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Die alte Ma u 8.
Dee al'-tai mouse. Lilie, f. lily.
Schimmer,m.glimmer. dig, guilty, inStraucy, m. bush. Silber, n. silver.
[time. Nun ist'e zu spåt, nun dich das Unglüd schon betroffen. Blenden, to dazzle. Duft, m. odour. Indeß, in the mean
Noon ists tsoo shpeyt, noon diy dass odn'-glück sho'ne bai-trof-fen. Strahl, m. beam. Weld, -er, -es, which, Geliebte, m.and f. be. Wer fich nicht rathen läßt, hat Bülfe nicht zu hoffen. Duften, to spread what.
loved, love. Veyr zij niýt rah'-ten lest, hat hul-fai niýt tsoo hof-fen.
like do in do come,, Würgen, to choke, open. Unschult, f. innocence. Sprache, f. language. Maus, f. mouse.
pray.) Sräftig, strong. (Kraft, (Schuld, f. guilt, Hinzufeßen, to add. Gut sein, to be fond Dich, thee.
Garstig, ugly, horrid. f. strength.) debt, fault; idul. (Seßen, to put.)
Ghrlich, honest, -ly. Schon, already. 11.--Die Raße, die alte und die junge Maus.
Rathen, to advise. (Ghre, f. honour.) Betreffen, to befall.
Dir (dative), to thee. Gesicht, n. face. (Treffen, to bit,
(Dochy, emphatic. Helfen, to help. Hülfe, f. help. allerliebstet fleines Thier, Doo al-ler-leep'-stess kli'-ness teer,
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. Komm boc ein wenig ber zu mir,
EXERCISE 128 (Vol. II., page 341).
1. Did you see this neat little garden? 2. No, for I admired that
füffe. zu gut; komm baz ich dich nur
pretty cottage. 3. It belongs to two old people, whom I know. 4. lý bin deer gahr tsoo goo't; kòm dass iy diy poor küss'-sai.
What kind of pretty little animals are those ? 5. There are a great Die alte Ma u s.
many young lambkins in the garden. 6. This girl plays with her little Dee al'tai mouse.
brother. 7. Will you give me that little chest ? 8. Will you have 3d rathe bit, Rind, gehe nicht!
that one on the little table? 9. Look, what a neat little hat. 10. The I rah'-tai deer, kint, ghey'-hai nfyt!
little child is delighted with his little kitten and with his gosling. 11.
So arrange it that you may be at my house by Saturday morning. 12. Kage.
Do we make it in such a manner that it is useful for both purposes ? Dee kat'-tsai.
13. He shall so arrange it that he can take his books with him. 14. So tomm doc; siehe, biese Nuñe
At all events, I will so arrange it that I shall be with you at ten
o'clock. Zo kóm doch; zee'-hai, dee'-zai nüss'-sai
15. We will so arrange it that we by no means come too
late. 16. Tell your brother he should so arrange it that it may be Sind alle dein, wenn ich dich einmal küsse.
understood by everybody. 17. I hope you will so arrange it that you Zint al-lai dine, ven lý dij ine'-mahl küss'-sai.
will arrive by the last steamboat. 18. A prophet is nowhere less Die iunge Ma u .
esteemed than in his native country and in his house. 19. His voice Dee yoong'-ai mouse.
has great influence in the council. 20. What will you bet that in
twenty years the greater part of Europe is republican? 21. The inD Mutter höre doch, wie sie so freundlich spricht.
clination to vice is much stronger in us than to virtue. 22. The Omšot-ter, hõ-rai doc, vee zee zo froint'-lvý shpríýt.
recognition of our performances is a powerful impulse to industry. 23. 34 gen.
The business of his manufactores increases from year to year, 24. He lý ghep.
lifted up his eyes. 25. He jumped for joy, and clapped his hands. Die alte Ma ul.
26. The children were jumping up.
Kind, gehe nicht!
LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-XVI.
THE necessity that railways should frequently be thrown across Auch dieses Zuderbrod
rivers and streams has given rise to the highest displays of conoch dee'-zess tašok'-ker-brote odnt an'-drai sho'nai zach-chen structive skill in railway architecture. The bridges formed for cb' ich dir, wenn du kommst.
this purpose present an infinite variety of detail, but the most gaib' lý deer, ven doo könet.
important may be classified as suspension, tubular, and lattice Die iunge Ma u s.
bridges, in all of which iron is the principal material employed. Dee yoo ng'-ai mouse.
Brickwork and masonry, except in the piers and abutments, are
unsuited to bear the violent strain produced by railway traffic. Was soll ich machen ? Vass zol rý mach'-chen ?
