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luccas or Spice Islands, but now extensively cultivated in the Er arbeitet mit großem Fleiße (sehr He labours with great industry tropical parts of America.

fleißig).

(very industriously). SECTION XCVII.-ANONACEÆ, OR ANONADS.

Er hat es mit Fleiß gethan'. He has done it (with intention) Characteristics : Sepals three; petals hypogynous, six bi

intentionally. serial; valvate in æstivation; stamens ordinarily indefinite,

EXERCISE 172. multi-serial; carpels numerous, free, or almost free, com 1. Ein Vaterlantsfreund stirbt lieber, als daß (Sect. LX.) er zum posed of one or more erect or ascendant ovules ; fruit capsular Verräther wirb. 2. Die ersten Christen erbulteten lieber die härtesten Ber: or bacciform; embryo small, at the base of a ruminated folgungen, als daß sie ihren Glauben verließen. 3. So etwas läßt man albumen ; stem ligneous; leaves alternate, simple, entire, without sich nicht zweimal sagen. 4. Einen meiner Brüder habe ich in trei Jahren stipules.

nicht gesehen. 5. Ein Freund von mir ist vor einigen Jahren bei Wien in The Anonacee inhabit almost every part of the torrid zone; der Donau ertrunken. 6. Es ist gut reijen (Sect. XLI. 4), wenn man their bark is aromatic and stimulant, sometimes acrid or Beld, und gut leben, wenn man feine Sergen hat. 7. In einem freien nauseous. The flowers have for the most part an agreeable lande ist besser leben, als in einem tespotischen. 8. In Begleitung odour

munterer Freunde ist es angenehm zu reisen. 9. Nur zu leicht vergis: TH nonas produce delicious fruits. The Anona Cherimolia, ter Mensch im Glücke, was er ift. 10. Biele ausgezeichnete und erle & natar of Peru, is the most celebrated. The sour sop, or Anona Männer sind vergessen worden. 11. Gs darf ten Menschen nicht genügen, muricata, and the sweet sop, or Anona squamosa, (Fig. 255), zu wissen was recht ist, sondern er muß sich auch bestreben, recht zu thun natives of South America and the West Indies, also are good 12. Es genügt mir, zu wissen, daß Ihr noch alle gefund seit. 13. Wie fruit-bearers; the fruits not merely gratifying the senses of taste weniges reicht oft hin, einen Menschen glücklich zu machen. 14. Er reichte and smell, but pleasing the eye also on account of their elegant ihm die Zeitung hin, nachdem er sie selbst gelesen hatte. 15. Dieses reichte shape.

hin, ihn zufrieden zu stellen. 16. Der Koch richtet die Speisen an. 17.

r hat diese kleine Verwirrung mit Fleiß angerichtet. 18. Die Kithin LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XLIII.

kostete (Sect. LXXXVI.) tie Suppe, ehe fie tieselbe auftrug. 19. Man

muß versuchen, ob man ihm nicht noch helfen kann. 20. Bersuchen Sie einSECTION LXXXIX.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued).

mal diesen Wein, ob er süß genug ist. 21. Er trus mir auf, Sie von ihm The phrase, "a friend of mine, a friend of his," etc., is rendered zit grüßen. in German by ,,ein Freunt von mir," a friend of me, or, einer meiner

EXERCISE 173. Freunde, one of my friends, etc. ($ 123. 8. d.); as :-Ein Freunt von ihm segelte gestern nach Californien, a friend of his sailed yester. India. 2. A friend of mine got married last week. 3. The

1. I have just seen a brother of yours who has returned from day for California. Giner meiner Freunde verheirathete sich vor einem teacher has enjoined on me the explanation of this subject. 4. Vierteljahre in Amerika, a friend of mine got married three months Has my father instructed you to invite your brother to us this ago in America.

evening? 5. No, Sir, but he instructed me to tell my father 1. Auftragen, with the accusative, signifies " to put on” (as that he might call on him to-morrow morning. 6. The scholar, colours), or serve up” (as food); as :-Man hat sie Suppe aufge- upon the request of the teacher, handed the book to him. 7. tragen, they have served up (the soup). With the dative, it means Riches do not suffice to make a man happy. 8. A true Chris“ to commission, enjoin, instruct," etc.; as -Er hat mir aufge: tian, rather than betray his belief, endures great suffering. 9. tragen, Ihnen zu sagen, daß er Sie morgen erwartet, he has instructed Is the dinner already put on the table? 10. No, Sir, it is not me to say that he awaits or expects you to-morrow.

