ページの画像
PDF
ePub

acquire a prescriptive right to be consulted in all the business the year 1060. In 1058 Nicholas II. took away from the Roof the city. He had spiritual authority over the whole of the mans the right to elect their Pope, and gave it to the cardinals Western Empire, and in places where the decree of the emperor or hinges of the Church, whose voices alone were to decide the would not have been recognised his order was obeyed without matter, and who generally selected a Pope from among their question by those whom the zealous missionaries had taught to own body. This was a preparatory step. look upon the Bishop of Rome as their divinely-appointed head. The Emperors of Germany--descendants or representatives of The half-barbarous kings and princes who ruled in Western that Charlemagne who had been elected and crowned Emperor Europe acknowledged him as Patriarch, while all Western of the West at Rome in the year 800, and who had ever insisted bishops everywhere admitted that whoever was Bishop of on his power to approve or displace the Pope of Rome himselfRome was their Pope, or Father in God. Tho Romans thought were informed that they must not only renounce their right that such a man, in correspondence with many princes, and of in the case of the Pope, but in the case of all the great influence throughout the West, would be able to save them other clergy in their dominions, and that they must re.' from the evermore threatening invasions of the "barbarians." gard themselves as the vassals of the See of Rome. Broadly They offered the Pope the temporal government of their city, stated, this was the issue on which commenced in the year and he, not answering them with any assertion that his kingdom 1061 the wasteful and cruel faction wars of the Guelphs was not of this world, accepted it, and became autocrat of Rome. (Welf) and Ghibelines (Waiblingen) which set all western The emperor allowed the arrangement, and so things went on, Christendom by the ears for over two centuries. The Guelphs and in 730 the people saw the effect of what they had done, represented the papal party, which was made up of some when Luitprand, King of the Lombards, flushed with victory powerful and many minor princes of Europe ; the Ghibelines and spoil, was stopped even at the gates of Rome by the re- represented the empire and its adherents. Sometimes one side monstrances of Pope Gregory II.

had the advantage, sometimes the other; the emperor was In 751 Astolphus, successor to Luitprand, seized on Ravenna, more than once utterly defeated, and in peril of his life; at the rival see of Rome, abolished the exarchate, or civil govern another time the emperor had the satisfaction of seeing Rome want there, together with the spiritual, and annexed the city to at his feet. All the quarrels of Europe for a while worked into his dominions. He thought to do the same by Rome, which this quasi-religious war; the malcontents with the emperor he summoned to surrender. Stephen II., who became Pope in siding with the Guelphs temporarily, till they had attained 732, had foreseen what was coming, and had applied to King their object, and then being quite ready to assist the emperor Pepin, son of Charles Martel, for assistance. That prince, against his permanent foes. But, on the whole, the Papacy as the son of a usurper, was only too glad to arrange an sucked out no small advantage from the contest, and in the long alliance with so useful a person as the Pope of Rome. He ran may be said to have been the winner. In 1076, when Gremarched to his assistance, drove Astolphus back, and when, gory VII., the famous Hildebrand, was Pope, the Countess Pepin being gone, Astolphus returned, he once more came down Matilda gave the whole of her possessions, including the greater with an army, and utterly routed him. This was no small part of Italy between Piedmont and Rome, to the Pope ; and matter; but when in the reign of Desiderius, the next Lombard this gift, with the gifts already in possession, made the spiritual king, the attacks on Rome were renewed, and Charlemagne head of the Church, the “servant of the servants of God,” a came down with a force which crushed resistance, destroyed the formidable temporal power. kingdom of Lombardy, and annexed it to his own empire, the The whole of the vast authority wielded by the Roman priestbenefit to the Romans exceeded all their hopes. In the year hood was made to subserve the purpose of exalting the sove800 Charlemagne came in person to Rome, and was elected, reign pontiff over all other rulers, and, as might have been exat the Pope's suggestion, emperor, by people who had not the pected, Christ's work remained undone; "the hungry sheep faintest right to confer the title. But that made no difference. looked up and were not fed;" abuses and corruptions of all sorts The title was what was wanted, and the Emperor of the abounded, and the supply of salt was low wherewith to savour West was crowned solemnly by the Pope, who in return was the earth. From time to time men stood forth and denounced confirmed in his office, and was given in fee and to hold, under spiritual wickedness in high places, but for the most part darkhis temporal sway, the territory that was held by his old rival, ness covered the land, and gross darkness the people; the blind the Archbishop of Ravenna.

