toute la tête. 9. Que faisait le chien après avoir 20. Qu'aurait-on dit en voyant le 17. Votre neveu n'est-il pas plus grand que votre fils! 18. Il est repris sa course ?

chien ?

plus grand que mon fils, de trois pouces. 19. De quelle grandeur est NOTES.

cette chambre? 20. Elle & soixante pieds de long sur quarante de (a) Ne songeait, dared not, (i) Poussa, gave.

large. 21. De quelle taille est M. votre frère? 22. Il est de haute (6) From mettre. (1) From apercevoir.

taille, il est plus grand que moi. 23. Combien de livres lisez-vous par (c) Recueillait, listened to; from (k) From prendre.

semaine ? 24. Je lis dix volumes par semaine. 25. Combien le beurre recueillir. (L) From reconnaitre.

se vend-il la livre? 26. Le beurre se vend deux francs la livre. 27. (d) From voir.

(m) Mort, dead; from mourir. Savez-vous combien votre fils gagne par jour? 28. Il gagne autant (e) From reparaitre.

(n) Ils s'étaient munis, they had que le vôtre, il gagne dix francs par jour, 29. Combien cette ) Fit, from faire; is often used provided themselves,

soie vaut-elle le mètre? 30. Elle vaut six francs le mètre. 31. Notre instead of dit, said.

(o) C'était à qui, they vied with one ami est de taille moyenne. 32. Allez-vous à l'église deux fois par (9) From vivre.

another.

jour ? 33. Je vais à l'église une fois par jour. 34. Votre fils va-t-il (h) De temps à autre, from time to (P) From paraitre.

à la poste tous les jours ? 35. Il y va six fois par jour. time.

EXERCISE 131 (Vol. II., page 267).

1. Have you forbidden that man to set his foot inside your house! KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. 2. I have forbidden him. 3. Have you sheltered those things from EXERCISE 127 (Vol. II., page 237).

the rain? 4. I have sheltered them from the rain and wind. 5. Have 1. Is not your niece going to be married? 2. She will be married you acquainted your brother with that affair? 6. I have not acLext year. 3. Whom will she marry? 4. She will marry General quainted him with it. 7. Have you not enabled him to study ? & I M.'s eldest son. 5. Do you know who has married that couple? 6. have enabled him to instruct himself, if he wishes to do it. 9. Will The Archbishop of Paris has married them. 7. Has he not also married you put that aside? 10. I am going to put it in the sun. 11. Would Miss L.! 8. He has married her to Mr. G. 9. Whom has your

not your friend come in? 12. He would not alight. 13, Has not young lady married? 10. She has married Mr. L., captain in the your dyer put on his apron wrong side out? 14. No, Sir, he has put 25th regiment of infantry. 11. Is not that old man wrong to marry? | it on right side out. 15. Have you not put that giddy person ont of 12. He is not wrong to be married, but he is wrong to marry that doors? 16. We have shut the door in his face. 17. At what hour lady, 13. When are those princesses going to be married? 14. do you sit down to table ? 18. As soon as the cloth is laid. 19. Does They will be married next month. 15. Who will marry them?

that man dress well? 20. He always dresses after the English or the 16. The Bishop of Arras will marry them. 17. Whom are they to Italian fashion. 21. Did not those children commence weeping! 22. marry? 18. The elder is to marry Mr. W., and the younger Mr. G. Instead of beginning to weep, they began to laugh. 23. Why do you 19. Has not Captain G. married a relation of yours? 20. Yes, Sir, he not commence writing? 24. It is time to sit down to table. 25. Are nas married a cousin of mine. 21. Who is that young lady? 2. She those Sicilian ladies well dressed! 26. They are exceedingly well is a sister of mine. 23. Have you not a book of mine! 24, I have a dressed, book of yours and a pen of yours. 25. I have just spoken to one of

EXERCISE 132 (Vol. II., page 267). your sisters.