served up, it is not yet ready. 11. It is not sufficient for a 2. Anrichten (literally, “ to make right, or ready for ") signifies prudent man to know what is right, but he also acts rightly. " to get in readiness, to prepare" (as victuals); so, Unbeil an: richten, to prepare, produce, do mischief; as :-Nachdem die Köchin SECTION XC.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). Die Speisen angerichtet ḥatte, trug sie dieselben auf, after the cook had Genießen, to enjoy, governs, as already seen (Sect. XLVI.), the prepared the food, she served it up. Der Geiz hat schon viel Unheil genitive or accusative. It also signifies "to take nourishment, angerichtet, avarice has already produced much mischief.

to eat or drink," in which use it governs the accusative only; 3. Hinreichen, when trazsitive, signifies “to hand, to pass ; as :-3ch babe heute wenig genossen, I have eaten but little to-day. as :--Gr reichte tein Freunde das Buch hin, he handed (reached) his 1. Auf frequently has the force of an adjective; as :-Die Thür friend the book ; when intransitive, it means “ to suffice, to be ist auf, the door is open, or, die Thür ist offen. Zu is similarly used; sufficient;" as :-Schr wenig reicht bin, cinen Flugen Menschen glücklich as :-Die Thür ist zu, the door is to (closed). In this use, they zu machen, very little is sufficient to make a wise man happy. are frequently compounded with verbs, especially with machen; VOCABULARY.

as :

-r hat das Fenster auf, und sie hat es zugemacht, he has opened

the window, and she has shut it. An'richten. (See R. 2, Donau, f. Danube. Suppe, f. soup.

2. In der That (literally, " in the deed”) answers to the Eng. above.)

1
Grbul'ten, to suffer, Va'terlandsfreund, m.

lish indeed, “in reality; as :-Io weiß in der That nicht, was ich Auftragen. (See R. 1, endure, bear.

patriot, friend of

tavon denken soll, I really do not know what to think of it. Dic above.)

Grtrin'fen, to drown. one's country.
Bestreben, to endea-' Orüßen, to greet, Versuchen, to try, indeed to me better.

Freuntschaft scheint mir in der That besser (Gellert), friendship appears vour, strive, exert salute.

taste. one's self. Hin-reichen. (See R. Verwirʻrung, f. per. bring to pass, to accomplish;

3. Zu Stande bringen=to bring to a stand or point, that is, " to

as :-Outer Wille und Ausdauer Despoʻtisch, despotic, 3, above.)

plexity, confu

vermögen viel zu Stande zu bringen, good-will and perseverance can despotical. 1

sion.

accomplish much. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

4. Langeweile, compounded of lang, long, and Weile, while or Einer seiner Freunde wurte in Baden A friend of his was shot in time=tediousness, weariness, heaviness; as :--Waš ten Thoren criçoj'en.

Baden.

vergnügt, macht dem Weisen gewöhnlich Langeweile, that which delights Man vat mir rie Untersu'chung dieser They have enjoined on me the the fool, generally causes weariness to the wise (man). Sio Sache aufgetragen. investigation of this matter. langweilen=to become weary; as :-Die Rede war sehr langweilig

, Man trug auf, was Küche und Keller They served up what kitchen deswegen langweilte er fich, the discourse was very wearisome, therevermoch'te.

and cellar afforded.

fore he became weary. Langweilen = to cause tediousness, to Der Zorn richtet nur Böses an. Anger produces only mischief. bore; as:--Gr langweilte uns mit seinen Gespräch, he wearied us with Es ist in Deutsớlant wohl'feiler It is cheaper living in Germany his talk. leben, als in Amerika. than in America.

VOCABULARY. Os genügt mir nicht, ihn zu sehen, ich It does not satisfy (suffice) me An-rathen, to advise, Genc'sung, f. recovery, Rehren, to turn, mind, will ihn auch sprechen. to see him ; I wish to speak counsel.

convalescence. to him also.