led the blind, with the inevitable result ; and men became so Fifty years afterwar Is (A.D. 859) a monk of Mayence, named accustomed to the dark, that they were confused and annoyed Izidore, announced that he had discovered the decretals of the when the light came. But the very excess of corruption in the Popes of Rome from the time of St. Peter ; in other words, a Papacy brought about the cure of the disease, at least over set of papal decrees, which pretended to have the assent of the great part of Christendom. When Leo X., in 1517, tried to emperors and the people, and which contained the most uncom- replenish his coffers by selling, through travelling agents, inpromising assertions that if the papal kingdom was of the dulgences for sins not yet committed, the spirit of the German other world, it was of this world also, for as Christ was above people rebelled, and Luther fired the train which led to the all earthly things, so his vice-gerent must be above them too, explosion of the Reformation. The Reformation was a fatal and by an easy process of reasoning the kingdoms of this blow to the universal spiritual ascendancy of the Roman bishop: world were demonstrated to belong to the Pope. Adrian I. but his temporal power-stretched over the whole of Italy, many years before had written to Charlemagne-after the from Ferrara on the north-east, and Lucca on the north-west, to bestowal of his gifts-to say that a deed of gift by Constantine the confines of the kingdom of Naples on the south, the King of had been discovered, from which it appeared that Constantine, Naples being his very obedient servant-remained as before, having been cured by baptism of a leprosy, was so grateful till Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the papal power with that to St. Sylvester, Bishop of Rome, that he declared his intention of all the other princes in the peninsula. of going to live at Constantinople, in order that the Pope The papal administration of the civil government was oppresmight possess Rome, and all the Western Empire, spiritually sive and life-killing in the extreme. Everything, every man, was

under priestly surveillance--none but the black gendarmerie Belief was given to the decretals, and to the gift of Constan- flourished. The government had been a scandal to Europe, but tine, though they have long since been disavowed by the Roman so great was the revulsion of feeling after the fall of Napoleon, Church. Both documents were shameful forgeries. Upon them, the destroyer of kingdoms, that it was restored, and the and upon the actual gifts to the Papacy, was reared the fabric Italians were handed over, bound tighter than before, to the of the temporal power, which not only pretended to have guardianship they hated and despised. It was reserved for anthority within what were called the States of the Church, our day, and for our eyes to witness, the destruction of all but bat to be, by divine right, freeholder and lord paramount

of all a nominal

principality for the Pope beyond the walls of the the kingdoms of the earth, claiming even the right to dispossess Eternal City." kings

, in the event of their proving disobedient. This sort of As yet the remnant is left, and" is it not a little one P" Who pretension was bound sooner

or later to produce a disturbance, can tell whether, ere the world has entered on another year, since the emperor claimed the right which Charlemagne exer- even that remnant may not be reft away with

the life of the cised

, of confirming or rejecting the election of Pope by the old man, out of respect for whom the onward march of the Roman people. Gradually the patient diplomacy of the Court inevitable has been for a short time stayed? “The kingdoms of Rome prepared for the contest which came with might about are the Lord's, and he is the governor among the princes."

and temporally:

500

m

GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.—X.

steps, 0, P, n; rule from these points to vp". From the widths of

the steps e, f, g, h, draw lines towards Dvp, stopping at the PROBLEM XXIX. (Fig. 51).-A cube 4 feet side has one vanishing line from c, from which perpendicular lines, made to of its faces at an angle of 50° with the PP, its nearest edge cut the retiring lines from o p n, will give the respective ends touches the picture plane 1 foot to the left of the eye; height of and heights of the steps ; from the angles of the steps draw eye 5 feet; distance from the PP 8 feet; scale 1 inch to the foot. lines towards vp! To cut off the lengths of the steps upon the

It will be seen that as the nearest angle touches the pp, it vanishing line c vp!, draw the line c v, directed by ovpl, make will commence at b,

vw equal to 4 feet, 1 foot to the left of

the length of the a; and because b is

steps; from w draw a point of contact,

back again towards its height, bc, may

Fig. 51.

DVP, cutting the be measured from b;

Vanishing line from bd is equal to the

c in k; draw from k edge of the cube, 4

tor, directed by vp", feet; its perspective

from r raise another length, bm, is cut

measuring line for off the vanishing line

the opposite ends b vp? by its distance

of the steps. Make point DVp. The

s t u equal to o pl, other face of the

draw lines from them cube must be treated

to vp; these last in the same way;

lines, intersecting the it vanishes at vel,

retiring lines from therefore the line VP DE HL Dylp!

