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LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXIV. deleterious. After the ore has been submitted to this calcining BISMUTH-COPPER-LEAD.
process for some time the heat is raised, and the fusion of the
ore determined. The copper sulphide-mixed with some iron BISMUTH.
sulphide-sinks to the bottom of the furnace, forming the matt, STABOL, Bi — COMBINING WEIGHT, 210-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 9-8. which is then drawn off into water, by which means it is granuThis metal exhibits a resemblance to arsenic and antimony, and lated. This coarse metal is again roasted, and the remaining is therefore sometimes classed with them in one group. It iron thus oxidised; ore rich in silica is added, and the whole occurs chiefly in a native state in quartz rock, and is found in fused. The oxide of iron and the silica form á slag; and the central Germany. To extract the metal from the ore, it is only copper in the form of a subsulphide —- fine metal-(Cu,S) is necessary to raise the temperature until the bismuth fuses, and drawn off and cast into pigs. It only remains to free the metal in its liquid condition it leaves its matrix and sinks to the bottom from the sulphur ; this is accomplished by submitting the pigs of the furnace. The metal has the appearance of lead, perhaps to a heat in a reverberatory furnace just insufficient to fuse it exhibits a little warmer tint; it is hard and brittle ; at 264o them. The metal at the surface thus becomes oxidised, and Cent. it melts. If the crust of a vessel of molten bismuth, par- when fusion takes place this action occurstially cooled, be broken, and the still liquid metal poured out,
Cu,S + 2CuO = SO, + 4Ca. the cavity will be found lined with peculiar hollow cubical crys.
Thus the copper is obtained. It still requires to be refined. tals, which present the appearance of “the Greek pattern." For this end it is again fused, in order to oxidate the last traces The crystals are not true cubes, but rhombohedra with large of foreign metals, which are removed as slags; and to reduce angles, only being 2° 20' from right angles. At the moment of solidification this metal expands consider the molten mass, the gases liberated from it deprive the oxide
any oxide of copper, the trunk of a young tree is thrust into ably, hence it is always used in making alloys which are em- of copper of its oxygen, and thus the metal is procured in its ployed in taking casts. The well-known fusible metal, which pure state"; this last process is termed poling, melts at a temperature a little below that of boiling water, is composed of two parts of bismuth, one of lead, and one of tin ; produced by the electrotyping process, it possesses a beautiful
The appearance of copper is well known, but when pure, as before this alloy fases it becomes a paste, and when in this con- pink colour. It is very tenacious, ductile, and malleable. It dition if a medal be pressed into it a perfect cast is obtained. melts at about 1090o Cent.,
and is capable of some volatilisation, The expansion of the alloy on solidifying permits the medal to imparting a green tint to the flame. At ordinary temperatures be removed with ease. It is in this manner that the cliquée air has no action upon copper, but if heated a cupric oxide is monlds used in electrotyping are produced. Nitric acid readily formed, which, as it contracts more slowly than the metal beoxidises bismuth, and dissolves the oxide it forms.
neath, comes off in scales. If ignited, finely-divided copper will Hydrochloric and sulphuric acids likewise dissolve the bis- burn like tinder into the black oxide. muthous oxide; but upon adding water to these solutions the water displaces a portion of the acid from the salt, and the chlorine. All the alloys in which copper is a constituent have
Leaves of this metal, as we have seen, will burn in a jar of double salt thus formed falls as a precipitate.
been noticed. Bismuthous Oxide (Bi,02) is a yellow powder produced when
Cuprous Oxide (Cu,0), or the subexide, occurs native as the metal is roasted in the air. Bismuthic Oxide, or the Peroxide of Bismuth (Bi,Os), is pro- cially prepared in several ways; the most ready is, perhaps, by
"octohedral copper ore." Its colour is red. It may be artificured by acting on the former oxide by potash. On passing boiling a solution of copper sulphate, sugar, and caustio potash, chlorine, a red precipitate falls; this is washed with nitric acid, in excess; the oxide falls as a red powder. It forms with acids to remove any traces of the lower oxide. This red powder is the hydrated peroxide; when heated it come cupric salts. It is chiefly used to stain glass a deep red.
cuprous salts, which readily take oxygen from the air, and begives up its water and becomes brown. As in the case of When in a hydrated state it forms with ammonia a colourless antimony and arsenic, there seems to be an intermediate oxide solution, which offers a delicate test for oxygen, for it absorbs which may be considered a compound of the two.
that gas and turns blue. Bismuthic Sulphide (Bi,S2) occurs native as Bismuth Glance.
