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plied. We thus called together and held our two preliminary “First, the affairs of the society are regulated by a committee meetings, which were attended by about 45 and 120 young men of management, consisting of five officers, viz. : president, vicerespectively. At these meetings the whole of our arrangements president, secretary, treasurer, and librarian, and four members were completed, and it was determined to open the classes. The chosen by the classes. To these the management of the classes preliminary business consisted of

is left, with power to effect any changes which, in their judg. *1st. The proposition of the rules.

ment, might tend to increase their success and development. “2nd. The election of the officers.

"Being unable to obtain the use of the room in which we are " 3rd. The choosing of the subjects.

now holding our meetings oftener than one evening per week, we " 4th. General arrangements.

are compelled to confine ourselves for the present to the study of " Through the assistance of Messrs. Cassell, Petter, and French, English, and Shorthand; and we have had but comparaGalpin, to whom on behalf of the classes we beg to tender tively little difficulty in obtaining the gratuitous services of very our sincerest thanks, these preliminary meetings were held with accomplished masters, or leaders, in these several departments. out a farthing expense beyond the rent of a meeting room. Their method is simple, yet most effective. For instance, take The classes have excited the deepest interest in every part of Lessons in English, No. II. Here the leader would require from the city, and when we announce that 150 names are already on the members of his class answers to his questions respecting the books, we feel that it would be superfluous to add anything every part of that lesson. Where the inaccuracy of the replies as to their entire success.

indicated a haziness of conception, he would first point out the “The following is a copy of the rules which we have adopted mistakes, and then, by means of a black-board, illustrate the in our POPULAR EDUCATOR CLASSES :

precise meaning and mode of application of all the terms em“RULES

ployed. It is positively astonishing how small a portion of time

this occupies, and our English leader highly eulogised the "1. That the subjects treated on shall be those embraced by the admirable manner in which the lessons are presented, and new edition of CASSELL'S POPULAR EDUCATOR, and be con considers them specially adapted for the conducting of such ducted on the principles explained in Part XII., page 411, of classes. that work.

"In the French class there are about a hundred members, and “2. That the affairs of the Society shall be regulated by the it may at first sight appear incredible that any master should following officers (to be eligible for re-election every six months), be able to conduct successfully so large a class together. It is, viz. :-President, Vice-president, Secretary, Treasurer, and four however, not only practicable, but even simple. Take Lesson Members of the Classes, the whole constituting a Committee of II. in Part I. of the new series of this work; it contains several Management.

matters of importance. Our French master takes that lesson, "3. That the subjects for study shall be chosen by the votes of and touches, as they appear in order, upon every point. The the Members from those treated on in the work alluded to in difficulties, as fast as they appear, by his judicious mode of Rule 1.

teaching, vanish. Should any members be in doubt on any “ 4. That during the space of time allotted to each subject, the point they mention it, and are immediately put right. AfterMembers belonging to the respective Classes shall analyse and wards follow the exercises. Each in turn pronounces one of the review that portion which may have been appointed for study in sentences, and it will be readily understood that the master's the interim between the Meetings, submitting any difficulties to continual corrections and repetitions constitute a really good the respective leaders.

lesson in French pronunciation. He then appoints, for home * 5. That no Member shall make any proposition to the Classes, work, the lesson for the following week, including two English having reference to its management or mode of procedure, unless exercises to be translated into French, and two French exercises he shall have previously intimated to the Committee of Manage- into English. The members deliver these exercises to the French ment the nature of such proposition, and obtained their sanction master enclosed in cloth envelopes, with which they are supto bring it before the Classes.

plied for the purpose, and receive them back corrected on the “6. That the Committee be empowered to introduce any changes following meeting night. Thus four exercises are mastered in the management of the Classes which may be in their judg. weekly-a by no means tardy pace. The signatures of the ment conducive to their increased success and development; élèves are attached to the exercises, and the leader is thus such changes including the introduction of new subjects, the enabled to keep a record of the mistakes, which he does, the removal of the Society's Meeting Room or Rooms, and any object of which is to create a spirit of emulation among them. changes which shall be found expedient.