To construct a substantial railway bridge of such material over O Mutter, laß mich gehn !
a stream of more than the smallest proportions, the piers would O miot-ter, lass miy gheyn!
have to be so closely set together as seriously to impede the
navigation. This difficulty was removed by the use of iron Die alte Ma us.
girders or beams of various forms, which we shall presently Dee al'.tai mouse.
describe; and by these means it was found possible to give a Kind, folg' mir, gehe nicht! very wide span to the arches, with perfect safety to the bridge.
Kint, fdlý meer, ghey'-hai nrýt! Iron arches were employed for bridges before the introducDie iunge Ma u 6.
tion of railways-for example, in the very fine bridge over the Dee yoong'-ai mouse.
Thames at Southwark, which was completed in 1819. In their Was wird sie mir denn thun? welch ehrliches
adaptation to railway architecture, cast-iron was the material Vass virrt zee meer den toon ? velý eyr'-ly-yess gai-zrýt' ! at first employed, but this was known to be unsafe for arches Die
of any considerable span. Cast-iron was well enough calculated Kate.
to act as a support for the traffic, but unfitted to sustain the Dee kat'.tsa i.
thrust and vibration produced by the passage of trains over an Somm, Fleine Nårechen, fomm!
arch or span of large dimensions. A method of trussing the Kěm, kli-ness nerr'-ýen, kom!
cast-iron girders with wrought-iron bars was then introduced, iunge Ma u 8.
the tensile power of the wrought-iron partly removing the defect Dee yoong'-ai mouse.
produced by the rigidity of the other material. But the failure Ach, Mutter, hilf! weh! of one of these trussed girder bridges, with spans of nearly 100
ach, most-ter, hilf! Oh vey! feet, on the Chester and Holyhead Railway, in 1847, shook the Sie würgt mich! Ach, die Garstige!
faith of engineers in the principle, and the use of wrought-iron Zee vürýt miý! ach, dee garr'-sti-gai!
alone then became general.
To return to our classification of iron railway bridges, we This is a form peculiar to railway architecture, the great engihave first to mention the suspension bridge. Structures of this neer who designed the first having before him no previous struekind are usually built in the following manner. A massive ture similar in kind—although applied to other purposes, as in tower of masonry is erected on each side of the stream, these the case of the suspension bridges—to suggest the idea and guide towers being termed the abutments. Over the tops of the him in carrying it out. The first tubular bridge was that towers are passed chains formed of bars of iron, the ends of thrown by Mr. Robert Stephenson across the Menai Strait, not which chains are sunk to a great depth in the ground, and far from the suspension bridge to which we have before alluded. firmly embedded therein. From these chains iron rods are It was a necessary condition, imposed by the Admiralty, that the hung, to support the roadway which passes from tower to central arches of a bridge across this strait should be of more tower. Among the good examples of ordinary suspension than 400 feet span, and 100 feet above the surface of the water bridges may be mentioned that at Hammersmith, on the at the highest tide, to preserve the freedom of the navigation. Thames; Hungerford Bridge, now removed to Clifton ; and the In studying the problem of how to accomplish this end with bridge of this kind across the Menai Straits.
the utmost security, Mr. Stephenson determined, after repeated In the earlier days of railway construction, this form of experiments, to adopt a tubular form for his girders, and to bridge was not considered suitable for railway traffic. The make his bridge, so to speak, a tunnel suspended in the air. A passage of a train over such a bridge would depress the chain further series of experiments convinced him that a rectangular and roadway at either end, raising it at the centre, and so tube was the most suitable for the purpose, possessing far greater
endanger the security of the entire fabric. But this tendency strength than tubes either cylindrical or elliptical in form. Hi was counteracted by various devices to stiffen the roadway; idea, as finally resolved on and carried out, was, therefore, that and a great engineering triumph was achieved when, in 1848, a of a long
tube, in section an oblong square, made of plates of railway suspension bridge, spanning a chasm of 800 feet, was cast-iron closely riveted together, the chief weight and support, built over the St. Lawrence below the falls of Niagara. In ing power of the material being massed in a cellular form at this bridge wire cables are made to support a rectangular tube, the top and bottom of the structure. Two million rivets were which carries both an upper and a lower roadway, the former for employed throughout the tube. These rivets, when brought to the railway traffic, and the lower for that of vehicles and foot the works,
were formed with only one end flattened, holes being passengers. A representation of this very remarkable structure punched in the plates to receive them. Each rivet, before being is given in one of our engravings.