Cupric Oxide, the Black Oxide (CuO), is formed when heated It may be artificially produced by melting sulphur and the metal copper is exposed to the action of the air. It falls as a light together, and it falls as a black powder when a current of blue powder in a hydrated state, when potash is added to the sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through a solution of a bismuth solution of a cupric salt; this powder, when heated to 100°, salt.
loses its water and becomes dark brown. Bismuthic Chloride (Bici,) is produced when bismuth is
It is of great service in analysis to furnish oxygen in a known heated in an atmosphere of chlorine. It resembles antimonio chloride, is very deliquescent, and capable of being distilled. A quantity, to complete the combustion of organic bodies.
The cupric salts which this oxide forms with acids are usually large quantity of water decomposes it into hydrochloric acid green or blue, and colourless without water. Cuprio oxide stains and an oxy-chloride of bismuth, known as pearl white, thus
glass a beautiful green. 3Bici, + 4H,0 = Bi,O,C1,,2H,0 + 6HCI.
With ammonia it forms a blue solution, with which the chaThe salts of bismuth present no marked characters; they racteristic bottles of a chemist's shop window are filled. become milky when diluted with water. Iron, zinc, copper, and Copper Sulphate, or Blue Vitriol (Cuso, + 51,0), has the tin throw down bismuth in a metallic state from its solution. greatest commercial importance of all the cupric salts. It The metal is easily reduced from its salts on charcoal before the crystallises in large blue crystals; when heated it parts with blow-pipe. It appears as a brittle metallic bead surrounded by its five molecules of water of crystallisation, and becomes a the yellow bismnthous oxide.
white powder. This powder is useful in discovering the preCOPPER.
sence of moisture, as it turns blue when combined with water. STMIOL, Ca --COMBINING WEIGHT, 63-5 — SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 8-9.
This salt is formed by the action of sulphuric acid on copper; it This useful metal occurs native in many localities, as dendritic is largely used by the calico-printer, and is the source of all the copper, resembling a mass of rootlets; but in the neighbourhood
copper pigments. ef Lake Superior native copper is found in large masses.
When ammonia is added to its solution, a greenish basic sulThe ores of copper are numerous. That which is chiefly phate of copper falls—which is readily dissolved in an excess of worked in this country is copper pyrites (Cu,s + Fe Sz). Its
the alkali- from the formation of a salt of a fine blue colour, chief deposit is in Cornwall.
which may be got in crystals, and has this compositionExtraction of the Metal.—This is effected by exposing the ore
CuSO,,H,0,4NH,. This salt imparts the mauve tint to pyroheated on the
hearth of a reverberatory furnace to the action technic fires. of the air. The copper becomes a sulphide, whilst the iron
Cupric Nitrate (Cu, 2NO3) crystallisos with six molecules of becomes an oxide. This oxide is removed with the quartz, as a water in blue rhomboidal prisms, which are deliquescent. It is fusible slag.
easily procured by acting on copper with nitric acid ; in this During this process the furnaces emit a dense cloud, known as action nitric oxide is liberated, thuscopper smoke. It contains fumes of arsenious, sulphurous, sul
3Cu + SHNO, = 3 (Cu,2NO,) + 2NO+ 44,0. phuric and hydrochloric acids, and is consequently extremely Cupric Carbonate is found mixed with varions quantities of
hydrated oxide in “malachite," "chessylite," and other copper LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXIV.