1. Le monsieur a-t-il mis pied à terre ce matin ? 2. Non, Monsieur, EXERCISE 128 (Vol. II., page 238).

il n'a pas voulu mettre pied à terre, il n'avait pas le temps. 3. Avez. 1. M. votre frère va-t-il épouser Mlle. L.! 2. Oui, Monsieur, nous vous mis cet insolent à la porte ? 4. Non, Monsieur, mais je lui ai avons beau lui parler, il veut l'épouser. 3. M. votre père ne mariera- défendu de mettre le pied chez moi. 5. Avez-vous mis ces petits t-il pas votre scar avec M. G.! 4. Non, Monsieur, il la mariera avec enfants à l'abri de la pluie ? 6. Je les ai mis à l'abri de la pluie et du M. L. 5. Le capitaine H. est-il marié? 6. Non, Monsieur, il n'est vent. 7. Avez-vous mis votre fils à même d'apprendre la médecine ? pas encore marié, mais il se mariera l'année prochaine. 7. Qui a-t-il 8. Je l'ai mis à même d'apprendre la médecine, s'il désire le faire. 9. l'intention d'épouser? 8. Il a l'intention d'épouser une de mes cousines, Avez-vous mis votre habit à l'envers ? 10. Je ne l'ai pas mis à l'envers, qui est chez mon frère. 9. Qui les mariera? 10. Mon frère ainé a je l'ai mis à l'endroit. 11. Vous êtes-vous mis en colère ? 12. Non, l'intention de les marier. 11. Votre plus jeune seur est-elle mariée Monsieur, je ne me suis pas mis en colère. 13. Vous êtes-vous mis à 12. Non, Monsieur, elle n'est pas mariée. 13. Va-t-elle se marier? table, hier à quatre heures ? 14. Nous nous sommes mis à table à six 14. Elle se mariera quand elle sera assez âgée. 15. Qui M. le colonel heures. 15. Avez-vous l'intention de vous mettre en pension ? 16. J'ai J, a-t-il épousé ? 16. Il a épousé une de mes sœurs. 17. Combien de l'intention de me mettre en pension chez M. L. 17. Quand vous temps y a-t-il qu'ils sont mariés ? 18. n y a deux ans qu'ils sont mettez-vous en voyage ? 18. Nous nous mettons en route demain mariés. 19. Cette demoiselle n'a-t-elle pas tort de se marier? 20. matin. 19. Votre fils s'est-il mis à rire ? 20. Non, Monsieur, il s'est Elle a tort de se marier, elle est trop jeune. 21. Qui a marié M. mis à pleurer. 21. Pourquoi ne vous mettez-vous pas à travailler ? le général S. et Mne. N.! 22. L'évêque d'Arras les a mariée. 23. 22. Parceque je vais me mettre à lire. 23. Cette dame se met-elle à L'archevêque d’York n'a-t-il pas marié ces époux! 24. L'archevêque l'Anglaise ? 24. Elle se met à l'italienne. 25. Ces dames sont-elles de Paris les a mariés. 25. Votre tante ne se mariera-t-elle pas ! 26. bien mises ? 26. Elles sont mises à merveille, 27. Ne voulez-vous Elle ne se mariera pas ! 27. Mle. votre seur n'est-elle pas à la maison ? pas vous mettre à l'ombre ? 28. Je me mettrai au soleil, j'ai très-froid. 28. Non, Monsieur, elle est chez une de mes tantes. 29, M. votre 29. Votre habit est-il à l'envers ? 30. Non, Monsieur, il est à l'endroit.

31. Est-ce là l'endroit de ce drap ? 32. C'est l'envers. 33. N'êtes of the rulers was at the same time excited by the prospect of Fons pas mis à l'anglaise ? 34. Je suis mis à l'italienne. 35. Vous wealth to be gained by confiscations; and the two influences comêtes bien mis.

bining, the poor Israelites had a good many bad quarters of an EXERCISE 133 (Vol. II., page 298).

hour. It began to be rumoured that the Jews, in their rites, 1. Send for the physician, your little boy is ill

. 2. We have already openly derided the Christian religion; that they had mock imitasent for him. 3. You do not want your pencil, lend it to me.

4. tions of the sufferings of our Lord; and that they even insticannot lend it to you, I am using it. 5. Give it to me, or lend it to tuted a grim ceremonial of crucifixion, in which a Christian child me. 6. I have promised it to your teacher. 7. If you have not said it to him, tell him of it as soon as possible. 8. Do not tell him of it

was crucified in double mockery of the great sacrifice on Calvary. yet. 9. Speak to him about it the next time you see him. 10. Have Towards the close of the fourteenth century the popular ignopatience, my friend, your father will not be long coming. 11. Obey rance and fanaticism found expression in attacks on the houses your instructor. 12. I always obey him. Give him a good part of it. and property of the Jews, and in assaults on their persons; and 13. I have already given him more than two-thirds of it. 14. Have so great was the persecution, which was unchecked, even enyou carried that key to the locksmith ? 15. I have forgotten to give couraged, by the authorities, that the only way the Jews had by it to him. 16. Take it to him, without fail, this afternoon. 17. Have which to escape destruction was to pretend to be converted to the goodness to tell me where Mr. G. lives.