Taken as a whole, the French class is, in our opinion, conducted " 7. That every Member shall be a Subscriber to the new series in a most satisfactory manner. of CASSELL'S POPULAR EDUCATOR, and that those who shall, "In the Shorthand class we have upwards of a hundred memsubsequently to the printing of these Rules, join the Classes, and bers. It is, indeed, a most popular subject. In conducting who do not subscribe to that serial, shall immediately become this class we have experienced no difficulty whatever. It would subscribers, and further, shall obtain such back parts as the be almost as easy to instruct a class of 500 as one of twenty carrying on of the business of the classes shall render it neces- members. The lessons in Phonographic Shorthand, as comsary to obtain.

menced in Part XIII., are explained and illustrated by means of "8. That this Society engage no paid teachers, and be carried a black-board; and having been so fortunate as to secure the on without any expenses beyond the rent of a Meeting Room, services of a most proficient master, we are getting on very and other unavoidable incidental expenses.

satisfactorily indeed. "9. That the Committee reserve to themselves the right of dis “This is something of our present position. We are increasing crimination, and be empowered to disallow any of doubtful very rapidly. The members thoroughly appreciate the value of character to join the Classes, or any person who in their judg. the service rendered them; they are, in fact, enthusiastically in ment might prove in any way detrimental to their progress. earnest. As soon as we can manage to meet twice instead of

“10. That any Member conducting himself in an officious or in (as at present) once weekly, we purpose introducing other suban improper manner, in any way becoming obnoxious to those jects, especially those of Latin, German, and Bookkeeping-for present, or not conforming to the whole of the Rules of the two of which subjects leaders have already volunteered. As a Society, be expelled from the Classes.

text-book we confine ourselves strictly to the POPULAR EDU“11. That the name of any Member absenting himself during Cator, and experience justifies us in recommending similar the whole of three months, without legitimate and specified classes in this particular, if in no other, carefully to follow our cause, shall be erased from the list of Members.

example. In no work that we have yet seen are the subjects “12. That the Committee be empowered to alter either or the treated on with such completeness and such admirable clarté, or whole of the foregoing Rules, or to create additional Rules, or so calculated to ensure the object of the learner-SUCCESS. to effect any changes which may prove essential to the increased * In conclusion, allow me to add that it will be a matter of success of the Society.

surprise to me if, in the course of a little time, POPULAR EDU

CATOR CLASSES, on the principle laid down in your work, do “We are now in full working order ; and as it may be useful not become truly national, both as regards their extent and to many of your readers, I will endeavour very concisely to ex. character, and be established in all or nearly all the great towns plain our mode of conducting the classes.

and boroughs of the United Kingdom."

PNEUMATICS.-II.

temperature of the air havo also been taken, but no important

practical results have as yet been achieved. GAS BALLOON-PRESSURE OF THE AIR-MAGDEBURG HZMI.

Having now seen proofs that the air has weight, we must see SPHERES-SUCKER-SPILE-PEG-SYPHON.

what effects this weight produces. If we lay a piece of iron or We saw in our last lesson that air, when heated, becomes su.. any substance on our hand it produces pressure, the amount of ciently rarefied to raise a balloon, together with its car and which varies with the weight of the body, and we should naturally several passengers, but that there is great danger from fire. expect the same effect to be produced by the air. A few simple Now it was found that hydrogen gas was lighter than heated experiments will show us that this is actually the case, and that air, and hence it soon began to be used for inflating balloons, the air does exert a very great pressure on every substance exwhich were found to possess great lifting power. Pure hydrogen posed to it. This pressure amounts to nearly 15 pounds on every has less than lith the weight of common air, 100

square inch of surface. If we have a card meacubic inches of it weighing only about 2.14

suring 4 inches by 3 inches, the pressure on it grains. If, then, a balloon having a capacity of

from the air will be 180 pounds. But it will be 16,000 cubic feet be filled with this, it will pos

said this pressure is not felt, nor does the card sess a lifting power of about half a ton. The

bend at all; why is this ? Simply because the hydrogen used was at first commonly made by

pressure is equal in all directions, and therefore the action of sulphuric acid and water on pieces

that on the lower side balances that on the of iron or zinc, the gas given off being passed

upper. If we take away the air from the under through water to wash it from the acid, which

side, we shall soon find that this is the case. would injure the balloon. It was, however, found

This may easily be done by means of the airto be expensive thus to make it, and being so

pump. We have only to procure a glass receiver, light it soon mixed with the air, and thus lost

open at each end, and having stretched a piece much of its buoyancy; common coal gas is there

of bladder or of thin india-rubber over one end, fore dow generally used, and if it be made at a

place it on the pump-platė, and exhaust the air somewhat higher temperature than usual it is

(Fig. 3). The pressure above, not being balanced sufficiently light for most purposes. Its specific

any longer by a corresponding pressure on the gravity is much less, indeed, than that of pure hy.

under side, will press the bladder down, and, drogen, being about one-half that of the air, but

after a few strokes, cause it to burst with a loud increased size in the balloon will compensate for

report. A thin piece of glass, if it be flat this, and it has the advantages of being cheap,

Fig. 3.

enough to close the top of the receiver air-tight, easily procurable, and more manageable.