LATIN STEMS (continued). (Cu,cl,) and Cupric Chloride (Cuci,). A solution of the former It is curious to observe what a controlling influence the subjectsalt possesses the property of absorbing carbonic oxide gas. The matter has in the metaphors employed and the derivations that latter salt is formed when copper-leaf is burnt in chlorine, and are brought into play. We lay down railways; we set up an inn ; with two molecules of water crystallises in acicular prisms. so we set up a carriage after we have made our fortune in that
Sulphides of Copper - The Cuprous Sulphide, or Subsulphide shop which we set up when we were poor. As we may set up (Cu,S), is the result of the last process but one in the reduc a shop, so may we open a shop; but we must begin business, or tion of copper from its ore. Native cuprous sulphide is occa- we may set up in business. Having built or rented, we may open sionally found.
a warehouse, as we may open a shop. So in professions-parsons Cupric Sulphide (Cus) may be prepared artificially either by occupy a pulpit, and solicitors take to the desk, while barristers heating copper and sulphur together, or by precipitation from hold briefs, and judges fill the bench. We draw with a pencil a salt of copper in solution. With iron it appears native as and paint with a brush. Pictures as well as books are composed, copper pyrites. Peacock ore contains less iron. Tennantite, dark and both must be sketched before they are begun; bat the grey copper ore, and silver fahlerz all contain cupric sulphide. one ends in a painting, the other in a treatise; the one is the There are other cuprio salts of less interest.
canvas, the other is the volume. If we are charitably inclined The salts of copper are poisonous ; their antidote is albumen, and abound in wealth, we build a church, or found a hospital; the white of eggs, with which they form insoluble compounds. but if we expend our money for our own pleasure or convenience, With potash and soda a pale blue precipitate is given. This we erect a mansion and lay out pleasure-grounds. Probably we is the case also with ammonia, but with this alkali the charac. may begin to travel, and then we make a voyage by sea and take teristic blue appears when it is added in excess. If iron be i a journey by land. A young man entering one of the univerdipped into a cupric solution it becomes covered with copper. sities reads for honour, and studies for the church. If your SOD Since iron deprives the cupric salt of its acid, its surface being is a clergyman, he does duty on a Sunday; but if he is a dissentcovered with a layer of the corresponding ferric salt, and a coat ing minister, he preaches. A Methodist minister travels, a of metallic copper overlaying it, on account of the presence of minister of the Establishment is an incumbent; the latter has a the salt between the two metals, the coat of copper shells off. living, the former is on a circuit. Lawyers advise, physicians
Zinc precipitates copper as a fine black powder, which exhi- prescribe, clergymen admonish, and confessors direct. A ship bits metallic lustre when burnished.
impelled by a steam-engine sails, a train drawn by a steam
engine runs. Handicraftsmen receive their remuneration in LEAD.
wages, clerks in salaries, lawyers in fees, and ministers of religion SYMBOL, Pb-COMBINING WEIGHT, 207 - SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 11•36. in stipends.
Emolument, a term always applied to the receipts of the Galena, the chief ore of lead, is a sulphide of the metal. It higher classes, reminds one of the time when there was in each occurs in a cubic crystallisation, and possesses a marked metallic manor or vicinity one mill, the lord or owner of which received lustre. In Cornwall it is found in the clay slates, and in Derby, as his pay either a portion of the flour there ground or its shire in the mountain limestone. There are mines also at Laney, equivalent in money. Hence emolument, properly that which in the Isle of Man. It is usually associated with more or less sulphide of silver. The more imperfect the crystallisation
of the comes out of the mill-stone, came to denote gain from office or
high employment. galena, the more sulphide of silver is present.
