Madagascar, contains about 900 square miles, and has a popu- to the hills which border the valley of the Nile on the west. lation of upwards of 100,000. Mauritius, belonging to Great Eastward of that river, and stretching to the shores of the Red Britain, is about 115 miles north-east of Bourbon, contains Sea, are the deserts of Egypt and Nubia, high plateaus traversed about 708 square miles, and has a population of 310,050. At by ranges of mountains, in which are formed the torrent beds tached to it in government are the Seychelles or Mahe Islands, which create the annual inundations, and fertilise the valleys of the Amirante Islands to the north of Madagascar, and Rodri- those countries. In the south of Africa, between the parallels gues, about 300 miles east of the Mauritius. The Comoro 22° and 27° S. lat., is the Kalahari Desert, a vast elevated Islands are situated in the Mozambique Channel, Pemba Island plateau 3,500 feet above the level of the sea, from which the and Zanzibar Island off the coast of Zanguebar, and the island of ground slopes on either side towards the sea. Socotra about 130 miles east of Cape Guardafui, being about 80 Lakes.-In Central Africa lies the great basin of Lake Tchad, miles long, and having a surface of nearly 1,200 square miles. several thousand square miles in surface, varying with the

Capes, Headlands, and Promontories.- The capes, headlands, seasons, and receiving some small tributary streams. This lake and promontories of Africa form some of its most remarkable is surrounded by the kingdoms-if kingdoms they may be called features. On the north is Cape Ceuta (the ancient Abyla), a -of Kanem, Bornou, Baghirmi or Begharmi, and Waday. It is high promontory jutting out into the sea, and terminating in the centre of a rich, fertile, and prosperous country. To the perpendicular rocks; this promontory lies directly opposite the east of Lake Tchad is Lake Fittre; and near Timbuctoo, on the rock of Gibraltar (the ancient Calpe), in the Strait of Gibraltar; west, is a small sheet of water through which the main stream and these two rocky headlands, flanking the water-way from the of the Niger runs, called Lake Debo or Dibbie. In Dahomey land-encircled Mediterranean Sea into the open expanse of the are the small lakes Avon and Denham. In the southern part Atlantic Ocean, were denominated by the ancients the Pillars of of the continent are Lake Ngami, Lake Dilolo, Lake Nyassa, Hercules. In the Mediterranean, eastward from these, are Ras- Lake Shirwa, and Lake Shuia-all discovered or explored by al-Krun, Cape Blanco, and Cape Bon; and westward and south- Livingstone. On the equator, and to the south of it on the ward, in the Atlantic, are Cape Spartel, Cape Cantin, Cape Nun, eastern side, are Lakes Victoria Nyanza, Albert Nyanza, and Cape Bojador, Cape Blanco, Cape Verd, Cape Roxo, Cape Sierra Tanganyika, the first discovered by Captain Speke, Tanganyika Leone, Cape Palmas, Cape Three - Points, Cape Formosa, all by Captains Speke and Burton, and Albert Nyanza by Sir north of the equator; south of this line are Cape Lopez, Cape Samuel Baker. In Abyssinia is Lake Dembea. Negro, Cape Frio, and Cape Voltas; while doubling the Cape of Rivers.--The principal river in Africa is the celebrated Nile ; Good Hope, are to be seen False Cape, Cape Agulhas, Cape it consists at first of two great arms called the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Natal, and others on the south coast of Africa. Ascending the Blue Nile, fed by head-streams that rise in Abyssinia, and the east coast, towards the equator, occur Cape Corrientes, Cape St. Bahr-el-Abiad, or White Nile, which derives its waters from Sebastian, Cape Delgado, and a variety of other capes called by Central Africa. It was thought when the Victoria Nyanza was the common name of Ras, which signifies head (originally from discovered by Speke that the great reservoir that supplied the the Hebrew), just as cape signifies head, from the Latin caput. Nile had been discovered. It was, however, found by Sir Samuel In the Red Sea, the entrance to which is by the strait of Bab-el- Baker, a few months after, that the Nile issued from Lake Albert mandeb, there are a variety of capes known by the same appel. Nyanza, the Victoria Nyanza emptying itself into this sheet of lation, Ras, but they are too minute for a general view; and of water by a short broad stream called the Somerset. We must the Isthmus of Suez, common to Africa and Asia, we have await the return of Livingstone from his voluntary exile in the formerly had occasion to speak.

heart of Africa to learn whether the Albert Nyanza is the The mountains of Africa, as far as the interior is concerned, fountain-head of the great river of Egypt, or whether, as able ure scarcely known. In the northern part of this continent are and skilful geographers have surmised, its ultimate source is to the celebrated mountains, long known by the name of Atlas, l be found in Lake Tanganyika and the streams that run to swell and as having originated the name Atlantic, still applied to the its volume from the highlands that divide its basin from the surrounding ocean. These mountains run through the Barbary basins of the Congo and Zambesi. The course of the Nile may states, and separate them from the Great Desert; they vary in be estimated at from 2,500 to 3,000 miles in length. The chief elevation from 3,000 or 4,000 to 11,400 feet, the latter being rivers of Eastern and Southern Africa, following the coast from among the highest points, and situated near the city of Marocco. I Cape Guardafui, are the Juba, Pangany, Zambesi, Limpopo, Ele Through Abyssinia runs another range, separated by deep phant River, Great Orange River, Coanza, Congo, and Gaboon. valleys and gorges into ranges, groups, and sometimes isolated on the west coast of Africa are the following rivers of considerable peaks, of which the most elevated rise to the height of 15,000 note, and no small value in this part of the continent:- The feet above the level of the sea.