18. Take the first street Christianity. on the left; he lives in the second house on the right. '19. Come,

But these conversions were of course insincere, and the young ladies, let us make haste. 20. Take them thither as soon as Catholic bigots watched for the time when they might catch the possible, . 21. Do not bring them back to me. 22. Send them back to me to-morrow. 23. Let us carry them thither. 24. Let us not carry proselytes tripping. The numbers of the Jews, and the widethem thither. 25. Lend them to him, but do not give them to him. spread influence they possessed, rendered it next to impossible

for the old Inquisition to do the work of religious watch-dog

and extirpator of heresy, and the clergy were clamorous for HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XXXIII. some more efficient machinery for advancing what they conTHE INQUISITION.

sidered to be the cause of God. In spite of repeated efforts to

obtain this machinery, in spite of many oppressive enactments, On the 7th of November, 1781, a nun wag burned alive in a the Jews managed to get along pretty well till the junction of principal town of Spain, on a charge of having made a compact the crowns of Aragon and Castile, by Ferdinand and Isabella, with the devil. She was the last victim of the Spanish In in the year 1474. A year before Isabella ascended the throne, the quisition.

Constable of Castile had been killed by the populace while trying The Inquisition was an institution as old almost as Catholicism to save the Jews from the fury of the people, who were hounded in Spain, but its operations were not confined to the Spanish on by the priests to acts of violence against the race from which kingdom only. Indeed, originally it was called into existence the Redeemer himself sprang. A priest who did not set up for because of people who were not Spaniards at all. After the break- being a zealot, wrote thus of the Jews :-" This accursed race ing out of religious differences in Provence among the Albigeois were either unwilling to bring their children to be baptised, or, or Albigenges, in A.D. 1160, and after the bloody crusade of the if they did, they washed away the stain on returning home. Count de Montfort--father to the Simon de Montfort, Earl of They dressed their stews and other dishes with oil instead of Leicester, who founded the English House of Commons-had lard; abstained from pork ; kept the passover; ate meat in crushed, not the spirit of difference, but the people who differed, Lent; and sent oil to replenish the lamps of their synagogues, it was considered a necessary thing that the people should be with many other abominable ceremonies of their religion. They watched by special watches, in order to prevent the re-entry of entertained no respect for monastic life, and frequently profaned the heresy which had so divided the church. An Inquisition was the sanctity of religious houses by the violation or seduction of therefore established, which took cognisance of heresy of all their inmates. They were an exceedingly politic and ambitious kinds, and punished, according to its own discretion, those whom people, engrossing the most lucrative municipal offices, and prein secret court it pronounced to be guilty. The operations of ferred to gain their livelihood by traffic, in which they made this organisation were not confined to one place, though they exorbitant gains, rather than by manual labour or mechanical were of course chiefly directed against the Albigenses. These arts. They considered themselves in the hands of the Egyptians, unfortunate people, or such of them as escaped the fury of De whom it was a merit to deceive and pilfer. By their wicked Vontfort, fled into Aragon, where they allied themselves with a contrivances they amassed great wealth, and thus were often race, the Jews, equally inimical to the Holy Office.

