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EXERCISE 25. Write in shorthand
There was a time when earth's blest racc
Such holy ardour knew;
Within their bosoms grew,
While Summer smiled a softer hue;
With angels consort knew.
A sonl-depressing sway :
Slaves willing to obey.
Where Thou wert wont to smile sopreme,
Lit vith etocreal gleam.
draw to a spot where his authority was more unquestioned than
in the West. The effect of Constantine's conversion was to THE PAPACY.
bring about the conversion of many lesser potentates, whose TIME was when there was no Pope of Rome, even though people, prepared for the change by the zealous, self-denying Christianity had been established in the world's capital since Christian missionaries, speedily followed. Thus the kings and many years. Time was when, though there was Father, or Bishop of Rome, there was no pontiff king; when the people of Iberia, Armenia, of part of Abyssinia, and of India be.
camo Christians, while large numbers of the Goths and Germans See of St. Peter, as it has been called, was ruled in spiritual in the Imperial army embraced the same faith. The national matters by men who came up--and more than came up-to the religion of the Roman Empire, or as it was now called, the standard of qualifications set by St. Paul for those who would Greek Empire, was changed from paganism of various kinds to assume the office of bishop; men who adıninistered to their Christianity. brethren in spiritual things humbly, and with an ever-present The Church scarcely throve so well under prosperity as under sense of the responsibility of their charge; “ not making them. I adversity; but one of the first things done for her under the selves lords over God's heritage,” but administering soberly, ! new régime was to give her the emperor, a layman, for her fatherly, wisely. Surely the lament of the Tuscan poet for heal. Constantine was acknowledged to be the supreme head Rome, because she was not as she was once (Roma, Roma, non
of the Church, because it was deeined necessary to have some è piu com era prima), has an application now every whit as for- head; and the wisdom of the time—and of any time-could think cible as when it was first uttered. The eye of the citizen of the 'of no one better than the man who was the Church's protector world rests on the Eternal City, and sees things so different to and champion, and who, being a laymán, without any pontifical what St. Peter and his imme liate successors saw there, that he attributes, could not be suspected of spiritual despotism. The may well be excused for quoting the poet's words. It has been Church was administered by 1,800 bishops—1,000 in the Greek, suggested by an eminent historian, skilful in the formation of and 800 in the Roman provinces—whose dioceses varied in esbeautiful and eloquent contrasts between past and present, that' tent, according to the population, but whose rank was beinl. if the fisherman of Galilee could revisit the scene of his These bishops were elected by the clergy and the people of the ministry, he would ask with amazement whose worship the diocese, the emperor claiming a right to interfere in their final people were colebrating in the places where he had taught and appointment if he thought fit. But soon there was established preached the simplicity of Christian faith and works.
But by Constantine himself a distinct order of ecclesiastics—bishops however that may be, it is true, as stated above, that there who, once appointed, were absolute over their clergy, and was a time when the Roman Christians were not under papal who had the power, among other things, to excommunicate scrutiny, and also a time when the idea of secular authority- | those whom they deemed fit subjects for it. The secular arm temporal power-would have been looked on not only as incom- was lent to enforce the sentences of these rulers, who were com. patible with true spiritual power, but as preposterous and pared with the other prelates as archbishops to bishops ; but entirely out of character with the province of a bishop. Let us even among these privileged few distinctions were soon taken, look back a little upon the Rome of former days, and watch according to which Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Carthage, and through the telescope of time the gradual growth of that enor- ' afterwards Constantinople, were selected to form patriarchates, mous donninion over the minds and consciences of men which is, or primacies. now included in the Papacy, and the growth also of that other Councils met in the spring and autumn of each year to consubsidiary power, which includes the power of the sword, the sider the affairs of the whole Church. Archbishops could sampower which when St. Peter, in a moment of generous impulse, / mon to council all their dependent bishops and clergy, and the arrogated to himself and exercised, he was bidden by his Lord patriarchs could do the same by the whole of the clergy in their to forego it, and to put up his sword into its sheath.