Senegal of 1,000 miles, and the Gambia of the same length, In Western Africa are to be found the Kong Mountains; both watering the district Senegambia, whose appellation is and in Eastern Africa, the mountains Kilimanjaro, Mfumbiro, formed by their united names; and the Quorra, Joliba, or and Kenia, each of which is from 10,000 to 20,000 feet high, Niger, about 2,300 miles in length, rising in Nigritia or Soudan, and connected with vast interior mountain ranges, called by and falling into the Bight of Benin. some the Mountains of the Moon, and by others the Blue Moun With this lesson we give our readers a map of Egypt, a tains, the whole forming a rampart round the outer edge of the country to which the attention of the public has been lately inland basin which contains the great equatorial lakes. Within directed by the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to the the limits of Cape Colony there are ranges of mountains rising Viceroy of Egypt in 1869. Our next lesson will be accomfrom the coast towards the interior in a series of precipitous panied by a map of Africa, showing all the latest discoveries on steeps and plateaus, that' form a succession of what may be record in that continent to the present time. termed gigantic steps. These terraces, with the mountain slopes that edge them towards the south, are three in number, namely, North: The Mediterranean.


False Bay, Cape of Good Hope. the Swellendam Mountains, near the coast, of which Table Moun- South : South Atlantic Ocean and Algoa Bay, Cape Colony. tain, 3,582 feet high, forms a part; the Swarte, or Black Moun Indian Ocean.

Delagoa Bay, N. of Natal. tains, further inland; and a third range in the interior, which is East : Red Sea, Indian Ocean. Sofala Bay, Sofala. known by different names in different parts of the chain, being West: The Atlantic Ocean. Mozambique Channel, E, of Sofala. called the Nieuwveld Mountains in the west, Sneewbergen in SUMMARY OF OCEANS, SEAS,

Gulf of Aden, S.E. of Red Sea. she centre, and Drakensberg in the east. Some peaks of the


SUMMARY OF STRAITS, Drakensberg attain a height of 10,000 feet, and form the Atlantic, W. and S. of Africa. Gibraltar, Mediterranean. culminating points of Southern Africa.

Indian Ocean, E. of Africa, Bab-el-Mandeb, Red Sea. Table-lands, Plains, Deserts.-The table-lands, plains, and Red Sen, E. of Africa.

SUMMARY OF ISTHMUSES. deserts in this continent are immense and unexplored, perhaps Mediterranean Sea, N. of Africa.

Suez, between Mediterranean Sea unexplorable! Sahara, or the Great Desert, is a vast plateau, Gulf of Sidra, Mediterranean.

and Red Sea, connecting Asin varying in elevation from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in height, with Gulf of Guinea, S. of Guinea.

and Africa, and crossed by rail. valleys and oases, or fertile tracts of land, intervening at distant Bight of Benin, Gulf of Guinea.

way and the great Suez Canal. intervals, to relieve the general monotony and sterility. Its Bight of Biafra, Gulf of Guinea. SUMMARY OF ISLANDS, length is about 3,000 miles, and its breadth in some places ex. St. Helena Bay, Cape Colony. The Azores, W. of Portugal. ceeds 1,000 miles; it stretches from the shores of the Atlantic Saldanha Bay, Cape Colony. Madeira, w. of Marocco.

Porto Santo, N.E. of Madeira.

SUMMARY OF MOUNTAINS. Lit, Trans. :-"I am afraid lest bad deeds my may be discovered all." The Canaries, S. of Madeira, Atlas Mountains, Marocco.

Id. Trans. :-"I am afraid that all my bad deeds are discovered.” The Cape Verd Is., W. of Cape Verd. Mountains of the Moon, or Blue With ut: Ascension I., S. of Sierra Leone. Mountains, Central Africa. St. Helena, S.E. of Ascension. Kong Mountains, S. of Soudan.

“Omnes labores te excipere video; timeo ut sustineas."--Cicero. Fernando Po, Bight of Biafra, Swellendam Mountains, C. Colony.

Lit. Trans. :—" All labours thee to undertake I see; I fear that thou Prince Island, S. of Fernando Po. Swarte Mountains, Cape Colony.

may support." St. Thomas, S. of Prince Island. Nieuwveld, Sneewbergen, and Dra

ia. Trans. : -"I see that you undertake all labours ; I fear you will Annabon, S. of St. Thomas. kensberg Mountains, Ć. Colony. not be able to support them." Madagascar, E. of Sofala and Mo


With dative:
Bourbon, E. of Madagascar.
Sahara or Great Desert.