may be broken in a similar way, and thus will As the balloon ascends the pressure of the air becomes less give a further proof of the intensity of the pressure. and less, and thus the gas in it expands, and would soon burst Instead of the bladder or glass the hand may be laid on the open the silk, were it not that a large aperture is always left at receiver, and will be pressed down forcibly as the air is removed. the neck of the balloon to allow of the escape of any excess. So The cupping-glass, formerly so much used, acted on this prinsensitive is this large body of gas to changes of pressure or tem-ciple. The air in it was rarefied either by means of a small perature, that the fact of passing from a cloud into the rays of the syringe, or by heating the glass and allowing it to cool when son makes a very perceptible change in its bulk.

placed over the required part of the body; the flesh was thus A number of sand-bags are usually suspended outside the car, drawn up, and then pierced by the lancets. and when the aëronaut wishes to ascend he empties some of If a wooden cup, with a piece of cane let into the middle of these, and thus diminishes the weight of the car and causes the it, be made to fit the top of the receiver and filled with mercury, balloon to shoot up rapidly. A large valve is also fixed at the the pressure of the air, when the receiver is exhausted, will drive top of the balloon, and can be opened by means of a cord which the mercury through the pores of the cane, and it will fall like a passes down into the car. When the tension

fine shower into a vessel placed to receive it. becomes very great, or the aëronaut wishes to

Care must, however, be taken not to let any of descend, he opens this, and thus allows a portion

it run into the pump, as it is almost certain to of the gas to escape. The greatest care is, how.

injure it seriously. ever, necessary in descending, as much of the gas

This pressure is exerted equally in all direcbas escaped, and when the balloon nears the earth

tions, and hence is almost unnoticed: a simple again it collapses to a considerable extent, and a

experiment, which all can try, affords å proof of further quantity of sand has to be let out. The

this. Fill a wine-glass with water, so that it greatest elevation ever yet attained in a balloon

stands a little above the edge, and carefully was on the 5th of September, 1862, when Messrs.

slide a piece of card over the mouth so as to Coxwell and Gleisher made an ascent from Wol.

cover it completely and exclude the air; the verhampton for the purpose of making some scien

whole may now be inverted without the card tific experiments, and on this occasion a height

falling or the water being spilled. The sides of of upwards of six miles was reached. Mr. Glaisher

the wine-glass sustain the downward pressure of at this height became unconscious, and Mr. Cox.

the air, and the upward pressure is more than well had not strength enough left in his hand to

sufficient to sustain the weight of the water in open the valve, but was fortunately able to pull

the glass. The only advantage of the card here the string with his teeth, and thus to descend.

is that it prevents the surface being broken up, At this time two-thirds of the atmosphere was

and thus allowing the air to enter at places. A beneath them, and the barometer stood at less

bottle with a very small mouth may be comthan ten inches.

pletely filled and carefully inverted without the A grapnel is usually suspended from the car,

water running out, even though the card be and catching the earth gives assistance in

Fig. 4,

not used. descending ; but with every care a violent

Several conjuring tricks are performed upon this shock will frequently be experienced, and the scientific instru- | principle, and many others are only ingenious applications of scienments taken in the car be broken. A parachute is sometimes tific principles, and appear startling mainly because these princitaken up with the balloon. This consists of a large circular ples are so little understood by the majority of men. If a small piece of canvas with a small car suspended by ropes fixed at hole be drilled in the bottom of a decanter, and the stopper put intervals round its edge. If the aëronaut gets into this, the in firmly, no liquid will escape. The finger must, of course, bo canvas will open out like an umbrella, and the resistance of the held over the opening while the liquid is being poured in. The air against it will be sufficient to break the force of the fall. decanter is then placed over a stand large enough to contain the At present no very great results have been obtained by the use wine, and on the stopper being slightly loosened the liquid will

In war one has occasionally been sent up quietly flow out. A cover is placed over it while this is going fastened to a long rope, and from this the position of the enemy on. În the same way liquids may be made to flow from small has been noted. Many valuable observations as to the state and reservoirs concealed in covers into glasses placed upon them, VOL. III.