see ; but an extraordinary council, or grand synod, containing Christ died in the thirty-third year of his age, and the apostles representatives from all Christendom, could be summoned by the and their successors, beginning from the feast of Pentecost. emperor alone. At the grand synod were discussed matters preached the Gospel of his kingdom both in the East and West affecting the whole Church of Christ, and as it was supposed with singular success. Not without much suffering and perse. I that the Spirit of God must necessarily be present among those cution did they achiove their work; many were the witnesses who were met to decide upon the affairs of the flock, it came to truth who were required to lay down their lives for the sake to be maintained that a General Council was infallible, and of Him who had in his own person shown them how to die and superior to the Pope-a doctrine which has obtained in the how to overcome death. The noble army of martyrs had in. Roman Church ever since. As an instance of this, the General creased to a prodigious size ere Constantine, the first Christian Council of Constance, in 1414, even deposed Pope John XXIII., Emperor of Rome, gave relief to its weary battalions. The and elected Martin V. in his place. Church, during 300 years that it suffered violence, lived a life In the seventh century the followers of Mahomet (Mahomet purified by suffering, so that dissensions were few and heresies died A.D. 631) streamed northward and westward from their almost unknown-at least in that portion of the Church which Arabian home, and swept away the patriarchates of Antioch and was immediately exposed to persecution. In Rome, for example, Alexandria, establishing the crescent in the place of the cross. whatever there might be in the Churches of Africa and Asia, The see of Antioch had never been very powerful, but that of there was, comparatively speaking, unity; the presbyters, or Alexandria waz, perhaps, the first of all — first in point of bishops, were just the heads of congregations, chosen by the numbers, first in bigotry, first in power. It was corrupt, and congregations as being the fittest for the post; and they were it fell before the Saracens, and the Christian Church in Africa possessed of an authority not aggressive, and which was capable has never taken deep root since. Carthage soon followed the of being curbed, if need were, by the voice of the other pres. fate of Alexandria, and schism springing up between the byters, or of the congregation itself. There was no pretence of Churches of Romo and Constantinople, the former was left to infallibility in any one; but quietly, with singleness of heart, pursue that policy of self-aggrandisement which it has laborin profound humility, and in daily waiting upon the Lord of the iously carried out, wherever practicable, ever since. Church, the Roman Christians lived and died, worked and A remarkable chain of circumstances contributed to the praved; their services being simple and un-Judaized by cere. derelopment of the Roman policy. About the year 728 the mories, their chief and daily service the communion of the body Romans-neglected by the emperor at Constantinople, whose and blood of their Lord, whose death they lovingly desired con- power was sensibly diminishing year by year-found themtinally to set forth till his coming again.
selves obliged to take measures for preventing their community Between A.D. 324 and 334 the Emperor Constantine built falling into a state of anarchy, and for putting it in a postare the city which was called after him Constantinople ; and re- of defence against external enemies. They formed themselves, moving the court thither, made it the seat of government and therefore, into a sort of dependent republic, much in the same the capital of the empire. Rome lay too open to the attacks of way that Milan, Venice, and other Italian cities had done ; the northern and western men, who were coming down gradually and as was perhaps natural, they solicited their bishop, as from their inhospitable homes, and were pressing closer and the most influential man among them, to give them the closer upon the borders of the empire. The empire, vast and benefit of his advice in the conduct of affairs. At first it unwieldy as it was, was beginning to feel the fatigue of sup. was by request that he took part in their councils; then, seeing porting its own body, and Constantine was anxious to with the political advantage of such a position, the bishop voor to