This fact leads to the observation that words to a full mind The extraction of lead from galena is not dificult ; the ore is are singularly suggestive ; they are also singularly conservative, separated from the gangue (the earthy matters in which it is keeping and tacitly transmitting from age to age facts and embedded) by washing, and then spread on the bed of a rever- history which relate to their origin, and have something to teach beratory furnace. Some of the sulphur burns off, the lead be respecting
ancient manners and customs. Gray has said — coming an oxide ; some of the sulphide imbibes oxygen and becomes sulphate, whilst the large portion of the ore remains
“The curfew tolls the knell of parting day." unchanged. When this process is sufficiently advanced, the It is equally true that the word curfew (French, couvrefu, put furnace doors are closed, and the heat raised to determine the out the fire, or fire-extinguisher) preserves a recollection of a fusion of the ore. The lead oxide and sulphate react on the day long since passed and gone, when the Norman, being sovegalena, as shown in these equations
reign lord of England, published his behest that at a fixed mo2PbO + PbS = 3Pb + SO,
ment the fires of the Saxon peasantry should be extinguished. PbSO, + PbS = 2Pb + 250g.
Stipulation (Latin, stipula, a straw) preserves an indirect In each case the metal is liberated, and the sulpkur escapes as
record of the legal custom once prevalent of presenting a straw sulphurous acid gas.
as a token of the delivery of possession to one who had purIf there be much quartz present, which is generally the his proprietorship, regarded it as the condition on which he held
chased an estate; and who keeping that straw as a token of matrix of the galena, lime is added to facilitate the liberation of
the land. the metal, by causing the silica to form with the lime a fusible
In the phrase " signing a deed,” you have a trace of the times slag. Extraction of Silver from Lead by Pattinson's Processo - This the cross in attestation of the part which they took in the
when men unable to write their name, made instead the sign of operation is based upon the fact that pure lead solidifies
matter. sooner than argentiferous lead. The lead is melted in an iron ...n set in brickwork, on each side of which are four or five custom of employing pebbles (like the little balls in the abacus)
Calculation (Latin, calculus, a little stone) recalls the old similar pans in a row. When the metal is fused the fire is withdrawn, and as it cools the crystals of lead which form first by which to perform questions of arithmetic (Greek, apabuos
, are removed by a perforated
, and placed in the right a-rith-mos, a number), or the science of number. hand pan, the argentiferous lead being ladled into the next when the rind or bark (Latin, liber) of trees served instead of
His library may remind the student of the primitive period pan to the left. The same process is repeated in all the pans, the then unknown parchment and paper. the pure lead being ladled to the right, the silver lead to the left. The contents of the last pan to the left are then submitted to
LATIN STEMS. cupellation--that is, the metal at a high temperature is exposed Latin Words. Meanings. Stems. English Words. to a current of air; the lead rapidly oxidises, and the film of Senex (senis) ota
seni senülity. oxide is constantly removed, until the pure silver only remains. Sentio
sentient. By this process it is found profitable to extract silver when
sens, sent sensation, dissent.
Sequor there is even as little as four ounces of the precious metal in a
obsequies, subsequent. Secutus
followed seout ton of lead.
perscoute, prosecute. Sidus (siděris)
sider Properties. Lead is a bluish-white metal, very soft. It may Silva
sidereal. a wood silo
silvan. be rolled into sheets, or drawn into pipes or wire, but its tena- Similis like
simil similar, similitude. city is low. It melts at 334o Cent.
Simul at the same time simul simultaneous.
La in Words. Meanings. Stems. English Words.
“An adjective is by nature a general and in some measure an abSimalo I feign simul simulation, dissimulation. stract word, and presupposes the idea of a certain species or assortSocius a companion soci
ment of things, to all of which it is equally applicable." Sol (solis) the sun solar, solstice.
Smith, “ Formation of Languages," Solor I comfort
solace, console. Solus
Sparse is a word not often used but convenient. It is specially alone
sole, solitude, soliloquy.
sol, soli Solvo I loose solv dissolve.
applicable when in the thing spoken of the idea of sprinkled or Boletus locsed solue, solut soluble, dissolute.
scattered, the notion “ here and there," the notion "up and Bomuns sleep
down,” the notion "in different parts," "confusedly," " without Sopor (soporis) heaviness sopor
order," is implied or intended : these are cases in which our term Sorbeo I suck in sorb
rare does not meet the want. Sorptus sucked in
“There are doubtless many such soils sparsedly through the nation." Sors (sortis) a lot
Near conSpecies a form
veys the common idea of proximity. But that which is near Specio I see speci spccious.
does not touch, whereas the idea of touching is essential in corSpectus seon
tiguity. But contiguity implies not merely that A touches B, Specula a toatch-tower specul speculate.
but also that B touches A ; but a thing is adjacent when it lies Spero I hope
sper, spair desperate, despair. Spiro I breathe spir
up to another thing, whether it touches that other thing or not. Srondeo I vow, promise spond respond.