Nostræ causæ nihil nos timere."-Quintilian.
Libyan Desert.

Lit. Trans, :-"For our cause nothing we fear."
Mauritius, N.E. of Bourbon.
Kalahari Desert.

Id. Trans. :-“We (say that we) fear not at all on our account."
Rodrigues, E. of Mauritius.
The Comoro Is., N.W. of Mada SUMMARY OF LAKES.


Tchad, Bornou, Nigritia or Soudan. Angustiæ, -arum, f., Conor, dep. 1, I endea pertussum (dep. 1), I The Amirante Is., N.E. of Mada- Fittre, Waday, Nigritia.


make trial of (E.R.exgascar. Dembea, Abyssinia.

periment, experience). The Seychelle Is., N.E.of Amirante. Albert Nyanza, Equatorial African Angustiæ itineris, the De suo ac legionis peVictoria Nyanza, Equatorial Africa.

narrow road. Socotra, E. of Cape Guardafui.

riculo, concerning (on Objicio, 3, I cast in the

Circumvenio (circum account of) his own scay of, I oppose to. Tanganyika, Equatorial Africa,

and venio), 4, I sur peril and the peril of Res fruinentaria, corn SUMMARY OF CAPES. Nyassa, South Africa.

round (E. R. circum the legion.

for horses and men, Ras-al-Krun, Tunis. Shirwa, South Africa.


Experior, experiri, ex- Supporto, 1, I carry. Bon, Tunis.

Ngami, South Africa,
Spartel, Marocco.

Bojador, W. of Africa.

Nile, Equatorial Africa, Abyssinia, 1. Cæsar timebat tantæ magnitudinis flumíni exercitum objicere. 2. Blanco, W. of Africa,

and Egypt.

Cæsar conandum atque experiendum judicat. 3. Cæsar, etsi timebat Verd, Senegambia. Zambesi, Eastern Africa.

tantæ magnitudinis flumini exercitum objicere, conandum tamen atque Palmas, Guinea. Limpopo, Eastern Africa.

experiendum judicat. 4. Neque timerent ne circumvenirentur. 5. Three Points, Guinea.

Great Orange River, Southern Non se hostem vereri dicebant. 6. Angustias itineris timere se diceNegro, Benguela.


bant. 7. Ut satis commode supportari res frumentaria timere dice. Good Hope, False Bay,

Coanza River, Western Africa (S.). bant. 8. Non se hostem timere, sed angustias itindris, et ut satis Agulhas, E. of Cape of Good Hope. Congo River, Western Africa (S.). commode posset supportari res frumentaria timere dicebant. 9. Salva Natal, Caffraria.

Gaboon River, Western Africa (s.). est navis, ne time. 10. De Republicà valde timeo. 11. De suo de Corrientes, Sofala.

Niger, Western Africa (N.). legionibus periculo nihil timebat. 12. Non times ne locum perdas. Delgado, Zanguebar.

Gambia, Western Africa (N.). 13. Timuit ne non succederet.
Guardafui, Ajan.
Senegal, Western Africa (N.).


1. I fear that thou hast lost thy labour. 2. I am afraid the house LESSONS IN LATIN.--XXXIII.

will fall. 3. I fear corn will not be brought into the city. 4. The

general feared that his army would not come. 5. They fear for their DEPONENT VERBS (continued)-CONSTRUCTION OF TIMEO. beautiful little girl. 6. Concerning thy fortune, I am not at all afraid.

7. The king and his generals are afraid of being surrounded. 8. I HAVE spoken of vereor and metuo : I will say a few words Cicero judges that he must make a trial. 9. I fear he will not be able on timeo. Timeo (timēre, timui, 2) is given in the dictionaries to make a trial. as signifying I fear. Is it, then, of the same meaning with tereor and metuo ? Not exactly. Timere represents a state

DEPONENT VERBS.-FOURTH CONJUGATION. of mind, an habitual state of mind, a state of mind habitual

EXAMPLE.---Blandior, I fatter. because natural, the state of mind which is designated timid;

Chief Parts : Blandior, blandiri, blanditus sum. hence timere has for its primitive import to be timid or afraid.

PRESENT TENSE. Accordingly timere denotes mental solicitude, to be anxious, to Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participles, be afraid, to be apprehensive. Metuěre points out a more Sing. Blandior, I Blandiar, 1

Blandiri, Blandiens, active, more decided, and more formidable sentiment. There flattor, etc. may flatter.

to flatter, flattering. is between metučre and timere the difference that there is

Blandīris. Blandiāris. Blandīre, or blanbetween the English to be afraid and to fear--we are afraid

ditor, fatter

thou, etc. harm has come to our friends, and we fear the lightning.

Blanditur. Blandiatur. Blanditor. Hence we may understand these words, metui cupiunt, metuique Plu. Blandimur. Blandiamur. (diminor. timent, they wish to be feared, and they are afraid to be feared. Blandimini. Blandiamini. Blandimini, blanWhen I add that the words are used of tyrants, you will see Blandiuntur, Blandiantur. Blandiuntor. that they are very descriptive.