acquire a prescriptive right to be consulted in all the business the year 1060. In 1058 Nicholas II. took away from the Roof the city. He had spiritual authority over the whole of the mans the right to elect their Pope, and gave it to the cardinals Western Empire, and in places where the decree of the emperor or hinges of the Church, whose voices alone were to decide tho would not have been recognised his order was obeyed without matter, and who generally selected a Pope from among their question by those whom the zealous missionaries had taught to own body. This was a preparatory stop. look upon the Bishop of Rome as their divinely-appointed head. The Emperors of Germany--descendants or representatives of The half-barbarous kings and princes who ruled in Western that Charlemagne who had been elected and crowned Emperor Europe acknowledged him as Patriarch, while all Western of the West at Rome in the year 800, and who had ever insisted bishops everywhere admitted that whoever was Bishop of on liis power to approve or displace the Pope of Rome himselfRome was their Pope, or Father in God. Tho Romans thought were informed that they must not only renounce their right that such a man, in correspondence with many princes, and of in the case of the Pope, but in the case of all the great infuence throughout the West, would be able to save them other clergy in their dominions, and that they must re. from the evermore threatening invasions of the “barbarians." gard themselves as the vassals of the See of Rome. Broadly They offered the Pope the temporal government of their city, stated, this was the issue on which commenced in the year ard be, not answering them with any assertion that his kingdom | 1061 the wasteful and cruel faction wars of the Guelphs is not of this world, accepted it, and became autocrat of Rome. (Welf) and Ghibelines (Waiblingen) which set all western The emperor allowed the arrangement, and so things went on, Christendom by the ears for over two centuries. The Guelphs and in 730 the people saw the effect of what they had done, represented the papal party, which was made up of some when Luitprand, King of the Lombards, flushed with victory powerful and many minor princes of Europe ; the Ghibelines od spoil, was stopped even at the gates of Rome by the re- represented the empire and its adherents. Sometimes one side moastrances of Pope Gregory II.
had the advantage, sometimes the other; the emperor was In 754 Astolphus, successor to Luitprand, seized on Ravenna, more than once utterly defeated, and in peril of his life; at the riral see of Rome, abolished the exarchate, or civil govern another time the emperor had the satisfaction of seeing Rome want there, together with the spiritual, and annexed the city to at his feet. All the quarrels of Europe for a while worked into his dominions. He thought to do tho same by Rome, which this quasi-religious war; the malcontents with the emperor he summoned to surrender. Stephen II., who became Pope in siding with the Guelphs temporarily, till thoy had attained 752, had foreseen what was coming, and had applied to King their object, and then being quite ready to assist the emperor Pepin, son of Charles Martel, for assistance. That prince, against his permanent foes. But, on the whole, the Papacy
the son of a usurper, was only too glad to arrange an sucked out no small advantage from the contest, and in the long alliance with so useful a person as the Pope of Rome. He run may be said to have been the winner. In 1076, when Gremarched to his assistance, drore Astolphus back, and when, gory VII., the famous Hildebrand, was Pope, the Countess Pepin being gone, Astolphus returned, he once more came down Matilda gave the whole of her possessions, including the greater with an army, and utterly routed him. This was no small part of Italy between Piedmont and Rome, to the Pope ; and matter; but when in the reign of Desiderius, the next Lombard this gift, with the gifts already in possession, made the spiritual king, the attacks on Rome were renewed, and Charlemagne head of the Church, the “servant of the servants of God," a came down with a force which crushed resistance, destroyed the formidable temporal power. kingdom of Lombardy, and annexed it to his own empire, the The whole of the vast authority wielded by the Roman priestbenefit to the Romans exceeded all their hopes. In the year hood was made to subserve the purpose of exalting the sovesw Charlemagne came in person to Rome, and was elected, reign pontiff over all other rulers, and, as might have been exat the Pope's suggestion, emperor, by people who had not the pected, Christ's work remained undone; “ the hungry sheep fainteat right to confer the title. But that made no difference. looked up and were not fed;" abuses and corruptions of all sorts The title was what was wanted, and the Emperor of the abounded, and the supply of salt was low wherewith to savour West was crowned solemnly by the Pope, who in retarn was the earth. From time to time men stood forth and denounced confirmed in his office, and was given in fee and to hold, under spiritual wickedness in high places, but for the most part darkhis temporal sway, the territory that was held by his old rival, ness covered the land, and gross darkness the people; the blind the Archbishop of Ravenna.