PS
DVP2

pi

the tops of the steps, from e to cut off the

will give the further perspective length

ends. These slight bn must be drawn to

directions will be Dvpl; the lines of

quite sufficient for the horizontal and

the guidance of upper face of the

those who have thocube will be ruled to

roughly studied Protheir respective va

blem XXVII. nishing points, as in

One of the greatest Fig. 33, Lesson V.,

PP

difficulties in geoVol. III., page 9.

metrical perspectivo PROBLEM XXX.

is the treatment of (Fig. 52).--Draw by

inclined lines and this method the flight

planes. The plan of steps given in

method we have al. Lesson VIII., page Fig. 52.

ready given is, no 208. There are three,

doubt, as useful as each 4 feet long,

any, but in some 1 foot wide, and 9

cases the method we inches high; their

are about to explain front making an

in this lesson will angle of 40° with the

be found easier and picture plane. The

more

satisfactory. distance of the eye of

If the pupil will turn the observer from the

back to Lesson VI., picture plane is 6

Problem XVIII. feet; from the plane to the nearest point

vp? Fig. 37, page 72, he pleive HL "pylpl Pls

will there be reof the object 1 foot ;

minded how the perthe height of the eye

spective of an in4:5 feet; scale 1 inch

clined line or plane to the foot.

is obtained by the We will merely go

help of orthographic through the order

projection; that is, of procedure, until

from a given posiwe come to some

7

tion of the inclined thing especially sug

plane, to produce gested by this pro

its plan and eleblem. Draw the PP

vation, and afterPP; the HL; place T

wards from both the station point,

9

e av mo of

produce the perspecmarked E; draw the

tive projection. We line from to find the vpl for the angle of inclination of the now propose to draw the perspective of inclinations without face with the PP. As the base of the object forms a right previously constructing a plan. We must start once more angle, the line e vp? must be drawn at a right angle with e vp from one of the leading principles of perspective belonging for the VP of the ends of the steps. Produce e ps to the PP at to every system, and which is well known to our papils. a; the nearest point within is 1 foot; make a 6 equal 1 foot, that ali horizontal retiring lines and planes have their and a line from 6 drawn to be will cut ps a in c, the nearest vanishing points upon the line of sight; to this must now be point within ; draw lines from c to each vp, and find their dis added : directly a line or a plane ceases to be horizontal

, having tance points. A line from pvp. must be drawn through c to one of its ends raised or lowered, its vanishing point is raised the pp at e; the widths of the steps will be marked off at f, g, h, or lowered also, for, notwithstanding its inclination, it retires, Produce vp c to the pp at m, draw the perpendicular m n for and has a vanishing point; therefore the vanishing point of a measuring line, and upon it mark off the heights of the three an inclined line or plane iš perpendicularly above the point to

Dylp2

500

VPL

HL

[ocr errors]

DVP

DIE

m

which it retired before it was raised out of its horizontal posi- the pole as previously found in b. This is one of the problems tion-in other words, the position of the new vanishing point is we recommend our pupils to repeat several times, placing according to the angle of the inclination of the line or plane ; the pole at other angles, and turning it the other way in this brings us to our object, to show where to find the VP, by the picture. A thorough knowledge of the practice of cutconstructing the angle.

ting vanishing lines from their distance points is the keyPROBLEM XXXI. (Fig. 53).—Give the perspective representa- stone of the principle contained in this method of representing tion of a pole inclined to the ground at an angle of 30°. The objects in perspective. We purpose now to show how this may plan of the pole is at an angle of 50°

be applied to give the inclination of with the PP. Length of pole 6 feet;

