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SECTION XCIV.-IDIOMS RELATING TO MONDE, GENS, ETC. aujourd'hui. 22. Telles gens, tels patrons. 23. Tous mes gens

1. The word monde, world, is often used in French in a re- sont malades. 24. Il faut savoir s'accommoder de toutes gens. stricted sense. It has then the meaning of people, company,

EXERCISE 184. retinue, servants, etc.

1. Are there many people at your brother's ? 2. There are Y avait-il beaucoup de monde à Wero there many people at church ?

not many people there. 3. Does that young man slander overyl'église ? se mettant à la tête de son monde, Placing himself at the head of his body? 4. He slanders nobody. 5. Have you brought many i ouvrit lui-même la porte, people, he himself opened the door.

people with you ? 6. We have brought but few people with

7. Is there company with your mother ? 8. There is no 2. The word gens also means people, and is of the masculine

company with her.

9. Who has told you that? 10. Everygender ; bate by a singular anomaly, the adjectives which preeede gens are put in the feminine, while those which follow it

body says so. 11. Is the company come ? 12. The company must be in the masculine gender.

is not yet come ? 13. Has your mother discharged two servants

(domestiques) ? 14. She has discharged all her people. 15. Ce sont les meilleures gens du They are the best people in the world.

Do you know those people ? 16. I know them very well; they monde, Ces gens sont fort dangereux, Those people are very dangerous.

are very worthy people. 17. When he travels, he stops always

with good people. 18. Are there foolish people here ? 19. 3. The words tout, tel, quel, certain, not preceding imme. There are foolish people everywhere (partout). 20. Do you diately the word gens, are put in the masculine, except when the awake your people every morning ? 21. Yes, Sir; I must word coming between is an adjective having a different termi- awake them every day. 22. What can your brother have to nation in the two genders.

settle with those people? 23. They are the best people in the Tous ces gens-là étaient-ils chré- Were all those people Christians ? world. 24. Were there many people at church this morning ? tiens ?

25. There were not many people there. 26. Are your people Tous ces gens-là sont sottement All those people are foolishly inge- sick? 27. Yes, Sir; all my people are sick. 28. There is here ingénieur, nious.

& society of learned men. 29. There are in Paris several 4. The words tout, tel, quel, meaning certain, are put in the societies of lawyers. 30. What worthy people! 31. What feminine when they precede immediately the word gens, or aro

good people ! 32. Do you expect your people to-day ? separated from it by an adjective having a different termination in the feminine.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH, Quelles gens êtes-vous ? Quelles What people are you? What is your

EXERCISE 134 (Vol. II., page 298). sont vos affaires ?

business? Quelles bonnes et dignes gens ! What good and worthy people!

1. Donnez un livre au jeune homme. 2. Je lui en ai déjà donné un,

et il ne le lit pas. 3. Prêtez-le-lui si vous ne voulez pas le lui donner. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

4. Je ne veux pas le lui préter. 5. Dépêchez-vous, Mesdemoiselles, il Après s'être fait craindre de tout After having inspired everybody uith

est dix heures. 6. Veuillez me donner une plume. 7. J'en ai donné le moude, il craignit tout le fear, he feared everybody also.

une à M. votre frère. 8. Obéissez à votre père et parlez à votre scur. monde aussi.

9. N'enverrez-vous pas chercher la lettre ? 10. Je l'en:errai chercher, Il dit du mal de tout le monde. He slanders everybody.

11. Envoyez-la chercher aussitôt que possible. 12. No le faites pas, Tout le monde le dit. Everybody says so.

mais écrivez à mon cousin. 13. Allons! mes enfants, apprenez votre Avez-vons amené beaucoup de Have you brought many peoplo ?

leçon. 14. Donnez-lui-en ou lui en prêtez. 15. Ne vous dépêchez pas, monde ?

nous avons le temps. 16. Ayez patience, mon enfant, le marchand Le monde n'est pas encore arrivé. The company is not yet come.

viendra bientôt. 17. Envoyez-le-lui, si vous ne pouvez le lui donner. Il n'y avait pas grand monde.

19. Je lui écrirais si There were not many people there.

18. Ecrivez-lui, sans faute, cette après-midi. Il y a du monde avec lui.

There is some person rith him. j'avais la temps. 20. Prenons la première rue à gauche. 21. Prenez Il a congédié tout son monde. He has discharged all his servants

la deuxième rue à droite. 22. Faites attention à ce que dit votre (people).

frère. 23. Disons la vérité. 24. Lisons ce livre aujourd'hui. 25. Ce capitaine a tout son monde. That captain has all his creu.