Sing. Blandiebar, I was Blandirer,

flattering, etc. Accusative of object. Instead of an accusative, timeo, like

might flatter.

Blandiebāris. Blandirēris. many other verbs, may have as its object a member of a sen Blandiebatur. Blandiretur. tence, or a dependent and imperfect sentence ; ne and ut; with Plu. Blandiebamur. Blandiremur. dative of object for which or whom you are afraid.

Blandiebamini. Blandiremini. Accusative :

Blandiebantar. Blandirentur.

FIRST FUTURE TENSE. "Si coactus esset respicere ac timere oppidanos." -The Gallic War. Lit. Trans. "If he had been compelled to regard and fear the

Sing. Blandiar, I shall

Blandita. Blanditùtown's people."

flatter, etc.

rum esse, rus, on Blandiēris.

to be on the point Id. Trans. :-"If he were compelled to regard and fear the town's Blandietur. people."

the point of flatterPlu, Blandiemur.

of flatter. ing. Here you see the literal translation and the idiomatic are Blandiemini.

ing. very nearly the same showing you that the Latin and the

English may exactly correspond in both word and order.

Sing. Blanditus sum, Blandītus sim, I

Blanditus, With a dependent member :

I have flat- may have flatterod,

having " Hæc quo sint eruptura timeo." --Cicero.

tored, etc. etc.

flattered. Lit. Trans. :-" These things where they may break out I am afraid."

Blanditus es. Blanditus sis.
Id. Trans. :-" I fear what may be the issue of these things."

Blanditus est. Blanditus sit.
Plu. Blanditi sumus. Blanditi simus.

Blanditi estis. Blanditi sitis. " Timeo ne malefacta mea sint inventa omnia.”—Plautus.

Blanditi sunt. Blanditi sint.

With ne :




Indicative. Subjunctive.

Advolo, 1, I Ay to. Emetior, emetiri, e-Molior, 4, to attempt, Sing. Blanditus eram, Blanditus essem.

Commoditas, -ātis, f., mensus sum, 4, to undertake. Blanditus eras. Blanditus esses.


out, pass Proficiscor, proficisci, Blanditus erat. Blanditus esset.

Conservo, 1, I preserve. through.

profectus sum, 3, I Plu. Blanditi eramus. Blanditi essemus,

Consulto, advisedly. Expergiscor, experrec set out. Blanditi eratis. Blanditi essetis.

Effugio, 3, I fty tus, 3, I awake, arise. Specto, 1, I behold. Blanditi erant. Blanditi essent.


Fortuito, by chance, Tenebræ, -arum, 1,
Ementior, 4, to lie Gigno, 3, I beget.

darkness, Sing. Blandītus ero, I shall have flattered, etc.

openly, invent. Id agit, aims at, makes Ubertas, -ātis, L., richBlanditus eris.

it its object.

ness, productiveness, Blanditus erit.

Plu. Blanditi erimus.
Blanditi eritis.

1. Ridiculi sunt qui, quod ipsi experti non sunt, id docent cæteros. Blanditi erant.

2. Omne animal se ipsum diligit ac, simulatque ortum est, id agit ut

se conservet. 3. Ad hominum commoditates et usus tantam rerum GERUNDS.

ubertatem natura largita est, ut, ea quæ gignuntur, donata consulto Gen. Blandiendi, of Nattering.

nobis, non fortuito nata videantur. 4. Herodotus multas terras Dat. Blandiendo, to flattering. 1. Blanditum, to flatter.

emensus, multas quidem res prodigiosas narravit, sed eas non ipse Acc. Blandiendum, flattering. 2. Blandītu, to be flattered.

ementitus est, sed alii ex quibus audivit. 5. Jam per tres menses Ab. Blandiendo, by flattering.

opperti eramus amicum, quum nobis ejus mors nuntinta est. 6. Re. Like blandior, conjugate these deponents of the fourth con- pente Romanis Sulla exortus, et atrocissimum bellum civile exorsus jugation :-Largior, largiri, largitus sum, to make largesses or est. 7. Sapiens nunquam malis hominibus blandietur, nunquam aliquid liberal gifts, bestow; montior, mentiri, mentitus sum, to lie; falsi ementietur, nunquam aliis calamitatem molietur. 8. Si celeriter experior, experiri, expertus sum, to try by experience; partior, hostem adoriēmur, non est dubium quin brevi tempore urbe potituri partiri, partitus sum, to divide.

simus. 9. Simulatque sol ortus est, proficiscemur. 10. Cave ne blaz

diare malis hominibus. 11. Hostes adrolaverunt urbe potītum. 12. VOCABULARY.

Numerus æqualis facilis est partītu. 13. Sole oriente, profecti sumus. Abutor, abuti, abusus Medicus, -i, m., a phy jugation oreris, orr. 14. Coortå sævå tempestate, omnes nautas ingens pavor occuparit. gum, 3, to misuse sician,

tur, orímur; also 15. Solem oriturum maximâ cum voluptate spectamus. (with abl.).