As in many cases the differences here are very much differences Sponsus vowed, betrothed spons
response, sponsor, spouse.
of conception, you may conceive and so speak of that which is Stillo I drop stil distil.
adjacent as being also contiguous, though things so lying can Stinguo* I put out stingu extinguish.
scarcely be thought of as being near; yet may proximity be preStinctus exetinguished stinct extinct.
dicated of them, inasmuch as proximus means next, that is Stipula a straw stipul stipulate.
nearest, the one thing of a series which comes next or nearest Stirps root of a tree stirp
to another. It may happen that the next is also contiguous, or Sto I stand stat, stant, stic stature, distant, solstice.
actually touching. Two parishes are near each other; two dis. Stringo I bind
string astringent. Strictus bound
tricts of those two parishes are adjacent; two limits of those strict
strict, restrict. Struo I pile up strue, stroy construe, destroy.
two districts are actually contiguous. Structus piled up struct structure,
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
Words with their proper Prepositions.
F.R. Saaris stocet suavity.
Dash against, upon, suav
dask, a llou. Sumo I take sum, sumpt assume, assumption.
Deal in, by, with,
dælan, to separate.
barre, a bar.
cædo, I cut. Tango I touch tang, tig tangent, contiguous.
Defend against, from,
fendo, I cleare.
facio, I make. Turdus slow
fraudo, I cheat.
mando, I consig. Tectus [ris). covered tect
Denounce against (a person) } nuntius, e messenger Tempus (tempo- time tempor temporal, contemporary.
or (a thing),
Depend on, Tendo tend, tent, tend, attend, distend, ex
pendo, I lang.
privo, I deprive.
Derogate from, Subsequent properly denotes that which follows immediately. Derogatory to,
rogo, I ask. The force of immediately is given by the sub. This word re. Descended from,
scando, I climb. minds me of a defect in the English language ; we have no adjec Deserving of,
servus, a slave. tive equivalent to the adverb ofter, no adjective which denotes Desirous of,
desiderium, desire the relation of afterwards simply, apart, that is from the ques.
sto, I stand. tion whether the sequence is near or remote. Commonly,
spero, I hope. subsequent is so used.
spolio, I strip, rob.
Destined to, Simulation and dissimulation, both from simulo, I feign, or
teneo, I hold. Destitute of,
destitutus, deprived. put on a character, differ thus : simulation signifies pretending Detach from,
detacher, to undo. to be what you are not; and dissimulation concealing what you Detract from,
traho, I draw. are. They have both the same purpose-namely, to produce a false impression, to mislead ; and so are both wrong.
Make an abstract of the narrative which ensues, and then
report it by word of mouth to children or friends. If you “Hide thee, thou bloody hand,
prefer, give the substance of it in a letter to a correspondent. Thou perjured, and thou simular of virtne;
Take care in any case not to copy or transcribe :-
CHARLES EDWARD ENTERING HOLYROOD. The way in which a metaphor may cloak a moral misdemeanour' is exemplified in the following quotation, where dis- Forth, and, animated by every fear, the terrified men of Edinburgh made
On the 13th of September the little army of Charles crossed the simulation is made to seem almost a virtue by reference to the a show of standing to their colours. But this parade was not fated to propriety of keeping your own hand unseen while playing at last long. On the 16th, the Prince's advanced guard were at Kirk
liston, within a few miles of the city, where the consternation in"Simulation and dissimulation are the chief arts of cunning; the creased every moment, until the volunteers began to bribe with sixfirst will be esteemed always by a wise man unworthy of him, and will pences every soldier they met, to take their arms to the castle. The be therefore avoided by him in every possible case;
for to resumo my arrival of the Prince was awaited by the Whigs with doubt and Lord Bacon's comparison, simulation is put on that we may
look into dismay, and by the Jacobites (at the head of whom was the Provost) the cards of another; whereas dissimulation intends nothing more
with an exultation which they took very little pains to couceal. Certhan to hide our own." -- Bolingbroke.