fixed in position, was made red-hot in a furnace, then taken Another kind of suspension bridge is occasionally employed by pincers and inserted in its place, when the unflattened and for railway purposes. In this form the roadway is supported of the hot metal was hammered on the inside until anothe by chains and rods which hang from wrought-iron tubes, these head was formed, and the plates were thus securely boun tubes passing from tower to tower or from pier to pier, instead together. of the chains before mentioned. The great railway bridges at The Britannia Tubular Bridge, when completed, consisted d Chepstow and Saltash are formed in this manner. The method four spans over the Strait, the two central spans 460 feet eac of their construction will be understood by a reference to our in length, and the two at the sides half those dimensions. illustration of the first-named example, on the South Wales representation of this structure is given in our illustrations. A Railway.
immense bridge of the same character was afterwards erecte We come now to the second classification of iron railway across the St. Lawrence at Montreal. It consists of a tak ges-namely, those constructed on the tubular principle. more than 6,500 feet long, divided into twenty-five spans, th
central one of 330 feet; but the masonry of the piers is of much A good example of the lattice-girder bridge is seen in that of greater strength and proportion than in the case of the the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway over the Thames at Britannia Bridge, to resist the force of the great masses of Blackfriars, the girders in this case resting on columns of iron, ice which in winter
which are set on are brought down
stone foundations. the stream.
Railway bridges The Britannia
of recent construc. Bridge was justly
tion are almost considered, at the
all of this form. time of its con
The riveting is carstruction, a great
ried out on the engineering tri
same principle and umph; but, bril
to the same extent - liant as was the
as in the case of the idea, & great im
Britannia Bridge, provement has
and the same since been made
amount of strength upon it. This im
which is there af. provement consists
forded by the cel. in the substitution
lular arrangement of lattice girders
of material above for those of a tu.
and below, is given bular form. In the
in the lattice tubular girders the
bridges by iron. sides are formed of
beams which, at solid plates. In the
frequent intervals, lattice girders, as
cross the principal the name implies,
girders, both at the sides are com
top and bottom, at posed of a kind of
right angles. BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE ACROSS THE MENAI STRAIT. open lattice-work
The use of iron formed of bars
girders has greatly of rods of iron, which cross each other diagonally. By this facilitated the construction of what are known as skew bridges, means, in the first place, a great saving is effected in the i.e., bridges the line of which runs askew or obliquely to material employed ; next, every portion of that material can | that of the stream. The peculiar formation which it was
be so adjusted as to bear a full share of the strain of the necessary to give to the component parts of the arches in traffic; and lastly, the whole fabric presents a smaller surface stone bridges, on the skew principle, rendered these difficult to the action of the wind and weather, while at the same time it of construction, and they were comparatively unsafe for the can be more easily repainted or repaired.
enormous strain of general railway traffic.
LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.—XI.
original documents relating to these transactions would, of
course, be found in the Invoice Book; those relating to Pur. SUBSIDIARY BOOKS-THE DAY BOOK.
chases, in the Invoice Book inward; and those relating to Sales,
in the Invoice Book outward—the former consisting of the actual In the following Day-Book, the entries of the Purchases and invoices sent in with the goods, which are usually pasted in a Sales of Cotton, detailed in the Memoranda of Transactions, are Blue Paper Book, or folded, endorsed, and put away in bandles ; entered in the proper Dr. and Cr. form, and in business they the latter consisting of exact copies of the actual invoices sent would constitute the original record of these transactions. The out with goods, generally taken in a copying-press.
Spencer and Co. Dr. to Cotton Account
Sold 14 bags of Maranham Cotton, Net 4350 lbs., at 9a. per 16. Discount 1} per cent.
16th. Thompson and Co. Dr. to Cotton Account
Soid 24 bags of West India Cotton, Net 7460 lbs., at 8 d. per Discount 24 per cent.
22nd. Althorpe and Co. Dr. to Cotton Account Sold 12 bags of West India Cotton, Net 4240 lbs., at 8d. per
24th. Cotton Account Dr. to Baring, Smith, and Co.
Bought 30 bags of Demerara Cotton, Net 9218 lbs., at 740. per lb. .
Cotton Account Dr. to Osmond and Co.
Bought 16 bags of Berbice Cotton, Net 4960 lbs., at 9d. per lb. Discount at 1per cent.
7th. Cotton Account Dr. to Andrews and Co. Bought 23 bags Maranham Cotton, Net 7166 lbs., at 8d. per lb.
12th. Allison and Co. Dr. to Cotton Account . Sold 12 bags West India Cotton, Net 4236 lbs., at 8 d. per lb.
18th. Thomas Jones Dr. to Cotton Account
Sold 24 bales of Madras Cotton, Net 8580 lbs., at 6fd. per lb.. His Commission and other expenses
20th. Lloyd and Co. Dr. to Cotton Account
Sold 24 bales of Madras Cotton, Net 8216 lbs., at 6jd. per lb. : Incidental expenses