Moror, oris, m., sad the compounds, ex Observe that sole oriente is in the ablative case. You see Accedo, 3, I approach. ness, grief.

copt adorior, I seize, the words are not, in construction, connected with any other Ægrotus, -a, -um, sick. Necesse est (with inf. attempt, which fol. Aliquando, some time. or subj.), it is neces lows the4th

through words. Words thus disconnected are said to be in the absolute Animadverto, -ere, -ti, sary.


(absolutus, free, disconnected) case; and the absoluto case in sum, 3, I remark, at- Opporior, opperiri, op. Persepe, rory often. Latin is the ablative. This case is commonly called "the tend to.

peritus, and op- Potior, potiri, potitus ablative absolute.” The ablative absolute construction comCalor,-oris, m., warmth. pertus sum, 4, to sum, 4 (with abl.), prises a noun and a participle, as in the instance sole oriente. Coorior, 4, I arise, break wait for.

to get master (or pos. Coorta, tempestate offers another ablative absolute. To this out. Oppleo,-ere,-evi,-etum, session) of.

kind of construction the Roman writers were partial. Demolior, 4, I break 2, to fill.

Præloquor, præloqui, down, demolish. Ordior or exordior, or prælocutus sum, 3,

EXERCISE 122.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Eblandior, 4, to obtain diri, orsus sum, 4, I speak before.

1. The sun rising, darkness flies away. 2. With great pleasure do by Mattery.

to begin.

Tandem, at length. I behold the sun when about to rise (fut. part.). 3. A tempest having Exorior, 4, I appear, Orior, oriri, ortus sum, Tergum, n., a back. arisen, our ships were scattered. 4. I will devise (molior) evil to no come forth.

4, to arise (part. ori- Vero after the first one, not even to the bad. 5. Has the sun risen ? 6. The sun will Frons, frontis, f., fore turus; the indicative word of a sentence), rise at eight o'clock. 7. He fell on the enemy suddenly. 8. I will head. presentis conjugated but.

begin my oration. 9. The orator was beginning his oration when the Lætitia, -re, f., gladness. after the third con

judge entered. 10. There is no doubt but you will obtain possession

of your own. 11. As soon as we are born, we move. EXERCISE 119.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

12. All human

beings love themselves, and as soon as they have obtained geods, 1. Frons, oculi, vultus persæpo mentiuntur, oratio vero sæpissime. ought to divide them among each other. 13. He divided his goods 2. Quicquid oritur causam habet a natura. 3. Sol universis eandem among the needy. 14. Many having passed over Britain, are ignorant lucem, eundemque calorem largitur. 4. Quam multi indigni luce how happy and powerful it is. 15. I hope that thou wilt never lie. sunt: et tamen dies orftur. 5. Unde tandem tam repente nobis 16. A storm will arise. 17. All think that a storm is about to arise. exorëris? 6. O milites, si feroci impetu in hostem coorímur, victoria in manibus nostris est! 7. Dum urbem oppugnare adorīmur, hostes

EXERCISES ON ALL THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS OF a tergo nos aggressi sunt. 8. Suo quisque metu pericula metītur,

DEPONENT VERBS. 9. Sapiens et præterita grate recordatur, et presentibus ita potītur,

EXERCISE 123.–LATIN-ENGLISH. ut animadvertat quanta sint ea, quamque jucunda. 10. Cave ne Artes se ipsæ tuentur. 2. Semper miserorum hominum miserehonores eblandiare. 11. Oratores prius quam exordiantur, quædam bimur. 3. Quum ægrotus es, obsequi debes præceptis medici. *: præloquuntur. 12. In omnibus negotiis, prius quam ordiamur, ad. Stulti aliorum vitia cernunt, obliviscuntur suorum,

5. Prima pueri hibenda nobis est præparatio diligens. 13. Omnes cives domos suas

commendatio proficiscitur a modestia. 6. Veremini, O pueri, senec floribus et coronis ornaverant et vestiverant, quia regem opperiebantur. tutem. 7. Fateor, O puer, verum. 8. Miseremini inopum. 9. Dis14. Dum exercitus hostilis urbis domos privatas publicasque demo- cipuli verentor præceptores. 10. Non dubito quin tuum præsidium liebatur, cives maximo morore opplebantur. 15. Quum hostes prædam mihi polliciturus sis. 11. Cum magnâ voluptate intuemur præclara inter se partiebantur, nos vehementissimo impetu eos adoriebamur. virtutis exempla, quæ in historiâ consignata sunt. 12. Quis rescit 16. Dux milites cohortatus est, ut omnia experirentur, quibus urbem quam multi eloquentiâ abutantur? 13. Per multos annos par, frutti obsidione liberarent.

sumus. 14. Omnes cives metųunt ne hostes urbem aggrediantur. 15. EXERCISE 120.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Simulatque experrecti sumus, ad negotia nostra accedimus. 16. Cires, 1. A fierce tempest has arisen. 2. A fierce tempest will arise. 3. libertatem adepti, summå lætitia fruentur. 17. Succurre lapsis. 18