Payez vos dettes aussitôt que possible. 26. Obéissons à notre préVoila de sottes gens. Those are foolish people,

cepteur. 27. Portez-lui la clef. 28. Rapportez-moi les livres que je I s'arrête chez

30. Prenons les premières Ho stops with the first good people vous ai prêtés. 29. Ne me les rapportez pas, lisez-les. bonnes gens qu'il trouve. that he finds. patience, nous aurons bientôt de l'argent. 31. Parlons-leur, ils sont

cire demain Dy a à la ville, comme ailleurs, There are in the city, as elsewhere, chez mon père. 32. Dites-leur que j'ai l'intention de leur de fort sottes

gens,

des
gens very silly people, tedious, idle, m-

matin. 33. Allez à l'église cette après-midi. 34. Rapportez-moi mes fades, oisifs, désoccupés. employed people.

lettres. 35. Ne les y portez pas, mais apportez-les-moi aussitôt que Quels braves gens ! What worthy people !

possible. Quelles viles et méchantes gens ! What vile and wicked people !

EXERCISE 135 (Vol. II., page 298).
VOCABULARY.

1. Go and see my brother, he has something to communicate to you.

2. Run and tell them that I am waiting for them. 3. My brother has Accommoder (s'), 1, | Dès que, as soon as, Perd-re, 4, to lose.

taken good care not to tear his clothes. 4. Has your cousin taken rel., to put up with, to Equipage, m., crer. Rassembl-er, 1, to bring

care not to stain her dress? 5. She took care not to fall, for in falling agree with. Eveill-er, 1, to awake. together.

she would have spoiled it. 6. Have those little girls gone into mournAttend-re, 4, to await, Gens d'épée, military Reven-ir, 2,ir.,to return.

ing? 7. They have just put on mourning. 8. For whom do you put Salon, m. drawing-room.

on mourning? 9. I wear mourning for my mother. 10. Do you take Bord (à), on board. Gens de lettres, men of Serv-ir, 2, ir., to serve.

tea or coffee in the morning ? 11. We take tea and coffee. 12. Do Campagne, f., country. letters.

Terre, f., land, shore.

you not take chocolate sometimes ? 13. We take it only when we are Démêler, 1, to settle, Gens de robe, lawyers. Voyag.er, 1 [$ 49], to ill. 14. What determination has the governor taken ? 15. He has arrange. Patron, m., patron saint. travel.

taken the resolution to remain silent. 16. Will you take my part or EXERCISE 183.

your son's ? 17. I shall take yours, if I believe that you are right.

18. Why do you not take the trouble of reading his letter ? 19. 1. Avez-vous rassemblé beaucoup de monde chez vous ? 2.

Because it is not worth reading. 20. Is not your courier gone on Il n'est venu que peu de monde. 3. À quelle heure servira-t-on before ? 21. He has not been able to go on before. 22. Are you not le diner aujourd'hui ? 4. On le servira dès que notre monde wrong to take his part ? 23. I am not wrong to take it. 24. Have fera venu. 5. Le capitaine-a-t-il tout son équipage à bord ? 6. you taken your tea i 25. We have not taken our tea, we have taken Non, Monsieur, il a envoyé du monde à terre. 7. Vos gens se

our coffee. lèvent-ils de bonne heure 8. Il faut que tous les jours j'éveille tout mon monde. 9. Les Moscovites perdirent trois fois plus de monde que les Suédois.

OUR HOLID A Y. 10. Où est Madame votre mère ?

11. Elle est dans le salon, il y a du monde avec elle (company). 12.

GYMNASTICS.-XI. Tout le monde peut voyager comme moi. 13. Ainsi va le monde.

CLIMBING EXERCISES. 14. Elle attend pour quitter le monde, que le monde l’ait quittée. The apparatus in use in the public gymnasium for these exer15. Vos gens sont-ils revenus de la campagne ? 16. Nous cises consists chiefly in the upright pole, the mast, and the climbattendons nos gens aujourd'hui. 17. Y a-t-il ici une société de ing.wall. Climbing by means of the hanging-rope, which is also gene de lettres ? 18. Non, Monsieur; il n'y a qu'une société used, has been described in a former paper.* de gens de robe. 19. Connaissez-vous ces braves gens ? 20. Je crois que ce sont des gens d'épée. 21. Tels sont les gens

• See Vol. II., page 32.

to erpect.

men.

