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SECTION XCIV.-IDIOMS RELATING TO MONDE, GENS, ETC. aujourd'hui. 22. Telles gens, tels patrons. 23. Tous mes gens
1. The word monde, world, is often used in French in a re- sont malades. 24. Il faut savoir s'accommoder de toutes gens. stricted sense. It has then the meaning of people, company,
EXERCISE 184. retinue, servants, etc.
1. Are there many people at your brother's? 2. There are Y avait-il beaucoup de monde à Were there many people at church ?
not many people there. 3. Does that young man slander overy. l'église ? se mettant à la tête de son monde, Placing himself at the head of his body? 4. He slanders nobody. 5. Have you brought many 1 ouvrit lui-même la porte, people, he himself opened the door. people with you ? 6. We have brought but few people with 2. The word gens also means people, and is of the masculine company with her. 9. Who has told
you that? 10. Every
7. Is there company with your mother ? 8. There is no gender ; but, by a singular anomaly, the adjectives which preeede gens are put in the feminine, while those which follow it is not yet come ? 13. Has your mother discharged two servants
body says so. 11. Is the company come? 12. The company must be in the masculine gender.
(domestiques)? 14. She has discharged all her people. 15. Ce sont les meilleures gens du They are the best people in the world. Do you know those people ? 16. I know them very well; they
monde, Ces gens sont fort dangereux, Those people are very dangerous.
are very worthy people. 17. When he travels, he stops always
with good people. 18. Are there foolish people here ? 19. 3. The words tout, tel, quel, certain, not preceding imme. There are foolish people everywhere (partout). 20. Do you diately the word gens, are put in the masculine, except when the awake your people every morning ? 21. Yes, Sir; I must word coming between is an adjective having a different termi- awake them every day. 22. What can your brother have to nation in the two genders.
settle with those people? 23. They are the best people in the Tous ces gens-là étaient-ils chré- Were all those people Christians ? world. 24. Were there many people at church this morning ? tiens ?
25. There were not many people there. 26. Are your people Tous ces gens-là sont sottement All those people are foolishly inge- sick? 27. Yes, Sir; all my people are sick. 28. There is here ingénieux,
& society of learned men. 29. There are in Paris several 4. The words tout, tel, quel, meaning certain, are put in the societies of lawyers. 30. What worthy people! 31. What feminine when they precede immediately the word gens, or are good people ! 32. Do you expect your people to-day? separated from it by an adjective having a different termination in the feminine.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. Quelles gens êtes-vous ? Quelles What people are you? What is your
EXERCISE 134 (Vol. II., page 298). sont vos affaires ?
business? Quelles bonnes et dignes gens ! What good and worthy people !
1. Donnez un livre au jeune homme. 2. Je lui en ai déjà donné un,
et il ne le lit pas. 3. Prêtez-le-lui si vous ne voulez pas le lui donner. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
4. Je ne veux pas le lui prêter. 5. Dépêchez-vous, Mesdemoiselles, il Après s'être fait craindre de tout After having inspired everybody with est dix heures. 6. Veuillez me donner une plume. 7. J'en ai donné le monde, il craignit tout le fear, he feared everybody also.
une à M, votre frère. 8. Obéissez à votre père et parlez à votre soeur. monde anssi.
9. N'enverrez-vous pas chercher la lettre ? 10. Je l'encerrai chercher. Il dit du mal de tout le monde. He slanders everybody.
11. Envoyez-la chercher aussitôt que possible. 12. No le faites pas, Tout le monde le dit. Everybody says so.
mais écrivez à mon cousin. 13. Allons ! mes enfants, apprenez votre Avez-vous amené beaucoup de Have you brought many people!
leçon. 14. Donnez-lui-en ou lui en prêtez. 15. Ne vous dépêchez pas, monde ?
nous avons le temps. 16. Ayez patience, mon enfant, le marchand Le monde n'est pas encore arrivé. The company is not yet come.
viendra bientôt. 17. Envoyez-le-lui, si vous ne pouvez le lui donner. Il n'y avait pas grand monde. There were not many people there.