Auðeinandergeben, to Gespräch', n. talk, con- lage. f. state, condihich will es ihm Hin'reichen. I will reach it (forth) to him.

go asunder.
versation,

tion,
365 wollte ihn bezahlen, aber das I was going to pay him, but the Ein'ichlafen, to fall logue.
Belt reichte nicht hin.
money did not hold out (suf asleep.

Getrau'en (fich), to Langeweile, f. (See R. fice). Gene'sen, to recover. dare, venture.

4, above.)

care for, regard.

dia

situation, site, seat.

con

sume, eat.

Müdigkeit, f. weari. Voran'schreiten, to pro- Weise, m.philosopher. | Erschöpft', exhausted, Hinaus-springen, to rush Unógarisch, Hungarian. ness, fatigue.

ceed, progress.
Zeugniß, n. witness, spent.

out, spring out. Verweich'lichen, to ef. Trostem', notwith-Vorber', before, be testimony, deposi- Erstür'men, to take by Kreuzer, m.

a small

feminate. standing. forehand. tion. storm.

coin.

Verzehören, to Mithetl, n. judgment. Wählen, to elect, Zu'fällig, accidentally, Führer, m. leader, Preußisch, Prussian. Vertraut', confiden choose.

casually.

commander. Taugen. (See above.) Vor'seßen, to place tial, intimate. Wandern, to wander, Zu hörer, m. auditor, Sulten, m. florin,' Türfisch, Turkish. before, put be. Sielleicht', perhaps, walk.

hearer, pl. audi guilder.

In billigkeit, f. unrea fore. possibly.

tory

Harte, f. harshness, sonableness, injus- Wirth, m. host, land.

unkindness. 1 RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

tice.

lord, inn-keeper. Er hat wihrend Feiner Krankheit gar Daring his sickness he has

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. ridts genossen.

eaten nothing at all. Dee Anabe will ein wenig bei seinem The boy wishes to remain a

Es sind ihrer noch einmal so viele als There are twice as many of Obeim bleiben.

them as of us.
unser.
little (while) with his uncle.

I have offered him money. But babe heute zu“fälliger Weise einen I have accidentally met an old Ich habe ihm Geld an'geboten. alten Befann'ten getroffen. acquaintance to-day.

Gold taugt nicht zu Schnei'bewerf. Gold is not fit for edge-tools, 3d weiß in ter That nicht, was ich I really (indeed) do not know Gr" machte große Augen, als er mich He seemed surprised, as he saw

zeugen, weil es zu weich ist.

because it is too soft. tbun soll.

what I ought to do. Ee getrant' sich nicht in das Wasser He does not venture into the nact; langer Trennung wieder er. me again, after (a) long sepa

blid'te.

ration. (zu geben).

water (to go into the water). Saben Sie es schon zu Stante ge- Have you already accomplished

EXERCISE 176. bracht?

it ? Der Knabe schlief ein am grünen The boy fell asleep on the green

1. Die Räuber festen sich um ein großes Feuer, welches fie in der Mitte Gesta'te (Schiller).

shore.

tes Waldes angezündet hatten. 2. Er sette sich an den Tisch. 3. Er Das Geldwag' ter Menge langweilt The tattle (prating) of the seşte sich auf sein Pfert, und sprengte zur Stadt hinaus. 4. Die Dragoner ibn

crowd annoys (bores) him.

faßen alle zu Pferte, und warteten nur noch auf ihren Führer, um den Gr leitet an Langerwei'le. He is troubled with ennui.

Angriff zu beginnen 5. Er saß auf seinem Throne so finster und so bleich

(Uhland). 6. Wir trafen ihn unter einem Baume sißent. 7. Der Gast EXERCISE 174.