led the blind, with the inevitable result ; and men became so Fifty years afterwards (A.D. 859) a monk of Mayence, named accustomed to the dark, that they were confused and annoyed Isidore, announced that he had discovered the decretals of the when the light came. But the very excess of corruption in the Popes of Rome from the time of St. Peter ; in other words, a Papacy brought about the cure of the disease, at least over set of papal decrees, which pretended to have the assent of the great part of Christendom. When Leo X., in 1517, tried to emperors and the people, and v;hich contained the most uncom- replenish his coffers by selling, through travelling agents, in. pro:nising assertions that if the papal kingdom was of the dulgences for sins not yet committed, the spirit of the German other world, it was of this world also, for as Christ was above people rebelled, and Luther fired the train which led to the all earthly things, so his vice-gerent must be above them too, explosion of the Reformation. The Reformation was a fatal and by an easy process of reasoning the kingdoms of this blow to the universal spiritual ascendancy of the Roman bishop; world were demonstrated to belong to the Pope. Adrian I. but his temporal power-stretched over the whole of Italy, many years before had written to Charlemagne-after the from Ferrara on the north-east, and Lucca on the north-west, to bestowal of his gifts—to say that a deed of gift by Constantine the confines of the kingdom of Naples on the south, the King of had been discovere from which it appeared that Constantine, Naples being his very obedient servant-remained as before, having been cured by baptism of a leprosy, was so grateful till Napoleon Bonaparte orerthrew the papal power with that to St. Sylvester, Bishop of Roine, that he declared his intention of all the other princes in the peninsula. of going to live at Constantinople, in order that the Pope The papal administration of the civil government was oppresmight possess Rome, and all the Western Empire, spiritually sive and life-killing in the extreme. Everything, every man, was and temporally:
under priestly surveillance--none but the black gendarmerie Belief was given to the decretals, and to the gift of Constan- fiourished. The government had been a scandal to Europe, but tine, though they have long since been disavowed by the Roman so great was the revulsion of feeling after the fall of Napoleon, Church. Both documents were shameful forgeries. Upon them, the destroyer of kingdoms, that it was restored, and the and upon the actual gifts to the Papacy, was reared the fabric Italians were handed over, bound tighter than before, to the of the temporal power, which not only pretended to have guardianship they hated and despised. It was reserved for anthority within what were called the States of the Church, our day, and for our eyes to witness, the destruction of all but but to be, by divine right, freeholder and lord paramount of all a nominal principality for the Pope beyond the walls of the the kingdoms of the earth, claiming even the right to dispossess - Eternal City.” kings, in the event of their proving disobedient. This sort of As yet the remnant is left, and “is it not a little one ?" Who pretension was bound sooner or later to produce a disturbance, can tell whether, ere the world has entered on another year, since the emperor claimed the right which Charlemagne exer- even that remnant may not be reft away with the life of the cised, of confirming or rejecting the election of Pope by the old man, out of respect for whom the onward march of the Roman people. Gradually the patient diplomacy of the Court inevitable has been for a short time stayed ? “The kingdoms of Rome prepared for the contest which came with might about are the Lord's, and he is the governor among the princes.”
steps, o, p, nu; rule from these points to vp?. From the widths of
the steps e, f, g, h, draw lines towards Dvp, stopping at the PROBLEM XXIX. (Fig. 51).--A cube feet side has one vanishing line from c, from which perpendicular lines, made to of its faces at an angle of 50° with the Pp, its nearest edge cut the retiring lines from o p n, will give the respective ends touches the picture plane 1 foot to the left of the eye ; height of and heights of the steps ; from the angles of the steps draw eye 5 feet; distance from the Pp 8 feet; scale 1 inch to the foot. lines towards vpl. To cut off the lengths of the steps upon the
It will be seen that as the nearest angle touches the pp, it vanishing line c vp!, draw the line c v, directed by ovpl; make will commence at b,
vw equal to 4 feet, 1 foot to the left of
the length of the a; and because b is
steps; from to draw a point of contact,
back again towards its height, bc, may
DVP', cutting the be measured from b;
vanishing line from bd is equal to the
c in k; draw from k edge of the cube, 4
tor, directed by vp, feet; its perspective
from r raise another length, bm, is cut
measuring line for off the vanishing line
the opposite ends b vp2 by its distance
of the steps. Make point pvp. The
s t u equal to o pl, other face of the
draw lines from them cube must be treated
to vp; these last in the same way;
lines, intersecting the it vanishes at vpl, therefore the line
retiring lines from
dle the tops of the steps, from e to cut off the
will give the further perspective length
ends. These slight bn must be drawn to
directions will be Dvpl; the lines of
quite sufficient for the horizontal and
the guidance of upper face of the
those who have thocubo will be ruled to
roughly studied Protheir respective va
blem XXVII. nishing points, as in
One of the greatest Fig. 33, Lesson V.,
difficulties in geoVol. III., page 9.