tain commissjoners were sent to Gray's Mill, to treat with the High
Of Our word sort comes to us from the Latin sors, through the land chiefs for delivering the keys of the city on the best terms. French sorte , which means kind or species with special reference arrangement (it
is supposed) between them and the Prince, the city
what passed at the conference nothing is known, but, by a preconcerted as is exemplified in the phrase "of what sort ?” was surprised next morning at four o'clock. A soldier of the city From this idea of quality is derived the application of the word guard, sentinel at the Netherbow, stopped a hackney coach that as found in " to sort," "to assort.”
approached his post. “Open the Port!" cried the driver, " for I be"And when my careful eye I cast upon my sheep,
hove to get out." “You cannot," replied the sentinel, " without an I sort them in my pens, and sorted so I keep." --Drayton.
order from Provost Stuart." "Provost Coutts bath ordered me to be
let out,” replied the driver, whipping up his horses. The soldier still * The common forms in composition are extinguo and extinctus, remonstrated, when James Gillespie, under-keeper of the Port, said
"Let out the coach instantly, for I have an order to that effect." SECTION XCII.-RUTACEÆ, OR RUEWORTS. “Oh, sir, 'tis well that you have the keys of the Port and must Characteristics : Calyx four or five-partite; petals equal in answer for it,” replied the soldier, and pulled back the ponderous gate number to the divisions of the calyx, inserted upon a hypogynous in the arch between the towers. The moment the coach passed out, or almost perigynous disc, ordinarily free ; stamens equal in a Highlander sprang in, and in the twilight, grasped the sentinel, and wrested his musket from him. It was the chieftain of Lochiel; and number to the petals, sometimes double the number; ovaries immediately the whole Clan Cameron, 900 strong, with swords drawn free or coherent to a variable extent; ordinarily bi-ovulate; and banners displayed, all clad in their native tartan, marched up the styles distinct at their base, coherent at their summit; capsule High-street with twelve pipers before them, making the lofty houses many-valved, having a smooth cartilaginous endocarp opening ring, and awakening the terrified citizens with the stirring air of - by its own elasticity into two lobes ; seed dicotyledonous; stem “ We'll awa to Shirramuir,
ordinarily ligneous; leaves without stipules, or provided with And haud the Whigs in order,"
two glands at the base of each petiole. About mid-day, the main body of the Highland army, making a
This order has been divided into two sub-orders, the Ruteæ circuit by the ancient Tower of Merchiston, marched west by the and the Diosmes. In the former the seeds contain albumen, Grange Loan, a narrow road, between old walls and aged trees, and while the fruit has the sarcocarp and endocarp combined; thus avoiding the castle guns, arrived in the King's Park, where the but in the latter the seeds are exalbuminous, and when the fruit young Prince-arrayed in the national garb, which displayed to advan. is ripe the sarcocarp is separate from the endocarp. tage his tall and handsome figure, and wearing on his left breast the The Rutaceæ are found in all parts of the world, the Rutem Order of the Thistle-was received with acclamation by the people. being chiefly found in the south part of the north temperate Surrounded by his Highland guard—all veterans of Sheriffmuir and zone, while the Diosmeæ are for the most part natives of South Glenshiel, men verging on eighty years of age, and distinguished by Africa and Australia. Their properties are dependent on the snow-white beards and Lochaber axes—the Prince approached the great gate of the palace, and there he paused; for, at that moment, a presence of a resin and a volatile oil, occasionally mingled with twenty-four pound shot, fired from the castle, struck the front wall of a peculiar bitter principle : this is especially the case as regards James V.'s Tower, near the window that lights the state apartments the Galipea trifoliata, a tree which grows in vast forests on of Queen Mary. It dislodged several stones, and they fell together the banks of the Orinoco, and whose bark is known in cominto the court. In this incident there was something so peculiarly merce under the name of Angostura