fragte den antern (Sect. XXXII. 8) Morgen den Wirth, was er schulrig 1. Der Krante will nichts genießen, trottern, es ihm vom Arzte ange sei (Sect. XLIII. 6). 8. Er hatte für das, was er verzehrt hatte, einen rarben worden ist. 2. Gr þat nur ganz wenig bei uns genossen. 3. preußischen Thaler, oder einen Gulten fünf und vierzig Kreuzer zu bezahlen. Mein Bruder ist wieder von seiner Krankheit genesen. 4. Die Genesung 9. Dieser Mann ist mir hundert Thaler schultig. 10. Nachdem er al ítreitet bei diesem Kranfen nur langsam fort. 5. Die Kirche geót um sein Geld in der Fremde verzehrt hatte, fam er arm und entblößt in seine balb elf tes Morgens an (Sect. LXXVIII. 6), und um halb zwölf ist | Heimath zurüc. 11. Der Soltat verzehrte die ihm vorgesepten Speisen fie gavohnlich aus. 6. Gr machte ihn zu seinem vertrautesten Freunde, ! mit dem größten Appetit. 12. Sind es ihrer viele, die die Festung verohne ihn vorher geprüft zu haben, oder sonst ein Zeugniß über seine Treue theidigen? 13. Ja, es sind deren viele, aber es mögen ihrer noch so viele und Verschwiegenheit zu haben. 7. Nicht wähle zum Vertrauten einen sein, so fürchten wir uns toch nicht. 14. Es waren ihrer etw. huntert, Zeben tu, tas leere Haus ist offen, das reiche zu ; : wähl' Einen die unter Anführung eines nocy jungen Soldaten tie Batterie erstürmten. Str, und suche nicht den Andern, bald wird, was Dreie wissen, zu Allen wan: 15. Ein verweichlichter Mensch taugt zu keiner Arbeit. 16. Dieser Beweis tern. 8. Kommen Sie vielleicht diesen Nachmittag ein wenig zu mir? 9. tugt nichts. 17. Der ungarische General bot freiwillig dem türkischen Kominen Sie vielleicht diesen Abend in ras Concert? 10. Er hängt von Kaiser seine Dienste an. 18. Der Bauer bot dem erschöpften Reisenden Niemanden ab (Sect. LXXX. 1), er lebt, wie es ihm gefällig ist. 11. Er einige Aepfel an. 19. Man liest oft in den Zeitungen, e8 biete fich, eine fiteht des Morgens auf, wann es ihm gefällig ist, das eine Mal früh, und das gute Gelegenheit tar, sein Glück zu machen. 20. Er beklagt sich über anzere Mal spät . 12. &r spricht und hantelt, wie es ihm gefällt

, ohne sich inbilligkeit und Härte. 21. Du versagst mir tie Freiheit, mich bei dir bean das Urtheil der Leute zu fehren. 13. Ich habe ihn zufällig zu Haufe Flagen zu dürfen. 22. Er wußte nicht recht, wie ihm geschah, und machte angetroffen. 14. Zufällig traf ich ihn im Theater. 15. Es ist in der bei diesem Greignisse große Augen. 23. Er machte große Augen, als er den That nicht so leicht, sidy in alle Lagen des Lebens getultig zu schicken 16. Freund eintreten sah, ten er in beinahe zehn Jahren nicht gesehen hatte. Gi ist in ter That wahr, was diese Frau gesprochen þat 17. Was ficts Seiner getraute, yat dieser zu Stante gebracht. 18. Er hat die Sache zu

EXERCISE 177. Srande gebracht. 19. Das Kind schlief aus Müdigkeit ein. 20. Die Se

1. This knife is good for nothing; give me another. 2. fellidait langweilte sich sehr, und ging früh auseinander. 21. Er lang. What you have done is good for nothing. 3. What is a disweilte nicit nur mich, sondern auch meine Freunde.

honest man good for ? 4. These poor people ate the food that EXERCISE 175.

was offered them with the greatest appetite. 5. We read in 1. Why have you opened the window? 2. It is so very warm

every paper that Australia offers a good opportunity to make in the room, and I like to enjoy the fresh air. 3. I pray you

one's fortune. 6. We were astonished to see our friend, who shut the window and open the door. 4. Shut the door, that the

we believed was in Germany. 7. This man owes me more than window might be open. 5. Peally I do not know what to do twenty pounds, but he says he has paid me.