18. Ecrirez-lui, sans faute, cette après-midi. 19. Je lui écrirais si Il y a du monde avec lui. There is some person with him.
j'avais le temps. 20. Prenons la première rue à gauche. 21. Prenez I a congédié tout son monde. He has discharged all his servants la deuxième rue à droite. 22. Faites attention à ce que dit votre
frère. 23. Disons la vérité. 24. Lisons ce livre aujourd'hui. 25. Ce capitaine a tout son monde. That captain has all his creu. Payez vos dettes aussitôt que possible. 2. Obéissons à notre préVoils de sottes gens. Those are foolish people,
cepteur. 27. Portez-lui la clef. 28. Rapportez-moi les livres que je I s'arrête chez les premières He stops with the first good people vous ai prêtés. 29. Ne me les rapportez pas, lisez-les. 30. Prenons bonnes gens qu'il trouve.
that he finds.
patience, nous aurons bientôt de l'argent. 31. Parlons-leur, ils sont nya i la ville, comme ailleurs, There are in the city, as elsewhere, chez mon père. 32. Dites-leur que j'ai l'intention de leur écrire demain de fort sottes gens, des gens very silly people, tedious, idle, in
matin. 33. Allez à l'église cette après-midi. 34. Rapportez-moi mes fades, oisifs, désoccupés. employed people.
lettres. 35. Ne les y portez pas, mais apportez-les-moi aussitôt que Quels braves gens ! What worthy people !
possible. Quelles viles et méchantes gens ! What vile and wicked people !
EXERCISE 135 (Vol. II., page 298).
1. Go and see my brother, he has something to communicate to you.
2. Run and tell them that I am waiting for them. 3. My brother has Accommoder (s'), 1, Dès que, as soon as. Perd-re, 4, to lose.
taken good care not to tear his clothes. 4. Has your cousin taken rel., to put up with, to Equipage, m., crev. Rassembl-er, 1, to bring care not to stain her dress ? 5. She took care not to fall, for in falling agree with. Eveill-er, 1, to awake, together.
she would have spoiled it. 6. Have those little girls gone into mournAttend-re, 4, to await, Gens d'épée, military Reven-ir, 2,ir., to return. ing? 7. They have just put on mourning. 8. For whom do you put to erpect.
Salon, m. drawing-room. on mourning? 9. I wear mourning for my mother. 10. Do you take Bord (à), on board. Gens de lettres, men of Serv-ir, 2, ir., to serve.
tea or coffee in the morning? 11. We take tea and coffee. 12. Do Campagne, f., country. letters.
Terre, f., land, shore.
you not take chocolate sometimes ? 13. We take it only when we are Démêl-er, 1, to settle, Gens de robe, lawyers. Voyag-er, 1 [$ 49], to
ill. 14. What determination has the governor taken? 15. He has arrange. Patron, m.,patron saint.
taken the resolution to remain silent. 16. Will you take my part or EXERCISE 183.
your son's ? 17. I shall take yours, if I believe that you are right.
18. Why do you not take the trouble of reading his letter ? 19. 1. Avez-vous rassemblé beaucoup de monde chez vous ? 2. Because it is not worth reading. 20. Is not your courier gone on Il n'est venu que peu de monde. 3. À quelle heure servira-t-on before ? 21. He has not been able to go on before. 22. Are you not le diner aujourd'hui ? 4. On le servira dès que notre monde wrong to take his part? 23. I am not wrong to take it. 24. Have sera venu. 5. Le capitaine-a-t-il tout son équipage à bord ? 6. you taken your tea 25. We have not taken our tea, we have taken Non, Monsieur, il a envoyé du monde à terre. 7. Vos gens se our coffee. lèvent-ils de bonne heure ? 8. Il faut que tous les jours j'éveille tout mon monde. 9. Les Moscovites perdirent trois fois plus de
OUR HOLIDAY. monde que les Suédois. 10. Où est Madame votre mère ? 11.
CLIMBING EXERCISES. 14. Elle attend pour quitter le monde, que le monde l'ait quittée. The apparatus in use in the public gymnasium for these exer15. Vos gens sont-ils revenus de la campagne ? 16. Nous cises consists chiefly in the upright pole, the mast, and the climbattendons nos gens aujourd'hui. 17. Y a-t-il ici une société de ing-wall. Climbing by means of the hanging-rope, which is also gens de lettres ? 18. Non, Monsieur ; il n'y a qu'une société used, has been described in a former paper. * de gens de robe. 19. Connaissez-vous ces braves gens ? 20. Je crois que ce sont des gens d'épée. 21. Tels sont les gens
* See Vol. II., page 32
THE CLIMBING POLE.