bark. The leaves of the insulting to the descendant of the Stuarts when standing on the very Barosma crenata, and other natives of the Cape of Good Hope, threshold of their desolate palace, that a simultaneous groan burst are employed as a valuable medicine : they are known in com. from the spectators; a shout of acclamation followed, and the Prince merce as buchu leaves. Many species of Diosma are now again approached the gate, but again paused, and looked round him cultivated in Europe, among which the Lemonia spectabilis, a irresolutely, for there was no Lord Keeper, no Earl Marischal, no Great Chamberlain, n0 Master of the Household, to usher him into native of Cuba, and the dittany, or Dictamnus fraxinella (Fig. 251), ancient Holyrood, till a gentleman sprang from the crowd, raised his are the most remarkable. The latter is indigenous to Germany, hat, and drawing his dress-sword, led the way to the state apartments, and is noticeable for the large amount of inflammable gas which wbile another shout of applause burst from the people. In absence it secretes, so that if in the evening of a hot day a flame be of his father, the Prince was proclaimed Regent of Britain by the caused to approach a mass of these plants, the combustible heralds, at the cross, around which Lochiel, with his Camerons, and atmosphere around them takes fire, the plants themselves ree several ladies on horseback with drawn swords, acted as guard; the maining uninjured. first for safety, the last for honour and enthusiasm, The Highlanders stayed within their camp, or, when in the city, behaved themselves
SECTION XCIII.-XANTHOXYLACEÆ, OR XANTHOXYLS. with the utmost order and decorum; no outrages were committed, Characteristics : Calyx free; petals hypogynous, equal in and no brawls of any kind ensued.-Memorials of the Castle of Edin- number to that of the divisions of the calyx; convolute or im. burgh, pp. 225-228.
bricated in æstivation; caduceous, rarely absent; stamens
equal in number to the petals, or double the latter; carpels LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXIII.
elevated on a stipes, free or coherent at their base, or sometimes SECTION XC.-LINACEÆ, OR FLAXWORTS.
completely aggregated into a many-celled ovary, each containing
two or four reflex ovules; fruit various; seed dicotyledonous ; Characteristics :
: Sepals five or four, either free or joined at embryo embedded in the axis of a fleshy albumen ; radicle the base, persistent; petals five or four, hypogynous, contorted superior. in æstivation, caduceous ; stamens slightly monadelphous, five The Xanthoxylacere are inhabitants of the tropical and subor four, frequently ten, of which the five external ones are fertile, tropical regions of America and Asia. They are all characthe remainder barren; ovary four, five, or three-celled, bi-ovulate, terised by pungent and aromatic properties. The fruit of the each divided into two cells; ovules pendent, reflexed; styles three Xanthoxylon piperitum, or pepper-like xanthoxylon, a native of to five, filiform; stigmas capitular ; capsule septicidal ; seed Japan, is used by the Japanese instead of pepper. It is supdicotyledonous, exalbuminous; stem herbaceous or subligneous ; posed to be an antidote against many poisons. leaves simple without stipules; flowers regular.
SECTION XCIV.-MENISPERMACEÆ, OR MENISPERMADS. This small family, composed of two genera, is dispersed over the temperate regions of the entire world. The common flax twelve, hypogynous, usually free, sometimes absent; stamens
Characteristics : Sepals free, caduceous; petals three, sis, or (Linum usitatissimum, Fig. 247) is indigenous to Southern Europe and Northern Africa. In France and
Ireland vast tracts equal in number to the sepals, rarely more; filaments free, are devoted to its cultivation. The testa contains an abundant
sometimes monadelphous; ovaries many, free, unicorulate; mucilage, which confers on the seed its emollient properties. ovules curved; fruit bacciform or coriaceous ; seed straight or The use of linseed meal as a poultice material is very familiar. curved; embryo very large, slightly albuminons, or albumen These seeds contain a fixed oil, obtainable by expression, and totally absent; the stems of members of this natural order are employed in a great variety of useful operations ; it is especially flowers ordinarily diclinal.