metrical perspectivo PROBLEM XXX.
is the treatment of (Fig. 52).—Draw by
inclined lines and this method the flight
planes. The plan of steps given in Lesson VIII., page Fig. 52.
method we have al
ready given is, no 208. There are three,
doubt, as useful as each 4 feet long,
any, but in some 1 foot wide, and 9
cases the method we inches high; their
are about to explain front making
in this lesson will angle of 40° with the
be found easier and picture plane. The
more satisfactory. distance of the eye of
If the pupil will turn the observer from the
back to Lesson VI., picture plane is 6
Problem XVIII., feet; from the plane to the nearest point
yp? Fig. 37, page 72, he
will there be reof the object 1 foot ;
minded how the perthe height of the eye
spective of an in4:5 feet; scale 1 inch
clined line or plane to the foot.
is obtained by the We will merely go
help of orthographic through the order
projection; that is, of procedure, until
from a given posicome to some
tion of the inclined thing especially sug
plane, to produce gested by this pro
its plan and eleblem. Draw the
PP PP; the ; place
wards from both the station point,
produce the perspecmarked E; draw the
tive projection. We line from 'e to find the vpl for the angle of inclination of the now propose to draw the perspective of inclinations without face with the PP. As the base of the object forms a right previously constructing a plan. We must start once more angle, the line e vp? must be drawn at a right angle with e vp from one of the leading principles of perspective belonging for the VP of the ends of the steps. Produce E P8 to the PP at to every system, and which is well known to our papilsa; the nearest point within is 1 foot; make a 6 equal 1 foot, that all horizontal retiring lines and planes have their and a line from 6 drawn to be will cut psa in c, the nearest vanishing points upon the line of sight; to this must now be point within ; draw lines from c to each vp, and find their dis- added: directly a line or a plane ceases to tance points. A line from pvp must be drawn through c to one of its ends raised or lowered, its vanishing point is raised the pp at e; the widths of the steps will be marked off at f, g, h, or lowered also, for, notwithstanding its inclination, it retires
, Produce vp2 c to the PP at m, draw the perpendicular min for and has a vanishing point; therefore the vanishing point of a measuring line, and upon it mark off the heights of the three an inclined line or plane is perpendicularly above the point to
vation, and after
which it retired before it was raised out of its horizontal posi- the pole as previously found in b. This is one of the problems tion—in other words, the position of the new vanishing point is we recommend our pupils to repeat several times, placing according to the angle of the inclination of the line or plane; the pole at other angles, and turning it the other way in this brings us to our object, to show where to find the VP, by the picture. A thorough knowledge of the practice of cutconstructing the angle.
ting vanishing lines from their distance points is the key. PROBLEM XXXI. (Fig. 53).—Give the perspective representa- stone of the principle contained in this method of representing tion of a pole inclined to the ground at an angle of 30°. The l objects in perspective. We purpose now to show how this may plan of the pole is at an angle of 50°
be applied to give the inclination of with the PP. Length of pole 6 feet ;
a roof, and as it will be necessary to the end on the ground is 2 feet within
draw the whole figure we will give the picture. The distance of the eye
out the whole problem, and advise from the PP 8 feet; its height from
that it should be done on a larger the ground 4 feet. First draw the
scale: our diagram is drawn to a HL, and upon it, from the PS as a
scale of 60 feet to the inch to econocentre, draw the semicircle with a
mise space; it should be drawn by radius equal to the distance of the
our pupils on a scale of about 10 or eye from the PP; raise a perpendicu.