a roof, and as it will be necessary to the end on the ground is 2 feet within

draw the whole figure we will give the picture. The distance of the eye vp4

out the whole problem, and advise from the PP 8 feet; its height from

Fig. 53. that it should be done on a larger the ground 4 feet. First draw the

scale: our diagram is drawn to a HL, and upon it, from the Ps as a

scale of 60 feet to the inch to econocentre, draw the semicircle with a

mise space; it should be drawn by radius equal to the distance of the

our pupils on a scale of about 10 or eye from the PP; raise a perpendicu

12 feet to the inch. lar line from Ps to E, and through E

PROBLEM XXXII. (Fig. 54).tangential to the semicircle draw a

Draw the perspective view of a square line parallel to the HL. From E draw

tower having wings: the bases of the a line (E VP) at an angle of 50° with

tower and the wings are each a square the tangential line. Draw the BP

of 48 feet side; height of tower 96

BP (base of the picture) parallel to the

feet, and of the walls of the wings HL at a distance of 4 feet. Draw

48 feet ; the inclination of the roof PS c, and make c d equal to 2 feet; DYP24

30°, HL 10 feet, nearest end 12 feet draw a line from a to DE, cutting

within the pp; distance of the eye PS c in a; this will give the point where the pole rests upon the from the PP, 120 feet; angle of the front of the building with ground. Now if the pole were in an horizontal position, its the PP, 50°. vanishing point would be at the VP on the HL, but being in Having repeated in the last problem the process which was clined, its true vanishing point is above it (if the inclination had explained in the last lesson, of finding the PS, E, and HL, the been downwards, its vanishing point would have been below the vanishing points and their distance points, we will commence by HL). Therefore through the VP on the HL draw an indefinite finding the position of the nearest corner of the building. Draw perpendicular line ; find the distance point of the vp by draw- from us to a; make a b equal 12 feet; draw from b to DE, the ing the aro E DVP from vp as a centre, and with the radius intersection will give the point required, from which a line must VP E. From pvp draw a line at an angle of 30°, meeting the be drawn to vpl. The next part of the process is the stumblingperpendicular from vp in vp?; the vp2 will be the vanishing point of most beginners in this branch of perspective, and we point for the inclined line. Through the point a draw a line therefore request their attention to it. Find the distance point of directed to VP and meeting the BP in f (the point of contact); vpl, viz., DVP! From pvp draw a line through the nearest corner from f draw the perpendicular f g h (the line of contact). already found to the BP at e; measure from e to f, from f to g, Again, the pupil must be reminded of a rule we gave in our last and from g to h, each distance equal to the lengths of the bases lesson, that every vanishing line must be cut from its own distance of the wings and tower ; rule from these points back again to point. Now the vanishing line in this case is of the pole only DVP', we shall then have cut the several proportions of the from a to vp, and upon this line we must cut off a portion front of the building off the vanishing line-that is, from the equal to the

nearest an. length of the

gle below c pole, conso

FO

to vpl-by quently we

the help of must first Fig. 54.

the distance find the dis

point of vpl tance point

We make no of vp: thus,

excuse for from vp as

repeating a centre,and

this, because with the dis

we know tance to DVP

from praction the HL,

cal experidraw an are

ence how from DVP to

often this DVP?. With

is forgotten. the use of

The end of this dis

the build

ing must be wo now cut HL Dypl. 30°

DVP2

DE

treated in off the

the same length of the BP

way, beginpole: draw h

ning with a & line from

line from DVP, through a, to the line of contact at g; mark off g h | DVp to P; p r is the width of the building ; VP? its vanish. equal to the length of the pole, 6 feet; and from h draw ing point; the heights on the line of contact are at n and 2 line back again to pvp, cutting the vanishing line of 0. We presume there will be no difficulty with the rest of the the pole in b; a b will be the required perspective represen- perpendicular and horizontal lines, and we now proceed with tation of the pole. To prove this, draw

anywhere upon EP the roof. Because the ridge of the roof is over the centre of the the line m n, 6 feet long, and at an angle of 30°; the pupil body of the building, there is no necessity in this case for finding will see that this is the full length of the pole at the given more than one vanishing point for the roof, viz., the inclination angle, consequently its height from the ground at n is shown; st. The vanishing point for that inclination is vp3 on the perdraw n o parallel to un-in other words, mark the height pendicular from vp, found by making an angle of 30° from of the pole from the ground upon the line of contact ; draw DVP?. The centre of the building is found by drawing the a line from o to the vp, it will be found to cut the top of diagonals at the end and a perpendicular through

their intersec

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

tance point

[ocr errors]

PS

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

tion to t; join t w, and we have the other or downward side of

NOTES. the roof; the lines x and y of the roof (in the building itself) are (a) From entreprendro.

(e) N'osa, dared not. parallel to st, and have the same VP, namely, vp3.

() M'éloigner, leaving the neigh (1) From faire. Our next problems will have especial reference to two inclina bourhood.

(9) From pouvoir, tions, and will require very close attention.

(c) Je me suis égaré, I lost my (h) From parastre.
way.

(0) From the same verb.

(d) The il is unipersonal; it. () From revoir.
READINGS IN FRENCH.-XI.

SECTION IV.
FEDORA.

Après les premiers épanchements, Fodora raconta à son tour
SECTION III.

l'espèce de succession de miraclesauxquels elle devait (a) son "Je suis,” dit-il, “un commerçant de Moscou ;? j'avais entrepris salut. La bonne vivandière ne fut point oubliée ? dans ce récit : (a) un voyage à Varsovie. Avant de m'éloigner (6), j'ai voulu aller mais avec quelle sensibilité, quelle touchante expression de revisiter un gentilhomme que je connais, et qui demeure à quelque connaissance, elle exposa tout ce qu'elle devait à la bienveil

. distance; armé d'un fusil, je me suis rendu à pied 3 à son lance da seigneur polonais qui l'avait recueillie et traitée id; châtean, où je me suis attardé. La neige tombait à gros flocons, comme son enfant. je me suis (c) égaré ;4 je cherchais en vain ma route, quand je vis

Au bout de quelques jours, la blessure du père de Fædon venir à moi deux hommes à qui je m'empressai de demander était guérie. Il dut (c) quitter le château de Polowski, et quelques renseignements. Je n'avais aucune défiance, et j'atten- Fedora le suivit, non sans assurer à ses bienfaiteurs que sa redais tranquillement leur réponse, quand tout à coup ces deux connaissance ne s'éteindrait qu'avec sa vie. scélérats, se précipitant sur moi,e me terrassèrent et me dépouil.