take place together with the swing, the hands then alternately This is usually fixed into the top and bottom of the apart- | changing their grasp for a higher position. This change, hos. ment, or, if in the open air, is securely sunk in the ground in ever, must take place at the moment when the body is swang an iron socket, to prevent the bottom becoming rotten. The lackward. thickness of the pole is about two inches and a half, and it is A more trying exercise than the ordinary climb by the double perfectly smooth on the surface.
poles is performed in the following manner :-The poles are In commencing the climb, the learner grasps the pole as high grasped in the hands at about the level of the gymnast's hips as he can reach above the head, and then places his legs round when he is in the standing position, and he then ascends by the pole, in the position shown in our illustration (Fig. 33), the pressing the body upward, the weight being thrown upon the heel of one foot and the instep of the other pressing firmly wrists. The legs may or may not be used to assist in the moveagainst it. The climbing movement is performed by raising the ment; but, in either way, a short spell at this exercise will be knees as far as possible towards the hands, again taking hold found sufficient to content the learner. firmly with the feet, then removing the hands to a position In some gymnasia slanting poles are also used, the parallel higher up the pole, and hauling the body upward by the move- poles stretching in a diagonal direction from the ceiling to ment of arms and legs combined. The body should not be the floor. A further interesting variety of exercises is afforded allowed to press against the pole, and the climbing should by this position ; but a sufficient idea of their nature will be be accomplished by the movement of the legs
suggested by those described in the present and the arms alone.
paper, and by that on ladder exercises which Coming down may be done by reversing
will follow. these motions, the gymnast thus descending
CLIMBING THE MAST. by movements similar to those with which he
The mast is very much thicker than the went up; or he may slide down with the grasp
ordinary climbing pole, but the ascent may be in the legs, the hands scarcely touching the
accomplished in the same manner, the legs, pole; or the legs may be released, the pole
however, playing a more important part. They sliding through the hands.
are thrown tightly round The first method is the
the mast, and their probest when muscular exer
pelling power is used as cise is more the object
much as possible, while than mere amusement.
the hands, which can In quick climbing, the
take only an imperfect learner should be oareful
grasp, are used to aid in to take very firm hold
the ascont. with both hands and feet,
Another way of ascend. in order that he may not Fig. 35.-Tox MAST AND ROPE,
ing the mast, which is slip slightly downward
practised chiefty for the before each movement of
sake of the ingenuity it the body, and thus lose
requires, is shown in Fig. time in making his ascent.
35. The surface of the The climbing move
mast should in this case ment may be varied in
be roughened, to secure several ways. For in.
some holding power to stance, you may go up
the rope; the trunk of a either hand over hand,
rugged tree would do best each hand leading alter
for the purpose. For a nately; or at each grasp
learner, the rope should you may place the hands
be fastened round the as nearly as possible to
body; but an expert gymgether. You may climb Fig. 33.
nast would find more pleaby using the hands and CLIMBING THE POLE.
THz DOUBLE POLES. sure in using the untied one leg only, this leg
rope, or even an iron hoop. then grasping the pole both at the hock and
The weight of the back is thrown on the the instep, and being, so to speak, curled round
side of the rope farthest from the mast, which it. Or both legs and only one hand may be
is very firmly pressed by the feet, and the used to give the propelling power. Changing
tension thus given prevents the rope from the manner of ascent in this way from time
slipping downward. Considerable skill is reto time tends to render the exercises more
quired to advance more than a few steps in agreeable, and therefore more beneficial.
this kind of climbing, and the exercise is by Climbing with the head downward is some. Fig. 36.-CLIMBING THE WALL,
no means so beneficial or useful to the gymnast times practised as a feat, but we must caution
as that which is found in the use of the single our readers against it as an act of folly which may be highly pole, the double pole, or the wall, which we are now going to injurious, and even be the cause of a broken neck.
CLIMBING THE WALL. These are placed on the same level, about a foot and a half The wall for climbing purposes is generally found at one apart, and, from the variety of the movements which may be end of the gymnasium, and is formed by inserting either grooves performed on them, they are a favourite adjunct in climbing or ledges in the perpendicular face of the structure. Climbing exercises.
up a wall with grooves for the insertion of the hands and feet The usual position in climbing by the double poles is similar is illustrated in Fig. 36. The more shallow the grooves or the to that before explained, both poles being grasped in the hands, edges, of course the more difficult is the ascent, as there is less and one leg being thrown closely around each. But the manner holding power; but in high-class gymnasia these walls are conof climbing may be varied in the same way as in the case of the structed in sections, presenting more or less difficulty. single pole, going up by using the hands alternately or together, Sometimes the climbing walls are made to present the appearetc. As a relief to the climbing movements, you may hang be. ance of a fortification, and rise tier above tier, with a mimic tween the poles, either by the hands alone, or by the hands and citadel at the top. "Storming parties” are then formed in the feet, the latter position being shown in Fig. 34. In this case course of the exercises ; a rush is made at the walls, and the the insteps are firmly pressed against the poles, relieving the first who reach the summit bear off the palm in the competition. hands of a portion of the weight of the body.