8. I will pay with this son of mine ; he will not listen to my advice. 6. you, but you cannot prove that I owe you anything. 9. Have Most of his auditors fell asleep during his long speech. 7. À you seen your brother to-day ? 10. Yes, I saw him sitting good work can only be accomplished through attention. 8. My under a tree in our garden. 11. The soldiers mounted their daughter's recovery proceeds but slowly. She will not eat, not horses, and waited for the signal of their commander to begin withstanding she is advised by the physician.

the attack. SECTION XCI.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued), Taugen answers to the English phrase, “to be good, or fit KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. for;" as : --Wozu taugt dieses? what is this good for? or, more

EXERCISE 129 (Vol. II., page 341). literally, whereto serves this? Das taugt nichts, that is good for nothing. From this is derived the noun Taugenichts, worthless

1. Väterchen, willst du mir das Lämmchen kaufen? 2. Nein, mein fellow; as :-Ein langer Schweis von heuchlerischen Taugenichtjen (Wie Techterchen, aber ich werte tir tas Gänschen

und die Fischhen kaufen. 3. land), a long train of good-for-nothing fellows.

Baben Sie jenes niedliche Hauschen gesehen? 4. Nein, ich bewunderte 1. Große Augen machen (literally, " to make big eyes ") is a

jenes schöne Gärtchen. 5. Marie spielt mit dem Käßchen, und ihr Brüderphrase signifying “ to appear surprised, or astonished.”

chen mit dem Fischchen. 6. Sehen Sie, was für ein schönes Kästchen tas ift.

7. Die Menschen sollten zu jeder Zeit ihre Gedanken auf Gott richten. 8. VOCABULARY.

Richten Sie es so cin, taß ich Sie morgen zu Hause finte. 9. Ich Hoffe, to offer, Angriff, m. attack, as. Darbieten, to offer. Sie werden es so einrichten, daß Sie Montag Morgen anfemmen können, proffer, tender. sanlt.

Dragoʻner,m.dragoon.' 10. Was ist dieser Garten werth ? 11. Er ist mehr werth als Sie Pin'führung, f. leading, Batterie', f. battery. Gin'treten, to enter., glauben. 12. Was waren diese Bücher vor zehn Jahren werth? 13. conduct,command Bezahlen, to pay. step in.

Wie hoch willst tu gegen dicses Pfert wetten? 14. Es gilt fünf Pfund.

An'bieten,

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EXERCISE 23.
Write in shorthand-

The minds of scholars are libraries; those of antiquaries, lumber
EXERCISE 21.

minds skola is libraris dos antikweris lombr Write in shorthand

rooms; those of sportsmen, kennels ; those of epicures, larders and We suffer more from anger and grief, than from the very things rums

dos

sports men kenels dos epikyrs la r drs wisofer mor aygr

grif dan

veri jins cellars. for which we anger and grieve.

sela RS wi an gr

Learn properly to understand and to love life, if you would rightly They who would rule safely must role with love, not with force.

lern proprli pn drstand lov lif if toud ritli de itud rul sefli most ru L lov not

understand and love eternity. A true Christian must already be

o ndrs tand lov etrniti tr w kristian most olred People seldom improve, when they set up no other model than happy here on earth · that is the problem of life which every one pipl seldom im pr u v ten de set up no o dr modi dan

hapi vir on ert

problem
lif

erri do themselves to copy after.

of us must endeavour with all our might to solve; that difficult demselvs kopi aftr

os most enderr
or mit

dfillt Earnestness and simplicity carry all before them.

problem whose solution so sew have achieved, and which has ernestnes simplisiti kari bifor dem

problem h (dot) w z solm for. so fu We gain as much in avoiding the failings of others, as we do in cost the multitnde so much conflict. Yet the more and the mos a voidy (dot) felins

wi du kost moltitud somoc kon (dot) A ikt yet mor imitating that in which they excel.

greater are the difficulties, the more honorable is it to carry off the imitety (dot) de eksel

gretr difikltis mor o pra bl it kari of Nothing that is excellent can be wronght suddenly.

victory. Man may be disappointed in his greatest hopes in life notin ekselent kan

sodenii

viktori man me rot

disa pointed gretest hops A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.

withont, on that account, becoming unhappy. tin

sidst on byti joi

akynt bikomy (dot) onhapi

To love, and not to do good when opportunity serves, is not to He who will(1) not reason, is a bigot; he who cannot, is a fool :

du gud een oportuniti servs not risn bigot

kanot

fuL

love, but only to fancy that one loves : it is but as the phantom of and he who dares not is a slave.