Ils revinrent(d) à Moscou, où leur retour causa une joyeuse lèrent du peu d'argent que j'avais. Je poussai un cri; c'est surprise. L'histoire de Fodora se répandit (e). Un jenne alors que l'un d'eux tira sur moi un coup de pistolet, car ils seigneur russe, qui occupait un haut grade dans les rangs de voulaient me tuer.”

l'armée, demanda la jeune fille en mariage et l'épousa. Pendant le récit de l'étranger, Fædora avait eu l'æil constam

Dix ans s'étaient écoulés. La Pologne avait proclamé son ment fixé sur lui. Il(d) lui semblait retrouver sur son visage indépendance, et l'empereur de toutes les Russies, Nicolas, mit des traits connus, sans se rappeler où elle l'avait vu; toutefois, une armée en campagne 1o pour comprimer les efforts de cette son cœur battait avec violence, un sentimento irrésistible l'at- héroïque nation. On sait (f) l'issue de cette lutte inégale. tirait vers lui. Polowski pria son hôte de lui donner quelques L'époux de Fedora avait pris part à la campagne;"' Fædora détails" sur l'incendie de Moscou.

l'avait suivi. Sans nous arrêter à rappeler les scènes déchirantes L'étranger parut éprouver quelque répugnance 12 à satisfaire à de cette guerre, nous dirons seulement que Varsovie venait d'être cette demande ; néanmoins, en réfléchissant au service qu'il emporté d'assaut."? Dans ce jour néfaste, des milliers de Poloavait reçu, il n'osa (e) refuser. En décrivant le triste spectacle nais et de Russes périrent.1 Vers le soir, tous les officiers de ce vaste incendie, sa voix trahissait de vives émotions.13 supérieurs de l'armée triomphante allèrent visiter le champ de Mais quand il commença à raconter ses propres malheurs, il bataille," où gisaient (g) pêle-mêle les cadavres des vainqueurs versa des larmes abondantes ; et poussant un profond soupir, et des vaincus. il dit :

Là, gémissaient confondus parmi les morts, un nombre infini “ Hélas ! ce terrible incendie ne m'a pas seulement enlevé une de blessés.15 Poussé par la charité, ému de compassion pour le grande partie de ma fortune, 15 mais encore ce qui faisait (f) tout destin de ceux à qui la fortune avait été contraire, l'époux de notre bonheur, ma fille bien-aimée. Tandis qu'au milieu du Fodora fit transporter dans les hôpitaux et les ambulances, 16 désordre affreux excité par l'épouvantable catastrophe, nous ceux à qui il restait encore un souffle de vie. Après ces soins cherchions, ma femme et moi, 16°à soustraire à la voracité des pieux, il allait s'éloigner de ce lieu de désolation, lorsque parmi flammes nos objets les plus précieux, nous perdimes notre enfant, plusieurs cadavres qu'on allait recouvrir de terre, il aperçut nn alors dans sa sixième année; sa bonne l'avait prise avec elle afin officier polonais de haut rang li et tout chamarré de crois et de de la conduire dans la maison d'un amil? qui demeurait dans décorations. Il crut remarquer en lui quelques signes de vie," et une rue écartée, où le feu ne sévissait pas encore. Mais ni la le fit transporter dans la maison 19 même où était Fædora. LA bonne ni l'enfant n'ont reparu, et depuis cet événement, 18 toutes tous les soins nécessaires lui furent prodigués ; 20 et, peu à pei, nos informations ont été stériles. Probablement, quelque édi- sortant de sa léthargie, l'officier polonais rouvrit les yeux. fice, en croulant, les aura englouties sous ses décombres."