The nearer the surface of the wall is made to approach the ap. Swinging between the poles may also vary the other exer- pearance of a rough stone fortification, the more dexterity and cises, and, when the learner is expert enough, the climb may amusement are elicited by these “storming ” manquvres.
THE DOUBLE POLES.
LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXIV. deleterious. After the ore has been submitted to this calcining BISMUTH-COPPER-LEAD.
process for some time the heat is raised, and the fusion of the
ore determined. The copper sulphide-mixed with some iron BISMUTH.
sulphide-sinks to the bottom of the furnace, forming the matt, STABOL, Bi — COMBINING WEIGHT, 210-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 9-8. which is then drawn off into water, by which means it is granuThis metal exhibits a resemblance to arsenic and antimony, and lated. This coarse metal is again roasted, and the remaining is therefore sometimes classed with them in one group. It iron thus oxidised; ore rich in silica is added, and the whole occurs chiefly in a native state in quartz rock, and is found in fused. The oxide of iron and the silica form á slag; and the central Germany. To extract the metal from the ore, it is only copper in the form of a subsulphide —- fine metal-(Cu,S) is necessary to raise the temperature until the bismuth fuses, and drawn off and cast into pigs. It only remains to free the metal in its liquid condition it leaves its matrix and sinks to the bottom from the sulphur ; this is accomplished by submitting the pigs of the furnace. The metal has the appearance of lead, perhaps to a heat in a reverberatory furnace just insufficient to fuse it exhibits a little warmer tint; it is hard and brittle ; at 264o them. The metal at the surface thus becomes oxidised, and Cent. it melts. If the crust of a vessel of molten bismuth, par- when fusion takes place this action occurstially cooled, be broken, and the still liquid metal poured out,
Cu,S + 2CuO = SO, + 4Ca. the cavity will be found lined with peculiar hollow cubical crys.
Thus the copper is obtained. It still requires to be refined. tals, which present the appearance of “the Greek pattern." For this end it is again fused, in order to oxidate the last traces The crystals are not true cubes, but rhombohedra with large of foreign metals, which are removed as slags; and to reduce angles, only being 2° 20' from right angles. At the moment of solidification this metal expands consider the molten mass, the gases liberated from it deprive the oxide
any oxide of copper, the trunk of a young tree is thrust into ably, hence it is always used in making alloys which are em- of copper of its oxygen, and thus the metal is procured in its ployed in taking casts. The well-known fusible metal, which pure state"; this last process is termed poling, melts at a temperature a little below that of boiling water, is composed of two parts of bismuth, one of lead, and one of tin ; produced by the electrotyping process, it possesses a beautiful
The appearance of copper is well known, but when pure, as before this alloy fases it becomes a paste, and when in this con- pink colour. It is very tenacious, ductile, and malleable. It dition if a medal be pressed into it a perfect cast is obtained. melts at about 1090o Cent.,
and is capable of some volatilisation, The expansion of the alloy on solidifying permits the medal to imparting a green tint to the flame. At ordinary temperatures be removed with ease. It is in this manner that the cliquée air has no action upon copper, but if heated a cupric oxide is monlds used in electrotyping are produced. Nitric acid readily formed, which, as it contracts more slowly than the metal beoxidises bismuth, and dissolves the oxide it forms.
neath, comes off in scales. If ignited, finely-divided copper will Hydrochloric and sulphuric acids likewise dissolve the bis- burn like tinder into the black oxide. muthous oxide; but upon adding water to these solutions the water displaces a portion of the acid from the salt, and the chlorine. All the alloys in which copper is a constituent have
Leaves of this metal, as we have seen, will burn in a jar of double salt thus formed falls as a precipitate.