THE CLIMBING POLE.

take place together with the swing, the hands then alternately This is usually fixed into the top and bottom of the apart. | changing their grasp for a higher position. This change, how. ment, or, if in the open air, is securely sunk in the ground in ever, must take place at the moment when the body is swung an iron socket, to prevent the bottom becoming rotten. The lackward. thickness of the pole is about two inches and a hulf, and it is A more trying exercise than the ordinary climb by the double perfectly smooth on the surface.

poles is performed in the following manner :-The poles are In commencing the climb, the learner grasps the pole as high grasped in the hands at about the level of the gymnast's hips as he can reach above the head, and then places his legs round when he is in the standing position, and he then ascends by the pole, in the position shown in our illustration (Fig. 33), the pressing the body upward, the weight being thrown upon the heel of one foot and the instep of the other pressing firmly wrists. The legs may or may not be used to assist in the moveagainst it. The climbing movement is performed by raising the ment; but, in either way, a short spell at this exercise will be knees as far as possible towards the hands, again taking hold found sufficient to content the learner. firmly with the feet, then removing the hands to a position In some gymnasia slanting poles are also used, the parallel higher up the pole, and hauling the body upward by the move- poles stretching in a diagonal direction from the ceiling to ment of arms and legs combined. The body should not be the floor. A further interesting variety of exercises is afforded allowed to press against the pole, and the climbing should by this position ; but a sufficient idea of their nature will be be accomplished by the movement of the legs

suggested by those described in the present and the arms alone.

paper, and by that on ladder exercises which Coming down may be done by reversing

will follow. these motions, the gymnast thus descending

CLIMBING THE MAST. by movcments similar so those with which he

The mast is very much thicker than the went up; or he may slide down with the grasp

ordinary climbing pole, but the ascent may be in the legs, the hands scarcely touching the

accomplished in the same manner, the legs, pole; or the legs may be released, the pole

however, playing a more important part. They sliding through the hands.

are thrown tightly round The first method is the

the mast, and their probest when muscular exer.

pelling power is used as cise is more the object

much as possible, while than mere amusement.

the hands, which can In quick climbing, the

take only an imperfect learner should be oareful

grasp, are used to aid in to take very firm hold

the ascent. with both hands and foet,

Another way of ascend. in order that he may not Fig. 35.-Tox MAST AND ROPE,

ing the mast, which is slip slightly downward

practised chiefty for the before each movement of

sake of tho ingenuity it the body, and thus lose

requires, is shown in Fig. time in making his agcent.

35. The surfaco of the The climbing move

mast should in this case ment may be varied in

be roughened, to secure several ways. For in.

some holding power to stance, you may go up

the rope; the trunk of a either hand over hand,

rugged tree would do best each hand leading alter

for the purpose. For a nately; or at each grasp

learner, the rope should you may place the hands

be fastened round the as nearly as possible to.

body; but an expert gym. gether. You may climb Fig. 33.

Fig. 34.

nast would find more pleaby using the hands and CLIMBING THE POLE.

Tuz DOUBLE POLES. sure in using the untied one leg only, this leg

rope, or even an iron hoop. then grasping the pole both at the hock and

The weight of the back is thrown on the the instep, and being, so to speak, curled round

side of the rope farthest from the mast, which it. Or both legs and only one hand may be

is very firmly pressed by the feet, and the used to give the propelling power. Changing

tension thus given prevents the rope from the manner of ascent in this way from time

slipping downward. Considerable skill is reto time tends to render the exercises more

quired to advance more than a few steps in agreeable, and therefore more beneficial.

this kind of climbing, and the exercise is by Climbing with the head downward is some.

Fig. 36.-CLIMBING THE WALL.

no means so beneficial or useful to the gymnast times practised as a feat, but we must caution

as that which is found in the use of the single our readers against it as an act of folly which may be highly pole, the double pole, or the wall, which we are now going to injurious, and even be the cause of a broken neck.

describe. THE DOUBLE POLES.

CLIMBING THE WALL. These are placed on the same level, about a foot and a half The wall for climbing purposes is generally found at one apart, and, from the variety of the movements which may be end of the gymnasium, and is formed by inserting either grooves performed on them, they are a favourite adjunct in climbing or ledges in the perpendicular face of the structure. Climbing exercises.

up a wall with grooves for the insertion of the hands and feet The usual position in climbing by the double poles is similar is illustrated in Fig. 36. The more shallow the grooves or the to that before explained, both poles being grasped in the hands, edges, of course the more difficult is the ascent, as there is less and one leg being thrown closely around each. But the manner holding power ; but in high-class gymnasia these walls are con. of climbing may be varied in the same way as in the case of the structed in sections, presenting more or less difficulty. single pole, going up by using the hands alternately or together, Sometimes the climbing walls are made to present the appear etc. As a relief to the climbing movements, you may hang be- ance of a fortification, and rise tier above tier, with a mimic tween the poles, either by the hands alone, or by the hands and citadel at the top. Storming parties” are then formed in the feet, the latter position being shown in Fig. 34. In this caso course of the exercises ; a rush is made at the walls, and the the insteps are firmly pressed against the poles, relieving the first who reach the summit bear off the palm in the competition. hands of a portion of the weight of the body.