açivd

wi gen

o drs

evr

10 v

not

not

onli
fansi ton lors it

tantom de Rs not sier

a thonght, which vanishes into nothing. 1. Write will with the upward 1, preceded by a book. See par. 31. tot

vaniles intu natin

vy

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EXERCISE 25. Write in shorthand

There was a time when earth's blest race

Such holy ardour knew;
Such perfect love, such heavenly grace

Within their bosoms grew,
That forms of glory oft were seen
Haunting the grove and shady green;

While Summer smiled a softer hue;
And those bright children, Love Divine !
Who bowed before Thy hallowed shrine,

With angels consort knew,
Now earth-born care hath spread around

A sonl-depressing sway;
And Mammon everywhere hath found

Slaves willing to obey.
And oft doth Superstition gloom
O'er the dark portals of the tomb,

Where Thou wert wont to smile supreme,
Foreshadowing to the wearied eyes
Visions of opening Paradise,

Lit with ethereal gleam.

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If the reader desires further practice in this easy style of Phonography, he may procure Mr. Pitman's " Phonographic Reader,” price 6d., from the Phonetic Depot, 20, Paternoster Roiv, London, or from the inventor of Phonography, Mr. Isaac Pitman, Bath, or order it through any bookseller.

In the next Lesson we shall give our readers various abbreviations, which will greatly reduce the labour of writing.

HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XXXIV. draw to a spot where his authority was more unquestioned than

in the West. The effect of Constantine's conversion was to THE PAPACY, .

bring about the conversion of many lesser potentates, whose TIME was when there was no Pope of Rome, even though people, prepared for the change by the zealons, self-denying Christianity had been established in the world's capital since Christian missionaries, speedily followed. Thus the kings and many years. Time was when, though there was a Pope, or people of Iberia, Armenia, of part of Abyssinia, and of India beFather, or Bishop of Rome, there was no pontiff king; when the came Christians, while large numbers of the Goths and Germans See of St. Peter, as it has been called, was ruled in spiritual in the Imperial army embraced the same faith. The national matters by men who came up--and more than came up-to the religion of the Roman Empire, or as it was now called, the standard of qualifications set by St. Paul for those who would Greek Empire, was changed from paganism of various kinds to assume the office of bishop; men who administered to their Christianity. brethren in spiritual things humbly, and with an ever-present The Church scarcely throve so well under prosperity as under sense of the responsibility of their charge; “ not making them. adversity; but one of the first things done for her under the selves lords over God's heritage,” but administering soberly, ! new régime was to give her the emperor, a layman, for her fatherly, wisely. Surely the lament of the Tuscan poet for head. Constantine was acknowledged to be the supreme head Rome, because she was not as she was once (Roma, Roma, non of the Church, because it was deemed necessary to have some è piu com era prima), has an application now every whit as for- head; and the wisdom of the time and of any time--could think cible as when it was first uttered. The eye of the citizen of the of no one better than the man who was the Church's protector world rests on the Eternal City, and sees things so different to and champion, and who, being a layman, without any pontifical what St. Peter and his immediate successors saw there, that he attributes, could not be suspected of spiritual despotism. The may well be excused for quoting the poet's words. It has been Church was administered by 1,800 bishops—1,000 in the Greek, suggested by an eminent historian, skilful in the formation of and 800 in the Roman provinces--whose dioceses varied in er beautiful and eloquent contrasts between past and present, that tent, according to the population, but whose rank was equal. if the fisherman of Galilee could revisit the scene of his These bishops were elected by the clergy and the people of the ministry, he would ask with amazement whose worship the diocese, the emperor claiming a right to interfere in their final people were celebrating in the places where he had taught and appointment if he thought fit