been noticed. Bismuthous Oxide (Bi,02) is a yellow powder produced when
Cuprous Oxide (Cu,0), or the subexide, occurs native as the metal is roasted in the air. Bismuthic Oxide, or the Peroxide of Bismuth (Bi,Os), is pro- cially prepared in several ways; the most ready is, perhaps, by
"octohedral copper ore." Its colour is red. It may be artificured by acting on the former oxide by potash. On passing boiling a solution of copper sulphate, sugar, and caustio potash, chlorine, a red precipitate falls; this is washed with nitric acid, in excess; the oxide falls as a red powder. It forms with acids to remove any traces of the lower oxide. This red powder is the hydrated peroxide; when heated it come cupric salts. It is chiefly used to stain glass a deep red.
cuprous salts, which readily take oxygen from the air, and begives up its water and becomes brown. As in the case of When in a hydrated state it forms with ammonia a colourless antimony and arsenic, there seems to be an intermediate oxide solution, which offers a delicate test for oxygen, for it absorbs which may be considered a compound of the two.
that gas and turns blue. Bismuthic Sulphide (Bi,S2) occurs native as Bismuth Glance.
Cupric Oxide, the Black Oxide (CuO), is formed when heated It may be artificially produced by melting sulphur and the metal copper is exposed to the action of the air. It falls as a light together, and it falls as a black powder when a current of blue powder in a hydrated state, when potash is added to the sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through a solution of a bismuth solution of a cupric salt; this powder, when heated to 100°, salt.
loses its water and becomes dark brown. Bismuthic Chloride (Bici,) is produced when bismuth is
It is of great service in analysis to furnish oxygen in a known heated in an atmosphere of chlorine. It resembles antimonio chloride, is very deliquescent, and capable of being distilled. A quantity, to complete the combustion of organic bodies.
The cupric salts which this oxide forms with acids are usually large quantity of water decomposes it into hydrochloric acid green or blue, and colourless without water. Cuprio oxide stains and an oxy-chloride of bismuth, known as pearl white, thus
glass a beautiful green. 3Bici, + 4H,0 = Bi,O,C1,,2H,0 + 6HCI.
With ammonia it forms a blue solution, with which the chaThe salts of bismuth present no marked characters; they racteristic bottles of a chemist's shop window are filled. become milky when diluted with water. Iron, zinc, copper, and Copper Sulphate, or Blue Vitriol (Cuso, + 51,0), has the tin throw down bismuth in a metallic state from its solution. greatest commercial importance of all the cupric salts. It The metal is easily reduced from its salts on charcoal before the crystallises in large blue crystals; when heated it parts with blow-pipe. It appears as a brittle metallic bead surrounded by its five molecules of water of crystallisation, and becomes a the yellow bismnthous oxide.
white powder. This powder is useful in discovering the preCOPPER.
sence of moisture, as it turns blue when combined with water. STMIOL, Ca --COMBINING WEIGHT, 63-5 — SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 8-9.
This salt is formed by the action of sulphuric acid on copper; it This useful metal occurs native in many localities, as dendritic is largely used by the calico-printer, and is the source of all the copper, resembling a mass of rootlets; but in the neighbourhood
copper pigments. ef Lake Superior native copper is found in large masses.
When ammonia is added to its solution, a greenish basic sulThe ores of copper are numerous. That which is chiefly phate of copper falls—which is readily dissolved in an excess of worked in this country is copper pyrites (Cu,s + Fe Sz). Its
the alkali- from the formation of a salt of a fine blue colour, chief deposit is in Cornwall.
which may be got in crystals, and has this compositionExtraction of the Metal.—This is effected by exposing the ore
CuSO,,H,0,4NH,. This salt imparts the mauve tint to pyroheated on the
hearth of a reverberatory furnace to the action technic fires. of the air. The copper becomes a sulphide, whilst the iron
Cupric Nitrate (Cu, 2NO3) crystallisos with six molecules of becomes an oxide. This oxide is removed with the quartz, as a water in blue rhomboidal prisms, which are deliquescent. It is fusible slag.
easily procured by acting on copper with nitric acid ; in this During this process the furnaces emit a dense cloud, known as action nitric oxide is liberated, thuscopper smoke. It contains fumes of arsenious, sulphurous, sul
3Cu + SHNO, = 3 (Cu,2NO,) + 2NO+ 44,0. phuric and hydrochloric acids, and is consequently extremely Cupric Carbonate is found mixed with varions quantities of
hydrated oxide in “malachite," "chessylite," and other copper LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXIV.