able to ally themselves by marriage with noble Christian The Jews, who had early experienced the hatred of all sects of families." Christians, even of those who were most bitterly opposed the one Superstition, ignorance, greed, and fanaticism had their way. to the other, had materially aided the Saracens when Gebal They clamoured for the destruction of the Jews in Andalusia, and Tarik-from whom Gibraltar was called-landed on the south- declared that the machinery of the old Inquisition was quite west coast of Spain, and led his conquering hosts against the unable to cope with the difficulty. Chief among the clamourers Christians of the Peninsula. The Arabs had admitted them to was Alphonso de Ojeda, a Dominican friar of Seville. He terms of equality, in accordance with the tolerant spirit which devoted himself to the work of procuring the means for crushing led them to allow freedom of conscience to everybody, after out Judaism and heresy from Spain, and he so worked upon the they had recovered from the fever inspired by the cry of Death weak head of Ferdinand of Castile, as to make him listen with or the Koran !" The Jews appreciated this treatment, under satisfaction to his proposals for establishing a new and more which they increased and multiplied, and grew rich, and rose to thorough-going Inquisition than existed elsewhere in Europe. many high offices of state ; and they were looked upon with When Isabella heard of the plan she was much opposed to proportionate jealousy and dislike by Christians of the Roman it, intensely Catholic though she undoubtedly was. She could Church, who regarded the union of Jew and Saracen as a two- not bear to think of the persecution to which the new instituheaded form of the worst infidelity, and bided the time when tion must inevitably give rise, and she failed to be convinced by they might burst the union asunder. Meantime, the Jews flou- the arguments addressed to her on the score of necessity. Overrished exceedingly in Spain; they travelled, accumulated know- powered, however, by those to whose judgment she thought she ledge as well as money, and were foremost in the ranks of the was bound to defer, and recognising, it is said, the obligation of learned in the science and arts of those days. Medicine, a promise extorted from her when a girl by her confessor, astronomy, political economy, finance, were their special studies, Thomas de Torquemada, that "should she ever come to the and in these they so greatly excelled that even Christian princes throne she would devote herself to the extirpation of heresy, for Bought their help in governing, and gave them posts of trust the glory of God, and the exaltation of the Catholic faith," she about their person. The wealth of the Jews was also so great joined with her husband Ferdinand in a petition to the as to overcome the repugnance of the Spanish Christian Pope that the Holy Office might be introduced into Castile. grandees, who were poor, to commingling the blood of the two Sixtus IV. was only too glad to comply with the request, and on races; and many marriages were made between wealthy Jews the 1st of November, 1478, he issued a bull authorising the and noble but unmoneyed Christian maidens. By the time, how- Spanish sovereigns to appoint ecclesiastical commissioners for ever, that the Albigenses fed into Aragon, the bigotry of the the detection and punishment of heresy throughout their Catholics was ready to exalt itself against all men, and every- dominions. thing that opposed it, whether actively or passively. The cupidity Averse as the queen originally was to the introduction of

harsh measures, she resolved to suspend the exercise of the prepared for each victim; and on a scaffold which commanded a powers committed to her until after an effort had been made to view of the place, a select company assembled to witness the bring the people to a sense of their supposed error. She caused tragedy. Around, but at a distance, the common throng looked the Cardinal Mendoza, Archbishop of Seville, to draw up a sort on, while men played "such fantastic tricks before high heaven of catechism, in which the chief points of the Catholic creed as made the angels weep." A sermon, generally of an uncomwere set forth ; and this catechism the clergy were exhorted to promising and uncharitable kind, was preached by a monk, and bring to the notice of the people. Few conversions, if any, then the auto de fé (act of faith) was commenced by reading over were effected by this process; and those Jews, Turks, infidels, to each convict, in the hearing of the people, the sentence against and heretics who saw the tempest coming, made use of the him. Thereafter a flame-coloured smock, with devils painted all breathing time allowed them, and escaped from Spain to other over it, was flung over the victim, who was forthwith bound to countries. Many remained, and at the end of two years the the stake ; and when similar steps had been taken with regard Queen being informed that the faith of Judaism and heresy was to the others, flame was applied to the fagots, and the poor as strong as before, issued a commission, under the Papal bull, wretches, for whom also Christ died, perished miserably at the to two monks of the Dominican order, who were to act as hands of the so-called ministers of God. This was what the inquisitors, and two other ecclesiastics, who were to assist them Dominicans called delivering the body to Satan, that the soul in their office.

might be saved in the day of the Lord; or, if that might not be On the 2nd of January, 1481, the court commenced its opera- then the execution was a warning to others; and it was lawful tions at the Dominican Convent of St. Paul, in the city of to do that amount of evil that good might come of it. Horrible Seville, Alphonso de Ojeda being prior of the convent, by pub-casuistry! lishing an edict, requiring all who knew or suspected any to be Notwithstanding the plague which in this year visited guilty of heresy to accuse them of the same, secretly or openly, Seville, sweeping off 15,000 of the inhabitants, the Inquisition to the tribunal. To those who should confess their errors and still continued its fiendish work; so that by the end of become reconciled to the Church, the Inquisition held out the the year, in the province of Andalusia, 2,000 persons, many hope of pardon, if confession were made before a given date. of them the most learned and respectable of the day, had