The nearer the surface of the wall is made to approach the ap. Swinging between the poles may also vary the other exer. pearance of a rough stone fortification, the more dexterity and cises, and, when the learner is expert enough, the climb may amusement are elicited by these “storming " manæuvres.

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LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXIV. deleterious. After tho ore has been submitted to this calcining

process for some time the heat is raised, and the fusion of the BISMUTH-COPPER-LEAD.

ore determined. The copper sulphide--mixed with some iron BISMUTH.

sulphide-sinks to the bottom of the furnace, forming the matt, STUBOL, Bi - COMBINING WEIGHT, 210 -SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 9.8. which is then drawn off into water, by which means it is granu. This metal exhibits a resemblance to arsenic and antimony, and lated. This coarse metal is again roasted, and the remaining is therefore sometimes classed with them in one group. It iron thus oxidised; ore rich in silica is added, and the whole occurs chiefly in a native state in quartz rock, and is found in fused. The oxide of iron and the silica form á slag; and the central Germany. To extract the metal from the ore, it is only copper in the form of a subsulphide – fine metal-(Cu,S) is necessary to raise the temperature until the bismuth fuses, and drawn off and cast into pigs. It only remains to free the metal in its liquid condition it leaves its matrix and sinks to the bottom from the sulphur ; this is accomplished by submitting the pigs of the furnace. The metal has the appearance of lead, perhaps to a heat in a reverberatory furnace just insufficient to fuse it exhibits a little warmer tint; it is hard and brittle ; at 264o them. The metal at the surface thus becomes oxidised, and Cent. it melts. If the crust of a vessel of molten bismuth, par. when fusion takes place this action occurs, tially cooled, be broken, and the still liquid metal poured out,

Cu,S + 2 CuO =

SO, + 4Cu. the cavity will be found lined with peculiar hollow cubical crys.

Thus the copper is obtained. It still requires to be refined. tala, which present the appearance of “the Greek pattern.” For this end it is again fused, in order to oxidate the last traces The crystals are not true cubes, but rhombohedra with large of foreign metals, which are removed as slags; and to reduce angles, only being 2° 20' from right angles.

any oxide of copper, the trunk of a young tree is thrust into At the moment of solidification this metal expands consider the molten mass, the gasos liberated from it deprive the oxide ably, hence it is always used in making alloys which are em of copper of its oxygen, and thus the metal is procured in its ployed in taking casts. The well-known fusible metal, which melts at a temperature a little below that of boiling water, is pure state'; this last process is termed poling.

The appearance of copper is well known, but when pure, as composed of two parts of bismuth, one of lead, and one of tin ; produced by the electrotyping process, it possesses a beautiful before this alloy fuses it becomes a paste, and when in this con- pink colour. It is very tenacious, ductile, and malleable. It dition if a medal be pressed into it a perfect cast is obtained. melts at about 1090° Cent., and is capable of some volatilisation, The expansion of the alloy on solidifying permits the medal to imparting a green tint to the flame. At ordinary temperatures be removed with ease. It is in this manner that the cliquée air has no action upon copper, but if heated a cupric oxide is moulds used in electrotyping are produced. Nitric acid readily formed, which, as it contracts more slowly than the metal beoxidises bismuth, and dissolves the oxide it forms.

neath, comes off in scales. If ignited, finely-divided copper will Hydrochloric and sulphuric acids likewise dissolve the bis burn like tinder into the black oxide. muthous oxide ; but apon adding water to these solutions the

Leaves of this metal, as we have seen, will burn in a jar of water displaces a portion of the acid from the salt, and the chlorine. All the alloys in which copper is a constituent have double salt thus formed falls as a precipitate.

been noticed. Bismuthous Oxide (Bi,O2) is a yellow powder produced when

Cuprous Oxide (Cu,O), or the subexide, occurs native as the metal is roasted in the air.

“ octohedral copper ore. Its colour is red. It may be artifiBismuthic Oxide, or the Peroxide of Bismuth (Bi,os), is pro- cially prepared in several ways; the most ready is, perhaps, by cured by acting on the former oxide by potash. On passing boiling a solution of copper sulphate, sugar, and caustic potash, chlorine, a red precipitate falls; this is washed with nitric acid, in excess; the oxide falls as a red powder. It forms with acids to remove any traces of the lower oxide.

cuprous salts, which readily take oxygen from the air, and beThis red powder is the hydrated peroxide; when heated it come cupric salts. It is chiefly used to stain glass a deep red. gives up its water and becomes brown. As in the case of When in a hydrated state it forms with ammonia a colourless antimony and arsenic, there seems to be an intermediate oxide solution, which offers a delicate test for oxygen, for it absorbs which may be considered a compound of the two.

that gas and turns blue. Bismuthic Sulphide (Bi,S.) occurs native as Bismuth Glance.