Fædora était assise (h) au chevet de son lit.21 Tout à coup À ces mots Fædora, qui avait écouté avidement toutes les elle poussa un cri, elle avait reconnu Polowski. particularités de ce récit, ne put (9) contenir davantage les

Polowski, rétabli de ses blessures, n'avait échappé à un péril, émotions 19 qu'il avait excitées en elle. Elle se précipita au que pour retomber dans un danger plus terrible encore. 22 Son cou de l'étranger, en s'écriant

nom fut porté sur la liste des proscrits.23 Quand Fædora l'ap30 mon père ! mon père !"

prit, elle se rendit immédiatement près de l'empereur ;*: elle Ce fut un spectacle touchant. On nous pardonnera de ne embrassa ses genoux, et demanda sa grâce, et Nicolas attendri, point chercher à peindre la joie et la félicité dont leurs cours prononça le pardon de Polowski. étaient inondés. La plume est impuissante 20 en face de tels

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE. tableaux. Que nos jeunes lecteurs se mettant à la place de 1. Que raconta Fodora ? 14. Que firent les officiers suré. Fædora ainsi que de son père.

2. Parla-t-elle de la vivandière ? rieurs? COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

3. De quelle manière parla-t-elle 15. Que voyait-on sur le champ de des bienfaits de Polowski ?

bataille ? 1. Comment le Moscovite com- | 12. L'étranger parut-il(i) satisfaire mença-t-il son récit ?

volontiers à cette demande ?

4. Le père de Fedora fut-il long.' 16. Que fit l'époux de Fædora ? 2. Qui avait-il voulu visiter ? 13. Paraissait-il ému durant son

temps malade ?

17. Qu'aperçut-il parmi les ca

davres ? 3. De quelle manière s'était-il

5. Partit-il bientôt ?

récit ? rendu au château du gentil. 14. Que fit-il en racontant ses mal

6. Que fit Fædora à son départ ? 18. Que crut-il voir en lui? homme ?

7. Où allèrent le négociant et sa 19. Que fit-il du pauvre blessé ?

heurs ? 4. S'était-il égaré ?

fille ? 15. Que lui avait enlevé l'incen

20. Comment fut-il traité dans ? 5. Que vit-il venir vers lui ?

demeure de Fedora ? die?

8. Qui épousa Fædora ? 6. Que firent les deux hommes ? 16. Que faisaient lui et sa femme

9. Que se passait-il dix ans plus 21. Où était Fædora, et que fit

elle? 7. Que fit l'un des voleurs après au milieu du désordre? que le commerçant eut poussé 17. Où avaient-ils envoyé leur pe

10. Que fit l'empereur Nicolas ? 22. Polowski était-il en sûreté un cri?

tite fille ?
11. Où était l'époux de Fedora ? après sa guérison?

23. Quel nouveau danger le mene8. Fedora était-elle attentive au 18. Avaient-ils revu(j) depuis, in 13. Qu'était-il arrivé à Varsovie ? récit de l'étranger?

bonne et l'enfant ?

13. Qu'arriva-t-il dans ce jour çait alors ? 9. Paraissait-elle (h) le recon- 19. Que fit Fodora en entendant

fatal ?

24. Que fit alors sa fille adoptive ? naître ?

ce récit ? 10. Quel sentiment éprouvait-elle 20. Pourquoi l'anteur ne décrit-il | (a) From devoir.

(6) Se répandit, became known. en l'entendant ? pas ce qui se passa entre le (6) Traitée, cared for.

() From savoir. 11. Quelle demande Polowski fit-11 père et la fille ?

(c) From devoir.

(9) From gésir. à son hôte ?

(d) From revenir.

(h) Assise, seated; from asseoir.

tard ?

NOTES.

25.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH,

to retire ? 23. It is time that you go to bed, 24. Must I riso ? EXERCISE 136 (Vol. II., page 298).

You must rise. 1. M. votre frère a-t-il pris garde de gåter son chapeau ? 2. Il a

EXERCISE 140 (Vol. II., page 331). pris garde de le gåter, il n'en a qu'un. 3. Allez parler à Mlle. votre 1. Que faut-il que notre ami fasse ? 2. Il faut qu'il reste chez nons seur, elle vous appelle. 4. Ne voulez-vous pas prendre une tasse de jusqu'à mon arrivée. 3. Que faut-il que notre voisin fasse ? 4. Il faut thé ? 5. Je viens de prendre le thé. 6. Qu'avez-vous dit à votre qu'il mette ordre à ses affaires. 5. N'est-il pas juste que vous payiez petite fille? 7. Je lui ai dit de prendre garde de déchirer sa robe. 8. vos créanciers ? 6. Il est juste que je les paie. 7. Est-il temps que Prenons garde de déchirer ce livre. 9. Mon fils vient de l'apporter. i votre petit garçon aille à l'école ? 8. Il est temps qu'il aille à l'école, 10. A-t-il pris le thé? 11. Il n'a pas encore pris le thé, il est trop tôt.