12 feet to the inch. lar line from Ps to E, and through E
PROBLEM XXXII. (Fig. 54).— tangential to the semicircle draw a
Draw the perspective view of a square line parallel to the AL. From E draw
tower having wings: the bases of the a line (E VP) at an angle of 50° with
tower and the wings are each a square the tangential line. Draw the BP
of 48 feet side; height of tower 96
BP (base of the picture) parallel to the
feet, and of the walls of the wings HL at & distance of 4 feet. Draw
48 feet ; the inclination of the roof PS c, and make c d equal to 2 feet; Dvp24
30°, HL 10 feet, nearest end 12 feet draw a line from d to De, cutting
within the PP; distance of the eye PS c in a; this will give the point where the pole rests upon the from the PP, 120 feet; angle of the front of the building with ground. Now if the pole were in an horizontal position, its the PP, 50°. vanishing point would be at the VP on the HL, but being in- Having repeated in the last problem the process which was clined, its true vanishing point is above it (if the inclination had explained in the last lesson, of finding the PS, E, and ul, the been downwards, its vanishing point would have been below the vanishing points and their distance points, we will commence by HL). Therefore through the vp on the al draw an indefinite | finding the position of the nearest corner of the building. Draw perpendicular line; find the distance point of the vp by draw- from Ps to a; make a b equal 12 feet; draw from b to DE, the ing the aro E DVP from VP as a centre, and with the radius intersection will give the point required, from which a line must VP E. From pvp draw a line at an angle of 30°, meeting the be drawn to vpl. The next part of the process is the stumbling. perpendicular from vp in vp?; the vp2 will be the vanishing point of most beginners in this branch of perspective, and we point for the inclined line. Through the point a draw a line therefore request their attention to it. Find the distance point of directed to VP and meeting the BP in f (the point of contact); VP', viz., DVP! From pvp draw a line through the nearest corner from f draw the perpendicular f g h (the line of contact). already found to the BP at e; measure from e to f, from f to g, Again, the pupil must be reminded of a rule we gave in our last and from g to h, each distance equal to the lengths of the bases lesson, that every vanishing line must be cut from its own distance of the wings and tower ; rule from these points back again to point. Now the vanishing line in this case is of the pole only DVP', we shall then have cut the several proportions of the from a to vp?, and upon this line we must cut off a portion front of the building off the vanishing line-that is, from the equal to the
nearest an. length of the
gle below c pole, conse
to vpl—by quently we
the help of must first Fig. 54.
the distance find the dis
point of vpl tance point
We make no of yp: thus,
excuse from vp as
repeating a centre, and
this, because with the dis
know tance to DVP
from practic on the HL,
ence how from DVP to
often this DVP?. With
is forgotten. the use of
The end of this dis
the buildtance point
ing must be wo now cut
treated in off the
the same length of the BP
way, beginpole: draw h
ning with a & line from
line from DVP, through a, to the line of contact at g; mark off g h DVP? to P; p is the width of the building; vpits vanishequal to the length of the pole, 6 feet; and from h draw ing point; the heights on the line of contact are at n and a line back again to DVP?, cutting the vanishing line of We presume there will be no difficulty with the rest of the the pole in b; a b will be the required perspective represen- perpendicular and horizontal lines, and we now proceed with tation of the pole.
To prove this, draw anywhere upon EP the roof. Because the ridge of the roof is over the centre of the the line m n, 6 feet long, and at an angle of 30°; the pupil body of the building, there is no necessity in this case for finding will see that this is the full length of the pole at the given more than one vanishing point for the roof, viz., the inclination angle, consequently its height from the ground at n is shown; st. The vanishing point for that inclination is vp3 on the perdraw n o parallel to Al-in other words, mark the height pendicular from vp?, found by making an angle of 300 from of the pole from the ground upon the line of contact ; draw DVP. The centre of the building is found by drawing the a line from o to the vp, it will be found to cut the top of diagonals at the end and a perpendicular through
draw an arc