There was thus ample employment for the new court, which perished at the stake. Twice that number having managed to soon had to move its sittings from the Convent of St. Paul to escape, were burned in effigy, and 17,000 were condemned the Castle of Friana, in the suburbs of Seville. There it enter to lesser punishments; of which the least, however, must have tained accusations against high and low, upon pretexts the most been a terrible infliction. Two years after the first insti. frivolous as well as the most grave; and condemned to punish tution of the office, Sixtus IV., who was at one time disposed ments, varying from death by fire to simple penance, delin. to moderate the zeal of the inquisitors, appointed Torquemada, quents who could not say they believed what to their minds who had been Queen Isabella's confessor, to be Inquisitor. was a lie. The Inquisition received evidence which, even in General of Castile and Arragon, with power to frame a new conthose days, would not have been listened to in a civil court of stitution for the office. From this time dates the rise of the law, and the pretexts upon which condemnation frequently pro- Spanish Inquisition as it got to be known and cursed. Its cruel ceeded were such as to make them marvellous even in a barbaric hand reached everywhere ; no one was too high in office, too era. Tortures of the most exquisite and excruciating kind were learned, too brave, too true to his profession, to be exempt from practised on the accused to make them confess, or to induce it; and to be suspected was in nearly every instance to fall

. them to accuse other people; and the hateful system of espion- Torquemada's reign was a reign of terror, but he was succeeded age and secret prison-houses was adopted by the Inquisition at by one Deza, who, in the eight years he presided at Seville, caused Seville, and at all its branches. For hard as the inquisitors 2,592 persons to be burned alive, to say nothing of some 35,000 worked at Seville, they could not get through the long lists of condemned to various other punishments short of death, but illuspersons in all parts of Spain who were accused to them as short-trating how that the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel. comers in the faith; and branch courts were formed at other When the Reformation began to be preached, the work of the places, under the superintendence of the Dominican friars. Inquisition increased; and several hundreds of persons, in

On the 2nd of January, 1481, the chief bureau at Seville various parts of Spain, were annually burned alive in conseopened its commission, and by the 8th of the same month six quence. But not in Spain only did the Inquisition work for persons had suffered death at the stake for conscience' sake. The the devil. In her colonies, especially in South America and testimony on which Jews were condemned would be simply ludi. Mexico, the hateful ensign was set up, and the Indians who crous, had it not been so terrible in its effect. An author, to escaped the cruelty of the colonists as governors, experienced whom the writer is indebted for many of the facts here men the rigorous punishments of them as religionists, and destroyed tioned, says :—“It was considered good evidence of the fact (i.e. themselves in large numbers rather than fall into their hands. Judaism) if the prisoner wore better clothes or cleaner linen on It is wonderful that there was not any actual rebellion against the Jewish Sabbath than on the other days of the week; if he the Spanish Inquisition, which continued, on the basis settled had no fire in his house the preceding evening; if he sat at by Torquemada, till 1781. During the three centuries of its table with Jews, or ate the meat of certain animals, or drank a existence it is computed to have burned 31,912 persons; to have certain beverage held much in estimation by them; if he washed burned in effigy 17,659; and to have punished in other ways a corpse in warm water, or when dying turned his face to the 291,450 more. Yet there was not any uprising against it. wall; or, finally, if he gave Hebrew names to his children, a Men hated but feared a tribunal of which the spies were all provision most whimsically cruel, since by a law of Henry II. around, even in the bosom of the family, and which dealt its he was prevented under severe penalties from giving them blows go secretly and suddenly, and with such destructive effect. Christian names.” Of course, such testimony being accepted, Though after 1781 human sacrifices ceased to be offered, the the number of the condemned was legion; and by the beginning Inquisition itself continued to exist till 1813, when it was formof November, in the first year of the Spanish Inquisition's exist- allý abolished by the Cortes, and it has not been revived on any ence, there had perished by fire in Seville no less than 298 | permanent basis since. persons.

Imperfect as this sketch of so great a subject must necessarily The executions, which took place at a permanent stake-yard be, enough perhaps has been shown to explain the reason why of stone, were attended with all the circumstances which could the Netherlanders resolved to shed their last drop of blood lend horror to the scene, and heighten, for sake of the example, rather than suffer the Spanish Inquisition to be established the sufferings of the condemned. On a given day appointed by among them; and why the English, under Elizabeth, were stang the Inquisition, usually one on which there was an edifying into a frenzy of courage at mere sight of the Armada, which was number of sinners to be roasted, a solemn procession was formed intended not only to effect the conquest of their country in in the court-yard of the prison whence the prisoners set out to behalf of the worst bigot of his day (Philip II.), but to implant their doom. Priests went before and after, singing dirges, and what was inseparable from the power of that evil king-the in the midst walked the prisoners ; those who were

to die being authority of the devilish tribunal which sat at Seville and dressed in distinctive and fantastic robes; those who were to Valladolid,

and performed in open day, and in the sight of God witness the sufferings of their friends, and after supping full of and man, acts at which one must think even a fallen angel would horrors to be led back again to prison, in different coloured have

blushed with shame, and from which the devil himself robes. On arriving at the execution-ground they found the wood might have shrunk.