il est dix heures. 9. Faut-il que j'écrive à votre correspondant 12. À quelle heure prenez-vous le thé chez vous. 13. Nous prenons le aujourd'hui ou demain ? 10. Il faut que vous lui écriviez demain thé à six heures. 14. Prenez-vous du thé ou du café à votre dejeuner ? matin. 11. N'est-il pas fâcheux que votre frère ait déchiré sa cas15. Nous prenons du café. 16. Votre courrier a-t-il pris les devants ? quette? 12. Il est fâcheux qu'il l'ait déchirée. 13. Faut-il que Mme. 17. Il n'a pu prendre les devants. 18. Quel parti avez-vous pris? 19.

votre mère finisse sa lettre ? 14. Il n'est pas nécessaire qu'elle la J'ai pris le parti d'étudier ma leçon. 20. Avez-vous pris garde de finisse. 15. Est-il certain que M. votre fils ait oublié son argent ? 16. déchirer vos livres ? 21. J'ai pris garde de les tacher, 22. Quel parti Il est certain qu'il l'a oublié. 17. Il n'est nullement certain qu'il l'ait Fotre frère a-t-il pris ? 23. Il a pris le parti de se taire. 24. Avez- oublié. 18. Faut-il que vous fournissiez de l'argent à cet artisan ? 19. vons pris mon parti ? 25. J'ai pris le parti de mon frère. 26. Avez Il faut que je lui en fournisse, il n'en a pas. 20. Quoique vous fassiez, vous raison de prendre son parti? 27. J'ai raison de prendre son

vous ne réussirez pas. 21. Quoique dise M. votre frère personne parti, parcequ'il a raison. 28. N'avez-vous pas peur de prendre son

ne le croira. 22. Faut-il que je vous écrive ? 23. Il faut que vous parti? 29. Je n'ai pas peur de prendre son parti. 30. Prendrez-vous m'écriviez. 24. Désirez-vous que je sois malade ? 25. Je ne désire pas le parti de votre scur ou le mien ? 31. Je prendrai le parti de ma

que vous tombiez malade. 26. Exigez-vous que je vous dise cela ? 27. scar. 39. Allez lire votre livre, vous ne savez pas votre leçon. 33. Je

Il faut que vous me disiez tout. 28. Désirez-vous que j'aille chez rais ma leçon, et je sais aussi que vous êtes mon ami. 34. Allons vous ? 29. Je désire que vous y alliez. 30. Faut-il que je me lève ? trouver notre père, il a besoin de nous.

31. Il faut que vous vous leviez à l'instant. 32. Faut-il que M. votre

frère se couche ? 33. Il faut qu'il se couche à l'instant. 34. Il est EXERCISE 137 (Vol. II., page 330).

temps qu'il se couche, il est minuit. 1. That do you wish us to do? 2. I wish you to pay attention to your studies. 3. Do you not fear that the rain may prevent your

EXERCISE 141 (Vol. II.,

page 365). got out? 4. We fear very much lest the rain may prevent us from 1. Do you think that this cloth will last long? 2. I think that it fuilling our engagements. 5. Do you doubt his being at home now? will wear well, for it is strong. 3. Do you think that our porter will 6. I doubt his being there, it is already ten. 7. Do you require him be long coming back? 4. I think that he will not tarry. 5. Do you to set out early? 8. I am astonished that he is not yet gone. 9. Do wish us to stand ? 6. On the contrary, I wish you to sit down. 7. you prefer that I return these bracelets to you? 10. I prefer that you Do you believe that those students can learn five pages by heart in two pay me for them. 11. Does your neighbour fear lest his child may go hours ? 8. I believe that it is impossible. 9. Do you hope that our ont? 12, He fears lest he fall in the street. 13. Do you not wish friend may come early ? 10. I hope that he will arrive soon. 11. What that your pupils may obey you ? 14. I wish them to obey me, and to kind of a decanter must you have ? 12. I want one which holds a obey their professors. 15. Do you not fear lest that mechanic be ill ? litre. 13. I have a crystal one which holds two litres. 14. Do you 16. I fear his being ill, for his workshop is very unhealthy, 17. Do think that that merchant grows rich at your expense ? 15. I know you not regret his being obliged to work ? 18. I regret his being that he grows rich at the expense of others. 16. What parasol do you obliged to labour above his strength. 19. Do you not wish that he be think of lending me ? 17. I think of lending you the best I have. 18. acquainted with this news ? 25. I wish him to be told of it as soon as Will the tanner succeed in earning a living ? 19. I do not think that possible. 21. Does not your father wish you to buy a warehouse ? 22. he will succeed. 20. Do you think that this money will suffice for your He wishes me to buy a saw-mill. 23. Do you wish me to leave you ? 24. father ? 21. I think that it will be sufficient for him. 22. Do you I wish you to remain with me. 25. I wish you to start this morning. believe that those gentlemen depend upon me? 23. I know that they EXERCISE 138 (Vol. II., page 330).