Cupric Oxide, the Black Oxide (CuO), is formed when heated It may be artificially produced by melting sulphur and the metal copper is exposed to the action of the air. It falls as a light together, and it falls as a black powder when a current of blue powder in a hydrated state, when potash is added to the salphuretted hydrogen is passed through a solution of a bismuth solution of a cupric salt; this powder, when heated to 100°, salt.

loses its water and becomes dark brown. Bismuthic Chloride (Bici,) is produced when bismuth is

It is of great service in analysis to furnish oxygen in a known heated in an atmosphere of chlorine. It resembles antimonio quantity, to complete the combustion of organic bodies. chloride, is very deliquescent, and capable of being distilled. A

The cupric salts which this oxide forms with acids are usually large quantity of water decomposes it into hydrochlorio acid green or blue, and colourless without water. Cupric oxide stains and an oxy-chloride of bismuth, known as pearl white, thus

glass a beautiful green. 3Bici, + 4H,0 = Bi,O,C1,,2H,0 + 6HCI.

With ammonia it forms a blue solution, with which the chaThe salts of bismuth present no marked characters; they racteristic bottles of a chemist's shop window are filled. become milky when diluted with water. Iron, zinc, copper, and Copper Sulphate, or Blue Vitriol (Cuso, + 51,0), has the tin throw down bismuth in a metallic state from its solution. greatest commercial importance of all the cupric salts. It The metal is easily reduced from its salts on charcoal before the crystallises in large blue crystals ; when heated it parts with blow-pipe. It appears as a brittle metallic bead surrounded by its five molecules of water of crystallisation, and becomes a the yellow bismuthous oxide.

white powder. This powder is useful in discovering the pre

sence of moisture, as it turns blue when combined with water. STUDOL, Ca - COMBINING WEIGHT, 63-5 — SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 8-9.

This salt is formed by the action of sulphuric acid on copper; it This useful metal occurs native in many localities,

as dendritic is largely used by the calico-printer, and is the source of all the copper, resembling a mass of rootlets; but in the neighbourhood copper pigments: cf Lake Superior native copper is found in large masses.

When ammonia is added to its solution, a greenish basic snl. The ores of copper are numerous.

is chiefly

phate of copper falls—which is readily dissolved in an excess of orked in this country is copper pyrites (Cu.S+F4,8). Its the alkali—from the

formation of a salt of a fine blue colour, chief deposit is in Cornwall.

which may be got in crystals, and has this compositionExtraction of the Metal.—This is effected by exposing the oro

Cuso,,H,0,4NH, This salt imparts the mauve tint to pyroheated on the hearth of a reverberatory furnace to the action

technic fires. of the air. The copper becomes a sulphide, whilst the iron

Cupric Nitrate (Cu,2NO3) crystallises with six molecules of becomes an oxide. This oxide is removed with the quartz, as a

water in blue rhomboidal prisms, which are deliquescent. It is

easily procured by acting on copper with nitric acid; in this During this process the furnaces emit a dense cloud, known as

action nitric oxide is liberated, thuscopper smoke. It contains fumes of arsenious, sulphurous, sul

3Cu + 8HNO, = 3 (Cu,2NO,) + 2N0 + 44,0. phuric and hydrochloric acids, and is consequently extremely Cupric Carbonate is found mixed with various quantities of

73

COPPER.

fusible slag.

VOL. III.

ores.

LEAD.

hydrated oxide in “malachite,” “chessylite,” and other copper LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXIV.

LATIN STEMS (continued). Copper forms with chlorine two compounds, Cuprous Chloride (Cu,cl,) and Cupric Chloride (Cucl.). A solution of the former It is curious to observe what a controlling influence the subjecte salt possesses the property of absorbing carbonic oxide gas. The matter has in the metaphors employed and the derivations that latter salt is formed when copper-leaf is burnt in chlorine, and are brought into play. We lay down railways; we set up an inn; with two molecules of water crystallises in acicular prisms. so we set up a carriage after we have made our fortune in that

Sulphides of Copper.—The Cuprous Sulphide, or Subsulphide shop which we set up when we were poor. As we may set up (Cu,S), is the result of the last process but one in the reduc a shop, so may we open a shop; but we must begin business, or tion of copper from its ore. Native cuprous sulphide is occa- we may set up in business. Having built or rented, we may open sionally found.

a warehouse, as we may open a shop. So in professions-parsons Cupric Sulphide (Cus) may be prepared artificially either by occupy a pulpit, and solicitors take to the desk, while barristers heating copper and sulphur together, or by precipitation from hold briefs, and judges fill the bench. We draw with a pencil a salt of copper in solution. With iron it appears native as and paint with a brush. Pictures as well as books are composed, copper pyrites. Peacock ore contains less iron. Tennantite, dark and both must be sketched before they are begun; bat the grey copper ore, and silver fahlerz all contain cupric sulphide. one ends in a painting, the other in a treatise; the one is the There are other cuprio salts of less interest.

canvas, the other is the volume.