LATIN STEMS (continued). (Cu,cl,) and Cupric Chloride (Cuci,). A solution of the former It is curious to observe what a controlling influence the subjectsalt possesses the property of absorbing carbonic oxide gas. The matter has in the metaphors employed and the derivations that latter salt is formed when copper-leaf is burnt in chlorine, and are brought into play. We lay down railways; we set up an inn ; with two molecules of water crystallises in acicular prisms. so we set up a carriage after we have made our fortune in that
Sulphides of Copper - The Cuprous Sulphide, or Subsulphide shop which we set up when we were poor. As we may set up (Cu,S), is the result of the last process but one in the reduc a shop, so may we open a shop; but we must begin business, or tion of copper from its ore. Native cuprous sulphide is occa- we may set up in business. Having built or rented, we may open sionally found.
a warehouse, as we may open a shop. So in professions-parsons Cupric Sulphide (Cus) may be prepared artificially either by occupy a pulpit, and solicitors take to the desk, while barristers heating copper and sulphur together, or by precipitation from hold briefs, and judges fill the bench. We draw with a pencil a salt of copper in solution. With iron it appears native as and paint with a brush. Pictures as well as books are composed, copper pyrites. Peacock ore contains less iron. Tennantite, dark and both must be sketched before they are begun; bat the grey copper ore, and silver fahlerz all contain cupric sulphide. one ends in a painting, the other in a treatise; the one is the There are other cuprio salts of less interest.
canvas, the other is the volume. If we are charitably inclined The salts of copper are poisonous ; their antidote is albumen, and abound in wealth, we build a church, or found a hospital; the white of eggs, with which they form insoluble compounds. but if we expend our money for our own pleasure or convenience, With potash and soda a pale blue precipitate is given. This we erect a mansion and lay out pleasure-grounds. Probably we is the case also with ammonia, but with this alkali the charac. may begin to travel, and then we make a voyage by sea and take teristic blue appears when it is added in excess. If iron be i a journey by land. A young man entering one of the univerdipped into a cupric solution it becomes covered with copper. sities reads for honour, and studies for the church. If your SOD Since iron deprives the cupric salt of its acid, its surface being is a clergyman, he does duty on a Sunday; but if he is a dissentcovered with a layer of the corresponding ferric salt, and a coat ing minister, he preaches. A Methodist minister travels, a of metallic copper overlaying it, on account of the presence of minister of the Establishment is an incumbent; the latter has a the salt between the two metals, the coat of copper shells off. living, the former is on a circuit. Lawyers advise, physicians
Zinc precipitates copper as a fine black powder, which exhi- prescribe, clergymen admonish, and confessors direct. A ship bits metallic lustre when burnished.
impelled by a steam-engine sails, a train drawn by a steam
engine runs. Handicraftsmen receive their remuneration in LEAD.
wages, clerks in salaries, lawyers in fees, and ministers of religion SYMBOL, Pb-COMBINING WEIGHT, 207 - SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 11•36. in stipends.
Emolument, a term always applied to the receipts of the Galena, the chief ore of lead, is a sulphide of the metal. It higher classes, reminds one of the time when there was in each occurs in a cubic crystallisation, and possesses a marked metallic manor or vicinity one mill, the lord or owner of which received lustre. In Cornwall it is found in the clay slates, and in Derby, as his pay either a portion of the flour there ground or its shire in the mountain limestone. There are mines also at Laney, equivalent in money. Hence emolument, properly that which in the Isle of Man. It is usually associated with more or less sulphide of silver. The more imperfect the crystallisation
of the comes out of the mill-stone, came to denote gain from office or
high employment. galena, the more sulphide of silver is present.
This fact leads to the observation that words to a full mind The extraction of lead from galena is not dificult ; the ore is are singularly suggestive ; they are also singularly conservative, separated from the gangue (the earthy matters in which it is keeping and tacitly transmitting from age to age facts and embedded) by washing, and then spread on the bed of a rever- history which relate to their origin, and have something to teach beratory furnace. Some of the sulphur burns off, the lead be respecting
ancient manners and customs. Gray has said — coming an oxide ; some of the sulphide imbibes oxygen and becomes sulphate, whilst the large portion of the ore remains
“The curfew tolls the knell of parting day." unchanged. When this process is sufficiently advanced, the It is equally true that the word curfew (French, couvrefu, put furnace doors are closed, and the heat raised to determine the out the fire, or fire-extinguisher) preserves a recollection of a fusion of the ore. The lead oxide and sulphate react on the day long since passed and gone, when the Norman, being sovegalena, as shown in these equations
reign lord of England, published his behest that at a fixed mo2PbO + PbS = 3Pb + SO,
ment the fires of the Saxon peasantry should be extinguished. PbSO, + PbS = 2Pb + 250g.