depend upon you. 24. Do you think that the concert will take place 1. Voulez-vous que je parle à l'artisan ? 2. Je désire que vous lui to-day ? 25. I think that it will not take place. disiez de venir ici demain matin. 3. Que voulez-vous que je fasse ? 4. Je désire que vous m'apportiez un livre. 5. Ne désirez-vous pas que je lise votre lettre ? 6. Je désire que vous la lisiez et que vous la

POPULAR EDUCATOR CLASSES. donniez à mes soeurs. 7. Mlle. votre sæur ne craint-elle pas que la It is with much pleasure that we recur to the subject of these pluie ne l'empêche de sortir ? 8. Elle craint que la pluie ne nous empêche de sortir. 9. Doutez-vous que. M. votre père soit à la maison classes, and place before our readers a communication from the à présent? 10. Je doute qu'il y soit. 11. Exigez-vous que je fasse Promoter of the POPULAR EDUCATOR CLASS established at non travail à présent? 12. Je désire que vous fassiez votre travail BRISTOL, which, in addition to presenting an example of the avant de sortir. 13. Ne regrettez-vous pas que vous soyez obligé de general interest awakened by the paper which appeared in Part travailler ? 14. Je ne regrette pas d'être obligé de travailler. 15. XIII. (Vol. II., p. 411), affords a notable instance of the success Y'ates-vous pas étonné qu'il le sache? 16. Je suis étonné qu'il sache which has attended the movement in that city, and of the comtout. 17. Exigez-vous que je le paie aujourd'hui ?. 18. Je désire que parative facility with which the result was secured. The vous le payiez demain. 19. Que voulez-vous que je fasse ? 20. Je veux statement, as conveyed to us by this energetic student,* is so que vous le payiez immédiatement. 21, Craignez-vous que le maître emphatically practical in all its details that we venture to print voulez-vous que je dise ? 24. Je veux que vous disiez la vérité. 25. M. it without further comment. votre père ne désire-t-il pas que vous achetiez une maison ? 26. Il dé

He addresses us as follows:sire que j'achète un magasin. 27. Désirez-vous que nous vous quittions ? Being convinced that the publication in your pages of the 9. Je désire que vous partiez demain. 29. Voulez-vous que je reste result of our efforts to establish a POPULAR EDUCATOR CLASS, avec vous ? 30. Je désire que vous restiez ici.

31. Désirez-vous que can hardly fail to give an impetus to the establishment of similar je lui dise cette pouvelle ? 32. Je désire que vous la lui disiez. 33. Désirez-vous que vos enfants obéissent à leur instituteur ?

classes in various parts of the country, I have ventured to send

34. Je dé. sire qu'ils lui obéissent.

you a curtailed account of the movement in this city; and hope EXERCISE 139 (Vol. II., page 331).

that, by laying before your readers the facility with which we

have established these classes, the enthusiasm with which they 1. What must I say? 2. You must say what you have heard. 3. have been hailed, and the success with which they have been Is it not necessary that I finish that history? 4. It is not necessary attended, they will be induced to take aetion, and show their for you to finish it. 5. Is it not proper for me to satisfy my creditors ? 6. It is proper that you do it. 7. Is it not right that I pay you what readiness to follow a good example. I have borrowed from you? 8. It is right that you pay it to me. 9.

* Our first care was to provide a suitable meeting room ; Can it be that your brother has forgotten his family? 10. It cannot which done, we wrote to the Publishers for a large number of be that he has forgotten it. 11. Is it certain that your brother has circulars and window-bills, with which we were promptly supforgotten himself to such a degree? 12. It is certain that he has forgotten himself. 13. It is very sad that he has forgotten himself so. This gentleman has kindly given us permission to put in direct 14. Will you remain until I have put my affairs in order? 15. I shall communication with him any of our students who may desire to remain until you have regulated them. 16. Will it not be necessary address him

upon the subject of his successful efforts in the promotion for me to furnish that family with provisions ? 17. It will be neces. of the BRISTOL CLASS. He will be happy to furnish any further inforsary for you to furnish them, provided you have them. 18. Will it not mation that may tend to facilitate the establishment of these classes be better that you lend him money,

than let him want for necessaries ? in other towns. Any letters of request reaching us, asking for the 19. It will be better that we lend him some. 20. What must we do? mme and address of the “Promoter of the Bristol POPULAR EDUCATOR 21. You must carry this linen to my house. 22. Is it not time for me CLASSES," will receive immediate attention.

[ocr errors]
« 前へ次へ »