. A fierce tempest is arising. 4. Fierce tempests were rising. 5. A iis quos amare debetis. 20. Si virtutis viam semper sequimur, aditus

Tam audacter cum amico loquere quam tecum. 19. Ne irascimini fierce tempest was arising. 6. The cailors have experienced many labours. 7. The enemies will demolish thy house. 8. I will wait for in coelum aliquando nobis patebit. 21. Munere tuo bene fungere! my sister. 9. My mother waited for me yesterday. 10. They ob- 23. Concordiâ res parvæ crescunt, discordiâ maximæ dilabuntur. 23. tained honours by flattery. 11. Wilt thou obtain honours by flattery?

Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra sequitur, 12. I do not wish to obtain honours by flattery. 13. Before you

EXERCISE 124.-ENGLISH-LATIN. begin, you should apply industry. 14. He obtains possession of the 1. My friend died yesterday. 2. I fear thy friend is abont to die. land. 15. He has obtained possession of all the city. 16. I shall 3. Do not bestow favours on bad boys. 4. God will bestow favours obtain possession of my father's books. 17. Never lie, my child. on the pious. 5. Access to heaven always lies open to good men, 6. Only the bad lie. 19. To lie is wicked. 20. Never will I lie, O father. I fear access to heaven will not lie open to Alexander. 7. How long 21. They lied and were punished. 22. It is disgraceful to lie. 23. did thy

country enjoy

peace? 8. We shall enjoy peace as long as the The sun rises on (dat.) the good and on the bad : so great is God's king's army is in our country.” 9. Hast thou discharged thy duty? goodness. 24. The king bestows honours on his brave soldiers. 25. 10. Do not abuse thy father's favour. 11. I will speak with thee, but He divided his gools between his two sons. 26. Whatever rises from I will not flatter thee. 12. He flattered the king and obtained praise. the earth (tellus, -ūris, f.) comes from God's hand.

13. Will thy son obtain glory? 14. My son has obtained very great



glory. 15. Honour follows distinguished virtue. 16. He promised Pater filium complexus est. 6. Filius patris mortem ultus est. 7. me that he would return, 17. He has returned. 18. No, he will return Rex præmium pollicitus est. 8. Sorori tuæ regina pollicita estne to-morrow. 19. Boys support each other. 20. Boys ought to support præmium 9. Milites cumulatam gloriam adipisci nitentur. 20. each other. 21. I pity and shall pity the wretched. 22. Never forget Mane experrecti sunt, et discessēre. 11. Bene vitæ officiis functi sunt. thy own faults. 23. I shall set out within a few days. 24. When 12. Aristoteles et Zeno præceptorum officiis fancti sunt. 13. Quando wilt thou return? 25. Boys, reverence the aged.

amici tui domum revertent? 14. Heri domum reverterunt. 15. E Observe, that in the ablative absolute construction there are patriâ profecti sunt, et nunquam revertent. 16. Pestis hæc hominum properly two sentences, and consequently two subjects: for in animis nata est (born). 17. Ubi est patria ? 18. Patria mea est

mundus. 19. In animis mortalibus sunt semina innata vitiorum, 20. example, sole oriente, tenebræ diffugiunt; in the words sole oriente Dux cum hostibus congressus est. 21. Quotiescunque duces Anglici there is a subject, namely, sol; and in tenebræ diffugiunt there cum hostibus congressi sunt, semper discessere superiores. 22. Op. is a subject, namely, tenebre. The former sentence is incom- timi cujusque pueri animus maxime parentes suos amat. 23. Boni plete, nevertheless there is a subject in it.

in salutem animæ nituntur. 24. Lacte pueri et puellæ vescuntur. 25. Now it is an element in the ablative absolute construction, Discipuli officiis suis functi sunt. 26. O Deus, miseröre lapsorum. that the subject of the sentence having the verb is not the 27. Succurite pæuperibus. 28. Proprium est stultitiæ nulli prodesse. same as the subject of the imperfect sentence containing the participle. You may see this fact exemplified and illustrated in these instances :


REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS. 1. Senescente luná, ostreæ tabescere dicuntur.

130. TO REDUCE fractions of different denominators to fractions The moon waning, oysters are said to waste away.

having a common denominator. 2. Geryone interempto, Hercules in Italiam venit.

Multiply together each numerator and all the denominators Geryon being slain, Hercules came into Italy.

except its own, and the product will be the required numerator of 3. Sabinis debellatis, Tarquinius triumphans Romam rediit.

each fraction; next, multiply together all the denominators, and The Sabines being subdued, Tarquin in triumph returned to Rome. 4. Chilo, filio victore Olympiæ, præ gaudio exspiravit.

the product will be the required denominator of each fraction ; Chilo, his son BEING conqueror at Olympia, died of joy.

these properly arranged in order will give the answer.

mi 5. Apes, aculeo amisso, statim emori existimantur.



to fractions having a comBees, their sting being lost, are thought to die at once.