Stipulation (Latin, stipula, a straw) preserves an indirect In each case the metal is liberated, and the sulpkur escapes as
record of the legal custom once prevalent of presenting a straw sulphurous acid gas.
as a token of the delivery of possession to one who had purIf there be much quartz present, which is generally the his proprietorship, regarded it as the condition on which he held
chased an estate; and who keeping that straw as a token of matrix of the galena, lime is added to facilitate the liberation of
the land. the metal, by causing the silica to form with the lime a fusible
In the phrase " signing a deed,” you have a trace of the times slag. Extraction of Silver from Lead by Pattinson's Processo - This the cross in attestation of the part which they took in the
when men unable to write their name, made instead the sign of operation is based upon the fact that pure lead solidifies
matter. sooner than argentiferous lead. The lead is melted in an iron ...n set in brickwork, on each side of which are four or five custom of employing pebbles (like the little balls in the abacus)
Calculation (Latin, calculus, a little stone) recalls the old similar pans in a row. When the metal is fused the fire is withdrawn, and as it cools the crystals of lead which form first by which to perform questions of arithmetic (Greek, apabuos
, are removed by a perforated
, and placed in the right a-rith-mos, a number), or the science of number. hand pan, the argentiferous lead being ladled into the next when the rind or bark (Latin, liber) of trees served instead of
His library may remind the student of the primitive period pan to the left. The same process is repeated in all the pans, the then unknown parchment and paper. the pure lead being ladled to the right, the silver lead to the left. The contents of the last pan to the left are then submitted to
LATIN STEMS. cupellation--that is, the metal at a high temperature is exposed Latin Words. Meanings. Stems. English Words. to a current of air; the lead rapidly oxidises, and the film of Senex (senis) ota
seni senülity. oxide is constantly removed, until the pure silver only remains. Sentio
sentient. By this process it is found profitable to extract silver when
sens, sent sensation, dissent.
Sequor there is even as little as four ounces of the precious metal in a
obsequies, subsequent. Secutus
followed seout ton of lead.
perscoute, prosecute. Sidus (siděris)
sider Properties. Lead is a bluish-white metal, very soft. It may Silva
sidereal. a wood silo
silvan. be rolled into sheets, or drawn into pipes or wire, but its tena- Similis like
simil similar, similitude. city is low. It melts at 334o Cent.
Simul at the same time simul simultaneous.
La in Words. Meanings. Stems. English Words.
“An adjective is by nature a general and in some measure an abSimalo I feign simul simulation, dissimulation. stract word, and presupposes the idea of a certain species or assortSocius a companion soci
ment of things, to all of which it is equally applicable." Sol (solis) the sun solar, solstice.
Smith, “ Formation of Languages," Solor I comfort
solace, console. Solus
Sparse is a word not often used but convenient. It is specially alone
sole, solitude, soliloquy.
sol, soli Solvo I loose solv dissolve.
applicable when in the thing spoken of the idea of sprinkled or Boletus locsed solue, solut soluble, dissolute.
scattered, the notion “ here and there," the notion "up and Bomuns sleep
down,” the notion "in different parts," "confusedly," " without Sopor (soporis) heaviness sopor
order," is implied or intended : these are cases in which our term Sorbeo I suck in sorb
rare does not meet the want. Sorptus sucked in
“There are doubtless many such soils sparsedly through the nation." Sors (sortis) a lot
Near conSpecies a form
veys the common idea of proximity. But that which is near Specio I see speci spccious.
does not touch, whereas the idea of touching is essential in corSpectus seon
tiguity. But contiguity implies not merely that A touches B, Specula a toatch-tower specul speculate.
but also that B touches A ; but a thing is adjacent when it lies Spero I hope
sper, spair desperate, despair. Spiro I breathe spir
up to another thing, whether it touches that other thing or not. Srondeo I vow, promise spond respond.
As in many cases the differences here are very much differences Sponsus vowed, betrothed spons
response, sponsor, spouse.
of conception, you may conceive and so speak of that which is Stillo I drop stil distil.
adjacent as being also contiguous, though things so lying can Stinguo* I put out stingu extinguish.
scarcely be thought of as being near; yet may proximity be preStinctus exetinguished stinct extinct.
dicated of them, inasmuch as proximus means next, that is Stipula a straw stipul stipulate.
nearest, the one thing of a series which comes next or nearest Stirps root of a tree stirp
to another. It may happen that the next is also contiguous, or Sto I stand stat, stant, stic stature, distant, solstice.
actually touching. Two parishes are near each other; two dis. Stringo I bind
string astringent. Strictus bound
tricts of those two parishes are adjacent; two limits of those strict
strict, restrict. Struo I pile up strue, stroy construe, destroy.
two districts are actually contiguous. Structus piled up struct structure,
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
Words with their proper Prepositions.