If we are charitably inclined The salts of copper are poisonous; their antidote is albumen, and abound in wealth, we build a church, or found a hospital; the white of eggs, with which they form insoluble compounds. ' but if we expend our money for our own pleasure or convenience, With potash and soda a pale blue precipitate is given. This

we erect a mansion and lay out pleasure-grounds. Probably we is the case also with ammonia, but with this alkali the charac. may begin to travel, and then we make a voyage by sea and take teristic blue appears when it is added in excess. If iron be: a journey by land. A young man entering one of the univer. dipped into a cupric solution it becomes covered with copper. sities reads for honour, and studies for the church. If your son Since iron deprives the cupric salt of its acid, its surface being is a clergyman, he does duty on a Sunday; but if he is a dissentcovered with a layer of the corresponding ferric salt, and a coat ing minister, he preaches. A Methodist minister travels, a of metallic copper overlaying it, on account of the presence of minister of the Establishment is an incumbent; the latter has a the salt between the two metals, the coat of copper shells off. liring, the former is on a circuit. Lawyers advise, physicians

Zinc precipitates copper as a fine black powder, which exhi. prescribe, clergymen admonish, and confessors direct. A ship bits metallic lustre when burni-hed.

impelled by a steam-engine sails, a train drawn by a steamengine runs. Handicraftsmen receive their remuneration in

wages, clerks in salaries, lawyers in fees, and ministers of religion SYMBOL, Pb-COMBINING WEIGHT, 207 SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 11•36. in stipends.

Emolument, a term always applied to the receipts of the Galena, the chief ore of lead, is a sulphide of the metal. It higher classes, reminds one of the time when there was in each occurs in a cubic crystallisation, and possesses a marked metallic

manor or vicinity one mill, the lord or owner of which received lustre. In Cornwall it is found in the clay slates, and in Derby. shire in the mountain limestone. There are mines also at Laney, equivalent in money.

as his pay either a portion of the flour there ground or its

Hence emolument, properly that which in the Isle of Man. It is usually associated with more or less

comes out of the mill-stone, came to denote gain from office or sulphide of silver. The more imperfect the crystallisation of the

high employment. galena, the more sulphide of silver is present.

This fact loads to the observation that words to a full mind The extraction of lead from galena is not difficult; the ore is

are singularly suggestive; they are also singularly conservative, separated from the gangue (the earthy matters in which it is keeping and tacitly transmitting from age to age facts and embedded) by washing, and then spread on the bed of a rever- history which relate to their origin, and have something to teach beratory furnace. Some of the sulphur burns off, the lead be respecting ancient manners and customs. Gray has said coming an oxide ; some of the sulphide imbibes oxygen and becomes sulphate, whilst the large portion of the ore remains

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.” unchanged. When this process is sufficiently advanced, tho It is equally true that the word curfew (French, courrefu, put furnace doors are closed, and the heat raised to determine the out the fire, or fire-extinguisher) preserves a recollection of a fusion of the ore. The lead oxido and sulphate react on the day long since passed and gone, when the Norman, being sovegalona, as shown in these equations

reign lord of England, published his behest that at a fixed mo2PbO + PbS = 3Pb + So,

mont the fires of the Saxon peasantry should be extinguished. PbSO, + PbS = 2Pb + 290g.

Stipulation (Latin, stipula, a strau) preserves an indirect In each case the metal is liberated, and the sulp:ur escapes as

record of the legal custom once prevalent of presenting a straw sulphurous acid gas.

as a token of the delivery of possession to one who had purIf there be much quartz present, which is generally the chased an estate; and who keeping that straw as a token of matrix of the galena, lime is added to facilitate the liberation of his proprietorship, regarded it as the condition on which he held

the land. the metal, by causing the silica to form with the lime a fusible

In the phrase “ signing a deed," you have a trace of the times slag. Eetraction of Silver from Lead by Pattinson's Process.- This the cross in attestation of the part which they took in the

when men unable to write their name, made instead the sign of operation is based upon the fact thnt pure lead solidifies

matter. sooner than argentiferous lead. The lead is melted in an iron pan set in brickwork, on each side of which are four or five custom of employing pebbles (like the little balls in the abacus)