7 a mon denominator.

Y It will be noticed from the fourth of the above examples,

Here, a xd xy = ady, that the participle, especially when it would be the participle

c X 6 X Y = boy, are the three numerators. of the verb to be (which is not found in good Latin authors),

and m x 6 xd=bdm, is sometimes omitted.

Also, bxd xy = bdy, is the common denominator.

ady bcy

bdm KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXII. Hence, the reduced fractions are

and Ans.

bdy' bdy bdy EXERCISE 114.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

The reason of this rule is plain, for the reduction consists in 1. The safety of men depends not only on truth, but also on repu- multiplying the numerator and denominator of each fraction into tation. 2. The citizens, having' made a treaty with the enemies, all the other denominators, a process which does not alter the enjoyed peace. 3. By reflection, we comprehend God and the divine mind. 4. We live on milk, flesh, and many other things. 5. Take value of the fractions. (See Art. 121.] fire that you do not avenge yourselves on your enemies. 6. The Romans

131. An integer and a fraction are easily reduced to fractions promised this to the Numidians. 7. The Numidians continued to having a common denominator, by making the former a fraction. haruss the Carthaginians by war. 8. The Romans are about to strive. (See Art. 122.]

EXAMPLE. %. The Romans say that they will strive. 10. The Romans returned the favour with increase. 11. The Romans promised the Numidians,

6 if they would continue to harass the Carthaginians by war, that they would strive to return the favour with increase. 12. No one has lived


b too short a time who has performed a work of perfect virtue. 13.

Here, a and

which are equivalent to

1 Wise men despise the appearances in a dream. 14. As soon as we have arisen, we despise the appearances in a dream. .15. Aristotle,



the fractions having a common denominator. Zeno, and innumerable others, having gone out of their country, never

EXERCISE 15. returned home. 16. There is no plague so detestable, which is not produced by man against man. 17. I am not born for a corner. 18.

1. Reduce

to fractions having a common denominator. This whole world is my country. 19. The seeds of virtue are inborn

1+1 in our nature. 20. Hannibal fought with the Romans in Italy. 21. 2. Reduce and to fractions having a common denomiHannibal, having fought with the Romans, always came off conqueror. nator.

d+h 22. Hannibal, as often as he fought with the Romans in Italy, came off conqueror.

3. Reduce

to fractions having a common denomi.


nator. 1. The mind of every most excellent man chiefly strives after im 4. Reduce b,


and to fractions having a common denominator. mortal glory. 2. The enemies were wearied by the length of the conflict. 3. The enemies, wearied by the length of the conflict, left the (field of) battle. 4. He acquired virtue. 5. In whatever part of the

5. Reduce and

to fractions having a common denominator.

b'a world a good man is, he will be loved by friends. 6. He who has acquired virtue, in whatever part of the world he is, will be loved by us.

6. Reduce

to fractions having a common denominator.

a 56 7. Courage is eager for danger. 8. Courage does not reflect on what it may be about to suffer. 9. Courage is eager for danger, and whither

7. Reduce b, and to fractious having a common denominator. it turns, does not think of what it will suffer. 10. Augustus did not suffer himself to be called a lord. 11. Some animals are destitute of 8. Reduce and to fractions having a common denominator. reason, others use reason. 12. The soul having escaped, the body is

3 worth nothing. 13. The memory of illustrious men, even when dead, 9. Reduce and to fractions having a common denominator. has influence with us. 14. It is worthy of a king to aid the fallen.

a' 4c' 5 15. It is pecnliar to folly to perceive the faults of others and to forget

a 5 8x
16. We ought to do our best to benefit very many persons.

10. Reduce

to fractions having a common denominator. 17. To be angry with those whom we ought to love is wickedness. 18. Friendships, acquaintances, and neighbourhoods contain some pleasure

11. Reduce , , x, and to fractions having a common de(something of pleasure). 19, We understand our advantages better by nominator. being without them, than by enjoying them. 20. What pleasure

and friendships, acquaintances, and neighbourhoods contain, we understand

12. Reduce

to fractions having a common denominator.

a 83 better by being without them, than by enjoying them. 21. Fresh men always succeeded wearied ones.

13. Reduce

and to fractions having a common


denominator. 1. Felicitas virtute nititur. 2. Nititur ne hominibus felicitas? 3.

and to fractions having a common Non, felicitas Deo nititur. 4. Excolere virtutem eniti debemus. 5. denominator.

14. Reduce

- ax + a?

Reduce a and to fractions having a common denominator.




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1 2 3 4 15. Reduce

and to fractions having a com2ab' 360' 4cd' 5de' 6ef mon denominator,

132. To reduce an improper fraction to a whole or mixed quantity.

Divide the numerator by the denominator, the quotient with the remainder in a fractional form is the answer. [See Art. 106.]

133. To reduce a mixed quantity to an improper fraction.

Multiply the integer by the given denominator, and add the given numerator to the product. (See Art. 122.] The sum will be the required numerator; and this placed over the given denominator will form the improper fraction required.