F.R. Saaris stocet suavity.
Dash against, upon, suav
dask, a llou. Sumo I take sum, sumpt assume, assumption.
Deal in, by, with,
dælan, to separate.
barre, a bar.
cædo, I cut. Tango I touch tang, tig tangent, contiguous.
Defend against, from,
fendo, I cleare.
facio, I make. Turdus slow
fraudo, I cheat.
mando, I consig. Tectus [ris). covered tect
Denounce against (a person) } nuntius, e messenger Tempus (tempo- time tempor temporal, contemporary.
or (a thing),
Depend on, Tendo tend, tent, tend, attend, distend, ex
pendo, I lang.
privo, I deprive.
Derogate from, Subsequent properly denotes that which follows immediately. Derogatory to,
rogo, I ask. The force of immediately is given by the sub. This word re. Descended from,
scando, I climb. minds me of a defect in the English language ; we have no adjec Deserving of,
servus, a slave. tive equivalent to the adverb ofter, no adjective which denotes Desirous of,
desiderium, desire the relation of afterwards simply, apart, that is from the ques.
sto, I stand. tion whether the sequence is near or remote. Commonly,
spero, I hope. subsequent is so used.
spolio, I strip, rob.
Destined to, Simulation and dissimulation, both from simulo, I feign, or
teneo, I hold. Destitute of,
destitutus, deprived. put on a character, differ thus : simulation signifies pretending Detach from,
detacher, to undo. to be what you are not; and dissimulation concealing what you Detract from,
traho, I draw. are. They have both the same purpose-namely, to produce a false impression, to mislead ; and so are both wrong.
Make an abstract of the narrative which ensues, and then
report it by word of mouth to children or friends. If you “Hide thee, thou bloody hand,
prefer, give the substance of it in a letter to a correspondent. Thou perjured, and thou simular of virtne;
Take care in any case not to copy or transcribe :-
CHARLES EDWARD ENTERING HOLYROOD. The way in which a metaphor may cloak a moral misdemeanour' is exemplified in the following quotation, where dis- Forth, and, animated by every fear, the terrified men of Edinburgh made
On the 13th of September the little army of Charles crossed the simulation is made to seem almost a virtue by reference to the a show of standing to their colours. But this parade was not fated to propriety of keeping your own hand unseen while playing at last long. On the 16th, the Prince's advanced guard were at Kirk
liston, within a few miles of the city, where the consternation in"Simulation and dissimulation are the chief arts of cunning; the creased every moment, until the volunteers began to bribe with sixfirst will be esteemed always by a wise man unworthy of him, and will pences every soldier they met, to take their arms to the castle. The be therefore avoided by him in every possible case;
for to resumo my arrival of the Prince was awaited by the Whigs with doubt and Lord Bacon's comparison, simulation is put on that we may
look into dismay, and by the Jacobites (at the head of whom was the Provost) the cards of another; whereas dissimulation intends nothing more
with an exultation which they took very little pains to couceal. Certhan to hide our own." -- Bolingbroke.
tain commissjoners were sent to Gray's Mill, to treat with the High
Of Our word sort comes to us from the Latin sors, through the land chiefs for delivering the keys of the city on the best terms. French sorte , which means kind or species with special reference arrangement (it
is supposed) between them and the Prince, the city
what passed at the conference nothing is known, but, by a preconcerted as is exemplified in the phrase "of what sort ?” was surprised next morning at four o'clock. A soldier of the city From this idea of quality is derived the application of the word guard, sentinel at the Netherbow, stopped a hackney coach that as found in " to sort," "to assort.”
approached his post. “Open the Port!" cried the driver, " for I be"And when my careful eye I cast upon my sheep,
hove to get out." “You cannot," replied the sentinel, " without an I sort them in my pens, and sorted so I keep." --Drayton.
order from Provost Stuart." "Provost Coutts bath ordered me to be
let out,” replied the driver, whipping up his horses. The soldier still * The common forms in composition are extinguo and extinctus, remonstrated, when James Gillespie, under-keeper of the Port, said