Calculation (Latin, calculus, a little stone) recalls the old similar pans in a row. When the metal is fused the fire is by which to perform questions of arithmetic (Greek, apiolhos, withdrawn, and as it cools the crystals of lezd which form first a-rith-mos, a number), or the science of number. are removed by a perforated iron ladle, and placed in the righthand pan, the argentiferous lead being ladled into the next when the rind or bark (Latin, liber) of trees served instead of

His library may remind the student of the primitive period pan to the left. The same process is ropeated in all the pans, the then unknown parchment and paper. the pure lend being ladled to the right, the silver lead to the left. The contents of the last pan to the left are then submitted to cupellation—that is, the metal at a high temperature is exposed Latin Words. Meanings.

English Words. to a current of air; the lead rapidly oxidises, and the film of Senex (senis)

senility. oxide is constantly removed, until the pure silver only remains. Sentio

I feel

sontient.

Sensus By this process it is found profitable to extract silver when

felt

sensation, dissent, there is even as little as four ounces of the precious metal in a

Sequor
I follow

obsequies, subsequent. Secutus

followed ton of lead.

persecute, prosecute. Sidus (sideris)

sider

sidereal. Properties.-Lead is a bluish-white metal, very soft. It may Silva

silran. be rolled into sheets, or drawn into pipes or wire, but its tena- Similis

simil

similar, similitude. city is low. It melts at 334o Cent.

Simul

at the same time simul simultaneous.

old

LATIN STEMS.

Stems,
seni
sent
sens, sent
segu
secut

a star al wood

silu

like

the sun

80min

{ scattered,

I pile up

Lalia Iords. Veanings. Stems. English words.

“An adjective is by nature a general and in some measure an abSimulo I feign simul

simulation, dissimulation. stract word, and presupposes the idea of a certain species or assortSocius a companion seci social, society.

ment of things, to all of which it is equally applicable.” Sol (solis)

sol
solar, solstice.

Smith, Formation of Languages."
Solor
I comfort
sol

solace, console. Solus

Sparse is a word not often used but convenient. It is specially alone 80l, soli

sole, solitude, soliloquy. Solvo I loose solv dissolve.

applicable when in the thing spoken of the idea of sprinkled or Solstas locscd solu, solut soluble, dissolute,

scattered, the notion “ here and there," the notion “up and Bomuns sleep

somniferous.

down,” the notion "in different parts," "confusedly," " without Sopor (soporis) havinces

80 por
soporific.

order,” is implied or intended : these are cases in which our term Sorbeo I suck in 80rb

absorbent.

rare does not meet the want. Sorptus sucked in sorpt absorplion.

"There are doubtless many such soils sparsedly through the nation." Sors (sortis) a lot

sort
sort, assort, consort,

-Evelyn.
Starsus

sparse, 8!'ers sparso, disperse, asperzion.
sprinkled
Contiguous differs from both adjacent and near.

Near conSpecies a form speci species, specific.

veys the common idea of proximity. But that which is near Specio I see speci specious.

does not touch, whereas the idea of touching is essential in conSpectus scon spect aspect.

tiguity. But contiguity implies not merely that A touches B, Specula a watchetouer spocul speculate.

but also that B touches A ; but a thing is adjacent when it lies Spero I hope sper, spair desperate, de pair.

up to another thing, whether it touches that other thing or not. Spiro I breathe spir

re-piration, exspire. S: ondeo I rou, promise spond respond.

As in many cases the differences here are very much differences Sporsus towed, betrothed spous

of conception, you may conceive and so speak of that which is

response, 810nsor, spouse, Stillo I drop stil distil,

adjacent as being also contiguous, though things so lying can Stinguo I put out stingu extinguish,

scarcely be thought of as being near; yet may proximity be preStinctus extinguished stinct

extinct,

dicated of them, inasmuch as proximus means next, that is Stipala a straw et pel stipulate.

nearest, the one thing of a series which comes next or nearest Stirps root of a tres stirp

exstirpate.

to another. It may happen that the next is also contiguous, or Sto I stand stat, stant, stic st ilure, distant, solstice.

actually touching. Two parishes are near each other; two dis. Stringo I bind string a tringent.

tricts of those two parishes are adjacent; two limits of those Strictus bound

strict

strict, restrict. Struo

two districts are actually contiguous.
strue, stroy construe, destroy.
Structus piled up

struct
structure.

EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
Stultus
foolish

stult
stultify.

Words with their proper Prepositions.
Quadeo
I advise

suad

persuade, dissuade. Suasus

Words.