THE UNIVERSITIES.—III.

statics, optics, Newton, and astronomy. An interval of about

ten days then elapses to allow of the examination of the papers CAMBRIDGE.-I.

in these subjects, and a list is then issued of the candidates who We purpose in this, and another article which will follow, to have satisfied the examiners. Those only whose names appear give our readers some slight sketch of the University of Cam- in this list are admitted to the five days' examination, which bridge, and of its mode of proceeding to degrees, coupled with a embraces all the higher branches of mathematics. The marks few hints on the general course, and the method of passing obtained in both examinations are added together to determine through its curriculum with the least possible expense. Our the order of those who pass in mathematical honours, and obtain remarks will form, so far as our space will allow, a brief prac- the degree of B.A. either as wranglers (first class), senior optimes tical guide to the student who desires to obtain from this Uni- (second class), or junior optimes (third class). versity the degree of B.A., as well as to candidates for the A student who goes up to Cambridge with a fair knowledge of "non-gremial" examinations, as they are called, for boys and mathematics can scarcely fail to pass this examination by merely young men, and the examinations for women, which this Uni. following and using the lectures of his college. But to obtain versity has been the first to institute.

a good place it is almost absolutely necessary to have the assistLet us first of all distinguish between the colleges and the ance of a private tutor, in undergraduate language called "a University of the former there are seventeen, and these coach.” To any one considering the question of expense this together form the University, which has its own proper officers will be a serious drawback, and more will therefore be said on selected from the resident members of the colleges. It is neces- the subject under the head of " tuition.” Suffice it here to say sary, therefore, for a student, first of all, to become a member that, starting with a fair knowledge of Eaclid, algebra, trigoof a college, and then on going into residence he will matriculate nometry, and perhaps a little conic sections, a man of ordias a member of the University. To become a member of a nary ability may reasonably expect to place himself, by the aid college, it is necessary to produce a certificate, signed by some of the college lectures alone, amongst the senior optimes. At Cambridge M.A., to the effect that he believes the candidate to St. John's and Trinity the college lectures are said to be sufbe a person qualified, “both as to learning and moral cha- ficient to place a man, by hard work on his own part, amongst racter," to be a member of the college. At St. John's and the wranglers. Some years ago it was believed that the degree Trinity there is also an entrance examination. This, of course, obtained by just passing into the junior optimes was the easiest is only intended to exclude such as are not up to the standard of all. Happily, the tendency lately has been to make this of the lectures delivered in the college. At some colleges also much more difficult. The examination for the classical tripos the baptismal certificate is required.

is held in the latter half of February, and consists of papers in It is advisable that the student should decide, either before Greek and Latin, prose and verse, composition, translation from or immediately after commencing residence, as to the course of the standard Greek and Latin authors, and ancient history. reading which he intends to pursue. He may take his degree The list of those who pass is arranged in three classes, accord. either in honours or in the ordinary examination. If he decide ing to the number of marks obtained by each student. This for the former, he will pass the previous examination after one tripos is of much more recent date than the mathematical, and year, and there will lie open to him the mathematical, classical, until lately did not entitle to a degree. To take a good place moral science, natural science, and law triposes. The examina- in it, it is absolutely necessary to have undergone a thoroughly tion for each of these is held once in the year; and the whole of good classical training and grounding while at school. For the the student's readings should be specially arranged with a view mathematical tripos a man may prepare himself by diligent to the final examination. On this part of the subject we shall "coaching” after going into residence, but this cannot be done make a few more remarks further on. If he decide for the in the case of the classical. It will be useless for any to attempt ordinary degree, he will-according to the new scheme issued it who have not a sound groundwork of Greek and Latin knowby the Council in May, 1865, and recently put into operation, ledge before entering the University. The examination ranges have to pass three examinations

over the whole field of classical literature, and its object is to i. The previous examination, or "little-go," about the end of test the knowledge rather than the memory of the candidate. the first year of residence.