. But soon there was established preached the simplicity of Christian faith and works. But by Constantine himself a distinct order of ecclesiastics—bishops however that may be, it is true, as stated above, that there who, once appointed, were absolute over their clergy, and was a time when the Roman Christians were not under papal who had the power, among other things, to excommunicate scrutiny, and also a time when the idea of secular authority, those whom they deemed fit subjects for it. The secular arm temporal power-would have been looked on not only as incom- was lent to enforce the sentences of these rulers, who were compatible with true spiritual power, but as preposterous and pared with the other prelates ás archbishops to bishops ; but entirely out of character with the province of a bishop. Let us even among these privileged few distinctions were soon taken, look back a little upon the Rome of former days, and watch according to which Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Carthage, and through the telescope of time the gradual growth of that enor- afterwards Constantinople, were selected to form patriarchates, mous dominion over the minds and consciences of men which is or primacies. now included in the Papacy, and the growth also of that other Councils met in the spring and autumn of each year to consubsidiary power, which includes the power of the sword, the sider the affairs of the whole Church. Archbishops could sam. power which when St. Peter, in a moment of generous impulse, mon to council all their dependent bishops and clergy, and the arrogated to himself and exercised, he was bidden by his Lord patriarchs could do the same by the whole of the clergy in their to forego it, and to put up his sword into its sheath.

see ; but an extraordinary council, or grand synod, containing Christ died in the thirty-third year of his age, and the apostles representatives from all Christendom, could be summoned by the and their successors, beginning from the feast of Pentecost, emperor alone. At the grand synod were discussed matters preached the Gospel of his kingdom both in the East and West, affecting the whole Church of Christ, and as it was supposed with singular success. Not without much suffering and perse. that the Spirit of God must necessarily be present among those cution did they achieve their work; many were the witnesses who were met to decide upon the affairs of the flock, it came to truth who were required to lay down their lives for the sake to be maintained that a General Council was infallible, and of Him who had in his own person shown them how to die and superior to the Pope-a doctrine which has obtained in the how to overcome death. The noble army of martyrs had in- ! Roman Church ever since. As an instance of this, the General creased to a prodigious size ere Constantine, the first Christian Council of Constance, in 1414, even deposed Pope John XXIII., Emperor of Rome, gave relief to its weary battalions. The and clected Martin V. in his place. Church, during 300 years that it suffered violence, lived a life In the seventh century the followers of Mahomet (Mahomet purified by suffering, so that dissensions were few and heresies died A.D. 631) streamed northward and westward from their almost unknown-at least in that portion of the Church which Arabian home, and swept away the patriarchates of Antioch and was immediately exposed to persecution. In Rome, for example, Alexandria, establishing the crescent in the place of the cross. whatever there might be in the Churches of Africa and Asia, The see of Antioch had never been very powerful, but that of there was, comparatively speaking, unity; the presbyters, or Alexandria was, perhaps, the first of all - first in point of bishops, were just the heads of congregations, chosen by the numbers, first in bigotry, first in power. It was corrupt, and congregations as being the fittest for the post ; and they were it fell before the Saracens, and the Christian Church in Africa possessed of an authority not aggressive, and which was capable has never taken deep root since. Carthage soon followed the of being curbed, if need were, by the voice of the other pres- fate of Alexandria, and schism springing up between the byters, or of the congregation itself. There was no pretence of Churches of Rome and Constantinople, the former was left to infallibility in any one ; but quietly, with singleness of heart, pursue that policy of self-aggrandisement which it has labor in profound humility, and in daily waiting upon the Lord of the iously carried out, wherever practicable, ever since. Church, the Roman Christians lived and died, worked and A remarkable chain of circumstances contributed to the prayed'; their services being simple and un-Judaized by cere development of the Roman policy About the year 728 the monies, their chief and daily service the communion of the body Romans-neglected by the emperor at Constantinople, whose an l blood of their Lord, whose death they lovingly desired con- power was sensibly diminishing year by year—found them. tin rally to set forth till his coming again.

selves obliged to take measures for preventing their community Between A.D. 324 and 334 the Emperor Constantine built falling into a state of anarchy, and for putting it in a postare the city which was called after him Constantinople; and re- of defence against external enemies. They formed themselves, moving the court thither, made it the seat of government and therefore, into a sort of dependent republic, much in the same the capital of the empire. Rome lay too open to the attacks of way that Milan, Venice, and other Italian cities had done ; the northern and western men, who were coming down gradually and as was perhaps natural, they solicited their bishop, as from their inhospitable homes, and were pressing closer and the most influential man among them, to give them the closer upon the borders of the empire. The empire, vast and benefit of his advice in the conduct of affairs. At first it unwieldy as it was, was beginning to feel the fatigue of sup was by request that he took part in their councils : then, seeing porting its own body, and Constantine was anxious to with the political advantage of such a position, the bishop bogar: to

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