If the sign before the dividing line is all the signs in the numerator must be changed. (See Art. 124.]


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4g +

3. Reduce a + to an improper fraction.


4. Reduce a - to an improper fraction.



h-1 5. Reduce ab to an improper fraction.

a2 + ax + a'

6x + 8 - 1 6. Reduce m + dto an improper fraction.



29 + 8 - 10 a + b

3a + 403

423 + 6ab + 9b 7. Reduce a to an improper fraction.


6. 5

2a + 36

4x + 9x + 1 с

Gay + 3yo

23 --*+ 3

2 - 3 - 2 8. Reduce a +

to an improper fraction,

3a + 2y

x2 - 6x +1

- ax + a

11. 9. Reduce b - to an improper fraction.



3.23 -3. + 3 d-y 10. Reduce a2 + ax + a + to an improper fraction.


to an improper fraction. a + 2a

10.—Die Rofe und die Lilie 25ax - 122* 12. Reduce 3a

Dee ro' zai 80nt dee lee'-l1-ai. 4x +

to an improper fraction. 4a - 3x

Malvina stand mit ihrem Vater ver ciner Cilic, 13. Reduce 1 to an improper fraction,

Mal-vee'-na shtant mit ee'-rem fah'-ter fore i'-ner lee'-II-ai, dee & + a 134. To reduce a compound fraction to a simple one.

unter einem Rosenstrauch blühete. Blendend weiß, wie ein

don'-ter i-nem ro'-zen-shtroud blu"-hai-tai. Blen'-dent vice, vee ine Multiply all the numerators together for a new numerator, and all the denominators for a new denominator,

lichtstrahl, erhob die schöne Blume ihren offnen tuften

¥ýt-shtrahl, err-hope' dee shoʻ-nai bloo'-mai ee'-ren of-nen d&$f'-ten. EXERCISE 17.

den Kelch. Ueber ihr hing eine voll aufgeblühte Fräftige 1. Reduce of

ü"-ber eer hink i-nai fði out"-gai-bla"-tai kref-ti-gai

den kely.
to a simple fraction.
b + 2

Rose, und warf einen röthlichen Sohimmer auf die jarten b +h 2. Reduce to a simple fraction.

ro'-zai, zont varrf i'-nen rö't'-ly-yen shim'-mer ouf dee tsahr'-ten 2a - m

Silberblätter ber Lilie, und To floß auch beiter Blumen 3. Reduce to a simple fraction.

zil”-ber-blet'-ter dair lee®-11-ai, oont zo foss ouch bi--der bloo'.men. 4. Reduce to a simple fraction,

duft in einander.

dooft in ine-an'-der.
- 2 + a2
5. Reduce

to a simple fraction.

O, welch ein schöner Wund! rief Malvina, unt neigte 2:2 + ax + a2

Oh, velý ine shö’-ner boont! reef Mal-vee'-na, ont ni'y-tai 3.02 4x + 1

3x + 4 6. Reduce


to a simple fraction. 22 + 4x - 3

lächelnd ihr Haupt zu ben Blumen, hinab. 1

ley'-yelnt eer houpt tsoo dain blooʻ-men hin-ap'. 7. Reduce of of

to a simple fraction. 8-a

Gs ist der Bund der Unschuld und Liebe! erwiederte 8. What is the value of Saay

Ess ist dair boðnt dair öðn'-shoot dont lee'-bai! err-veer-der-tai 2aay

der Vater. So standen fie schweigend vor den Blumen. 9. What is the value of aabbccddff

dair fah'-ter. Zo shtan'-den zee shvi'-ghent fore dair bloo'-men. abcdf

Indeß trat Ostar ab

in den Garten, Malvina's stiller 10. What is the value of X 42

In-dess' traht Oss'-karr in dain garr'-ten, Mal-vee'-nass shtiľ-ler 16axy 11. What is the value of


Malvina's Da floß ein röthlicher Bauch über

gai-leep'-ter. Dah floss ine rö't-ly-yer houch u-ber Mal-vee'-nass 16ax 12. What is the value of when the denominator is multiplied Wangen, wie der Rose Glanz über die Lilie.

2a by 4?

vang'-en, vee dair ro'-zai glants a"-ber dee lee'-Il-ai. 13. What is the value of 3ary when the denominatoris divided by bax?

Da sah der Vater fie an und sprach: Nicht wahr, Malvina, 24ax

Dah zah dair fah'-ter zee an ont shprahch: Nyýt vahr, Mal-vee'-nu, 14. What is the value of


when both numerator and denomi- die Blumen baben eine Sprache und ein Antliß?

3la nator are 20 ?

dee bloo'-men hah'-ben i'-nai shprah'-chai cont ine ant-lits ? 15. Reduce 6abc + 12abe to a whole or mixed number.

Für die Inschuld und Liebe! feßte Dólar bingu. 2ab

Fü'r dee oon-shošlt dont lee'-bai! zets'-tai Oss'-karr hyn-tsoo'.




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