It is with a view to this that the pieces are seleoted, and it free' ii. The general examination at the end of the second year. quently happens that students of very extensive reading have iii. The special examination at the end of the third year. not previously seen more than one-half of the pieces set. Here,

The student's choice will, in some cases, be guided by the as in the mathematical, and indeed in all the honour triposes, question of expense. For the ordinary or poll degree it is only private tuition will be found necessary to ensure a good place. necessary to reside from October in one year to the following The examination for the moral science tripos (which was estaMay two years. This is the shortest possible time, inasmuch as blished as recently as 1851) is held in November, and embraces the University requires a residence of nine terms (of which there moral, mental, and political philosophy, logic, history, jurispruare three in each year) before granting the degree of B.A. dence, and political economy. This tripos, in contradistinc

For honours, on the other hand, although the number of terms tion to the classical, requires no school training, and students required by the University is the same, yet the residenco cannot will therefore start more on a level with their competitors. be less than three years, on account of the times at which the To it is appended a pass examination in moral philosophy, hisexaminations are held ; and the time can only be made thus tory, and political economy, which also, with the three classes short by going into residence in January, whereas the generality of the tripos, entitles to the degree of B.A. The natural of students go into residence in October, and the course of college science tripos was also instituted in 1851, and its examination lectures is framed, reckoning that as the commencement of the embraces chemistry, mineralogy, geology, botany, and zoology. academic year. The student, therefore, who goes into residence of course it is obvious that when so vast a field of study is at any other time does so under considerable disadvantage. On included in one examination, only general principles and their the subject of terms, it may be sufficient to say that there are application can be expected of the student. The examination, three in the course of the year : the Michaelmas or October which is held in December, is made as practical as possible by term, from October 1 to December 16; the Lent term, from requiring the candidates to analyse certain submitted specimens January 13 to the Friday before Palm Sunday; the Easter or from the various departments. The museums and college laboMay term, from the Friday after Easter Monday to the last ratories will be found of great service. The last honour tripos Tuesday but one in June. To keep any term the student must which we have to notice is that of the law. The examination reside in college or in a lodging-house licensed by the University, for this is held in December, and embraces Roman, English, and and must dine in hall and attend chapel during two-thirds of the International Law, English History, and English Constitutional above specified periods.

Law. This tripos entitles to the degree of B.L., or Bachelor of We have now to make a few general remarks upon the honour Laws, and it is, of course, invaluable to those whose destiny is triposes and the examinations for the ordinary degree. The the profession of the law, enabling them to prepare themselves examination for the mathematical tripos commerces on the first while at Cambridge for their future reading, and without any Toesday after December 30th, and is divided into "the three unnecessary waste of time to pass from the degree of B.L. to days " and " the five days." The former is the more elementary, that of M.L. and LL.D. At the present time the study has and embraces Euclid, arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry, I received additional encouragement by the foundation of Law and the elementary parts of conics, statics, dynamics, hydro- | Scholarships at St. John's College. VOL. III.

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We have thus passed in review all the honour triposes. We in the practical application of mechanics and hydro-mechanics, have now to consider the ordinary or poll examination, which heat, electricity, and magnetism. confers, probably, as many degrees as all the triposes put to It will be necessary for the student to have previously gether. The scheme which we have to describe is a new one, attended a course of lectures by the professor of that subject in only recently come into operation, and the change has been which he purposes to take his degree. These are the various made with a view to rendering the course of education more methods by which a student may attain the object of his resicomprehensive, and enabling the student to prepare himself dence at Cambridge. In our next ve shall consider the general during his last year of residence for that occupation or profes- subject of expense, under which tuition will be included, and sion to which he is destined. To take this, which is called the give some account of the various emoluments and rewards Poll degree, the student will have to pass, as we have mentioned which the University and colleges hold out for the encourage above, three examinations. The first, or “ Previous Examina- ment of successful competitors. tion," occurs about the end of the first year of residence. This is required of all, whether candidates for honours or for the ordinary degree. But the former are required to pass in what LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XLIV. are called " Additional Subjects,” as well as in the ordinary

CROSS MULTIPLICATION. subjects, which are common to all, and consist of the following, viz. :

9. A METHOD much used in practice by workmen in finding (1.) The accidence of Greek and Latin Grammar.

areas, is called Cross Multiplication. In thcory it is the same (2.) One book or more of some Latin classic.

as the method of duodecimals, but the operation is arranged in (3.) The same of some Greek classic.

a rather different form. (4.) One of the four Gospels in the original Greek.

The dimensions used are:-A foot; is of a foot, which is an (5.) Paley's " Evidences of Christianity.”

inch (sometimes also called a prime); 1s of a prime, called a (6.) Euclid I., II., III., VI. 1-6.

second ; t of a second, called a third." Primes, seconds, and (7.) Arithmetic.

thirds, etc., are denoted by one, two, or three, etc., accents It is obviously necessary that the student should have some respectively written above the numbers, and a little to the right. knowledge of these before going into residence. The additional Thus, 5 feet 2 inches (or primes) 4 seconds and 25 thirds subjects for those who intend to graduate in honours are would be written (8.) Elementary Algebra.