flexible, climbing ; leaves alternate, simple, without stipules ; useful as a vehicle for mixing paint. It is naturally a drying oil, and its drying property is further augmented by boiling of Asia and Africa. The colombo, or root of the hand-leaved
The Menispermaceæ chiefly inhabit the intertropical regions with oxide of lead.
cocculus (Cocculus palmatus), a member of this natural order, SECTION XCI.—ZYGOPHYLLACEÆ, OR BEAN CAPERS. a native of Eastern Africa, is much employed in medical prac
Characteristics : Calyx free, five or four-partite; petals tice as a tonic, as is also the Pareira Brava root (Cissampelos hypogynous, free, equal in number to the divisions of the calyx ; Pareira), a native of the
West Indies. The Cocculus Indicus of imbricated in æstivation ; stamens equal in number to the petals; the druggists' shops is the fruit of the Anamirta paniculata, a ovary pluri-locular; ovule reflexed; capsule loculicidal or sepa- native of tropical Asia, where it is much used as an agent for rating into shells ; seed dicotyledonous, exalbuminous; embryo stupefying fish. To eat the fish thus stupefied is, however, not embedded in a cartilaginous albumen; stem herbaceous or altogether free from danger. The active principle of Cocculus woody; leaves opposite, pinnate, furnished with stipules. Indicus is picrotoxine, a crystalline alkaloid body scarcely less
The principal member of this natural family is the guaiacnm dangerous than strychnine. Many species of Menispermacew (Guaiacum officinale, Fig. 248). It is a large West Indian tree, are now cultivated in European gardens, amongst which the the wood of which is exceedingly hard, and known by the com Canadian moonseed, or Menispermum Canadense (Fig. 252)
, is mercial name of lignum vitæ.
SECTION XCV.-SCHIZANDRACEÆ, OR KADSURADS. many years at Chiswick, in the open air, and living through the Characteristics : Sepals three to six; petals hypogynous, six winter without protection. to nine, free, pluri-serial; stamens indefinite; ovaries numerous, SECTION XCVI.—MYRISTICACEÆ, OR NUTMEGS. borne on a stipes, free, occasionally coherent, bi-ovulate: ovules Characteristics : Flowers direcious; calyx two to four-partite ;
247. FLAX BLOSSOM (LINUM USITATISSIMUM). 248. GUAJACUM (GUAIACUM OFFICINALE). 249. FRUIT OF DITTO. 250. SECTION OF FRUIT OF DITTO.
251. DITTANY (DICTAMNUS FRAXINELLA). 252. CANADIAN MOONSEED (MENISPERMUM CANADENSE). 253. BLOSSOMS OF DITTO. 254. NUTMEG (MYRISTICA MOSCHATA). 255. SWEET SOP (ANONA SQUAMOSA). 256. SECTION OF FRUIT OF DITTO.
pendent; berries capitulous or on a spike; seed dicotyledonous; corolla absent; stamens monadelphous; orary single, unilocular; embryo straight, small, at the base of a fleshy albumen; stem ovules one or two erect, reflexed; berry capsular, one-celled, biligneous, twig-like ; leaves alternate, simple, ex-stipulate. valved; seed solitary, enveloped by a fleshy arillus.
The members of this small family are natives of Japan and The Myristicaceæ are trees or shrubs growing in tropical North America. They contain a mucilaginous juice, devoid regions; their leaves are alternate, simple, entiro. both of aroma and of acridity. A specimen of the scarlet The true nutmeg (Myristica moschata, Fiz. 234) is the most flowered schizandra (Schizandra coccinea) was to be seen for celebrated member of this family ; it is indigenous to the Mo