F.R. advised

swas

persuasion. Suavis

Dash against, upon,
stocet

suav
suavity.

dask, a llor.
Sumo
I take
sum, sumpt assume, assumption.

Deal in, by, with,

dælan, to separate.
Sargo
I rise

Debar of, from,
insurgent.
surg

barre, a bar. Surrectus

Decide on,
risen

surrect
resurrection.

credo, I cut.
Tango
I touch
tay, tig tangent, contiguous.

Defend against, from,

fendo, I cleare.
Tactus
touched

tact
tact, contact.
Deficient in,

facio, I make.
Tarius
slow
tard

Defraud of, tardy, retard,

fraudo, I chcat.
Tego
I corer

teg
integument.
Demand of,

mando, I c018 m. Tectus [ris). corered

tect

protect. Tempus tempó- time tempor temporal, contemporary.

or (a thing), tend, tent, tencel, attend, distend, ex.

Depend on,
Tendo

pendo, I lang.
I stretol
tens s tend, tent, extent, intense. Deprive of,

privo, I deprive.

Derogate from,
Subsequent properly denotes that which follows immediately.

I ask.
Derogatory to, )

rogo, The force of immediately is given by the sub. This word re

Descended froin,

scaudo, I climb. minds me of a defect in the English language ; we have no adjec- Deserving of,

servus, a slave. tive equivalent to the adverb ofter, no adjective which denotes Desirous of,

desiderium, desire the relation of afterwards simply, apart, that is from the ques.

Desist from,

sto, I stand. tion whether the sequence is near or remote. Commonly,

Despair of,

spero, I hope. subsequent is so used.

Despoil of,

spolio, I strip, rob. Destined to,

teneo, I hold. Simulation and dissimulation, both from simulo, I feign, or

Destitute of,

destitutus, deprired. pot on a character, differ thus : simulation signifies pretending Detach from,

detacher, to indo. to be what you are not; and dissimulation concealing what you Detract from,

traho, I drar. are. They have both the same porpose-namely, to produce a

Make an abstract of the narrative which ensues, and then false impression, to mislead ; and so are both wrong.

report it by word of mouth to children or friends. If you “Hide thee, thou bloody hand,

prefer, give the substance of it in a letter to a correspondent. Thou perjured, and thou simular of virtue;

Take care in any case not to copy or transcribe :-
Thou art incestuous." --Shakespeare, “ Lear,"

CHARLES EDWARD ENTERING HOLYROOD. The way in which a metaphor may cloak e moral misde. mearoor is exemplified in the following quotation, where dis- Forth, and, animated by every fear, the terrified men of Edinburgh made

On the 13th of September the little army of Charles crossed the simulation is made to seem almost a virtue by reference to the

a show of standing to their colours. But this parade was not fated to propriety of keeping your own hand unseen while playing at last long. On the 16th, the Prince's advanced guard were at KirkCards :

liston, within a few miles of the city, where the consternation inSimulation and dissimulation are the chief arts of cunning; the creased every moment, until the volunteers began to bribe with six

The 2.st will be esteemed always by a wise man unworthy of him, and will pences every soldier they met, to take their arms to the castle. be therefore avoided by him in every possible case; for to resumo my

arrival of the Prince was awaited by the Whigs with doubt and Lord Bacon's comparison, simulation is put on that we may look into dismay, and by the Jacobites (at the head of whom was the Provost) the cards of another; wherens dissimulation intends nothing more

with an exultation which they took very little pains to conceal. Certhan to hide our own."- Bolingbroke.

tain commissjoners were sent to Gray's Mill, to treat with the High.

of Our word sort comes to us from the Latin sors, through the land chiefs for delivering the keys of the city on the list terms.

what passed at the conference nothing is known, but, by a preconcerted French sorte, which means kind or species with special reference arrangement (it is supposed) between them and the Prince, the city to quality, as is exemplified in tho phrase "of what sort ? ”

was surprised next morning at four o'clock. A soldier of the city From this idea of qnality is derived the application of the word guard, sentinel at the Netherbow, stopped a hackney corch that as found in “to sort,” “ to assort.”

approached his post. “Open the Port!” cried the driver, " for I be"And when my careful eye I cast upon my sheep,

hove to get out." “Yon cannot,” replied the sentinel, “ without an I sort them in my pens, and sorted so I keep."- Drayton.

order from Provost Stuart." “Provost Contts bath ordered me to be

let out," replied the driver, whipping up his horses. The soldier still * The common forms in composition are extinguo and extinctus. remonstrated, when James Gillespie, under.keeper of the Port, said

Denounce against (a person) } nuntius, e messoager

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