5 ft. 2' 4" 25". (9.) Elementary Trigonometry.

EXAMPLE.—(1.) Find the area of a rectangular board 12ft. 7 in. (10.) Elementary Mechanics.

long and 4 ft. 3 in. wide. Of this examination it may be enough to say that, as it is

12 ft. 7 옛 intended for all alike, the standard in the ordinary subjects is

4 ft. necessarily low, the chief difficulty being found in the Grammar paper. The standard in the Additional Subjects is, of course,

1 higher; and it is important to remember that a minimum of marks must be obtained in every paper, or the candidate will

53 sq. ft. 57 not pass. After this examination, candidates for honours are The reason of the above process will be seen by exhibiting it not called upon again by the University until the time of their in the following form :tripos. But for poll men the General Examination occurs about

12 ft. 7 = 12 ft. + 1 ft. the end of the second year of residence. The subjects are-

4 ft. 3' = 4 ft. + Is ft. (1.) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles in Greek.

Now, first * multiplying the multiplicand by 4 feet, we get(2.) One of the Latin classics. (3.) One of the Greek classics.

4 ft. * ' ft. if sq. ft. = 2 sq. ft. • is sq. ft.

and 4 ft. x 12 ft. = 48 sq. ft. (4.) Elementary Algebra. (5.) Elementary Mechanics.

Adding these together, we get(6.) Elementary Hydrostatics.

(1) 50 sq. ft. + is sq. ft., or 50 4 square feet. (7.) English Proge Composition.

Again, multiplying the multiplicand by is feet, we get(8.) Latin Prose Composition.

i's ft. x 1 ft. 14. sq. ft. = 1 sq. ft. + Il sq. ft. The last two papers, however, are not compulsory, but the and it ft. * 12 ft. = 3 sq. ft. marks obtained in them are added in to the sum total, which Adding these last together, we getdetermines the order in the list. This, when published, is

(2) 3 sq. ft. + to sq. ft. + il sq. ft. or 3 1' 9" square feet. divided into four classes, the names being arranged alphabeti

Adding (1) and (2) together, which must give the whole area, cally.

we getAfter passing this examination there lie open to the student

53 sq. ft. + 1 sq. ft. + 1. sq. ft., five different subjects in which he may obtain his B.A. degree

which is 53 5' 9'' sq. ft. i.e., in theology, law, moral, natural or mechanical science ;

5 here are of a square foot, and the University desires, in thus extending their range of the

that is, is x 144, or 5 x 12 square inches. final or, as it is called, Special Examination, to enable a man to

gis of a square foot, or 9 square inches. read in his last year those subjects which may be most useful to Hence, to reduce the square primes and seconds in the prohim in after life. This examination is held at the end of the duct to square inches, multiply the primes by 12, and add the third year of residence; and the list, when published, is divided seconds to the product. into two classes, of which the first only is arranged in order of

Hence the result is 53 square feet 69 square inches. merit.

10. It will be seen from the above that feet x feet give The theological branch consists of papers in

(square) feet, feet x primes give (square) primes, feet x seconds (1) A book of the Old Testament in English.

(square) seconds, and so on. Primes X primes give (square) (2) One of the Gospels in Greek.

seconds, primes X seconds (square) thirds, seconds X seconds (3) Two of the Epistles in Greek.

give (square) fourths, and so on. (4) The History of the Church of England down to 1688. The moral science branch is divided into the three heads of the denomination of the product is got by adding together the

Hence we see that, in multiplying any denominations together, moral philosophy, history, and political economy; and the can accents placed above each number which we multiply, observing didate must pass in one of these heads.

that the numbers expressing feet have no accent or index above The law branch consists of papers in

them. (1) Justinian's Institutes.

The above remarks will sufficiently explain the following (3) Lord Mackenzie on Roman Law, (3) Malcolm Kerr's abbreviated edition of Blackstone.

Rule for Cross Multiplication.-- Place the several terms of the The natural science branch is divided into four heads, in one We speak here, for shortness, of multiplying feet by feet; but let of which the student must pass-viz., chemistry, geology, botany, the reader refer to, and bear in mind, the observation following Art. 7, and zoology. The mechanical science branch consists of papers in Lesson XXII., Vol. I., page 380.

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