74

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of the balloon.

and thus the wine appears to have passed from the decanter closely down on a stone or flat surface so as to exclude the air into the glasses. We see, thus, that there is science to be from under it, and will be found to adhere so firmly that the learnt even from some of the tricks of the conjuror, and a person stone may be raised by the string without its leaving the leather. who understands the principle of these things will be less likely The reason of this is that the moisture prevents the air entering to be deceived.

between the stone and the leather. When, therefore, the leather Perhaps the most striking proof of the pressure of the air is is raised in the middle by the string a partial vacuum is proafforded by boiling some water in a thin cylinder provided with duced, and the pressure which the air exerted on the upper a stop-cock. After the water has been boiling for a little time surface of the stone is transferred to the leather and balanced all the air which was within is driven out, and it remains filled by the tension of the string. The pressure of the air on the with steam. Let the stop-cock be now closed, and cold water under side of the stone, being no longer balanced poured over the cylinder; the steam inside will be instantaneously by a corresponding pressure above, lifts the stone. condensed into water, and the pressure of the air aroand will It is frequently required to draw a small quantity of crumple up the cylinder, even though the cylindrical shape is wine from a cask, as a sample, without tapping it: a best calculated to resist a pressure of this kind. If the steam small instrument known as a wine-taster is therefore inside a boiler be suddenly condensed by admitting cold water made use of. This consists of a hollow tubular vessel, too rapidly, or in any other way, the boiler will sometimes col. having a small aperture at each end, and somewhat lapse in a similar way. By ascertaining the area it exposes to bulged in the middle, as shown in Fig. 5. The bung the air, and multiplying the number of square inches in that by is removed from the cask and the taster inserted. 145, we shall see how enormous the pressure thus exerted The wine soon rises through the opening at the lower must be.

end till it finds its level, the thumb is then placed Another piece of apparatus, known as the Magdeburg hemi- over the opening above, and the air being thus prespheres (Fig. 4), furnishes a very good illustration of this pressure. vented from entering, the wine is retained, and can be Two hemispheres usually made of brass are procured and their removed from the cask without any loss. On the edges accurately ground, so that, when pressed together, they fit thumb being removed from above air will enter, and air-tight. A handle is fixed to each, that on one being so arranged the liquid will flow out into a glass. as to screw on the end of a pipe closed by a tap and opening Bird-cage fountains also depend for their action on into the hemisphere. This handle is taken off, and the hemispheres the pressure of the air. The reservoir is constructed pressed together, a little tallow being smeared on their edges ; so as to be air-tight, and a small trough is placed near the pipe is then screwed into the hole in the centre of the pump- the lower end from which the birds may drink. This plate, and the air removed. When sufficiently exhausted the communicates with the reservoir by a small hole made tap is closed, the apparatus unscrewed from the pump, and the at the level at which it is desired to maintain the Fig. 5. handle replaced. Nearly all the air has now been removed from water. As soon as the water is so far removed within them, and that around, therefore, presses them together from the trough that this hole is exposed, a bubble of air enters with great force. If the hemispheres have a diameter of four or and displaces a small quantity of water, and in this way a unifive inches, this pressure will be so great that it will be as much form level is maintained and a constant supply of fresh water. as two men can do to pull them apart. If, however, the tap be Pneumatic inkstands have been constructed on a similar prinopened and the air re-admitted, the pressure inside will balance ciple, the advantage resulting from their use being that a much that outside, and they will fall apart by their own weight. It less surface is exposed to the air, and therefore the ink does not will easily be seen that, if their diameter be five inches, the por- thicken so rapidly, and also that there is less danger of spilling tion of the pressure of the air which forces them together will be the contents. equal to that on a circular surface of the same diameter. Now, We must now pass on to notice a very useful piece of apparatus as the area of a circle is about 34 times the square of its radius, -the syphon. the area of this surface would be nearly 20 square inches, and In many manufacturing processes, and in chemical experiwe may assume that the air inside is so far rarefied that they ments, a liquid is often allowed to settle, and the clear liquor are pressed together with a force of 14 pounds per square inch : above has to be drawn off without disturbing the sediment, as the force required to separate them is therefore nearly 280 would be done if the vessel were tilted so as to pour out the pounds.

liquid. This can easily be accomplished by means of the A pair of hemispheres of this kind were constructed by Otto syphon, which consists merely of a tube bent into the shape of Guéricke, one of the inventors of the air-pump, of such a size the letter U, one limb, however, being longer than the other. In that two teams of horses, pulling in opposite directions, were Fig. 6, c is the vessel from unable to separate them.

which the water has to be

D The pressure of the air furnishes us with explanations of drawn off, and C B repremany of the common phenomena of every-day life. When a cask sents the syphon. This is is tapped, the beer soon ceases to flow unless a small hole be bored filled with water, and then, at the top, just as in the magic decanter the wine refused to run the ends being closed by the out of the small hole at the bottom until the air was admitted finger, inverted into the by the loosening of the stopper. A well-made cask is perfectly vessel; or it may be placed air-tight, and as soon as a little of the beer has been drawn from in the vessel, and the air it the air inside becomes rarefied; the pressure of the external exhausted from it by suckair is therefore greater, and, acting on the liquid in the tap, ing with the mouth at the prevents its flow. As soon, however, as air is admitted by the end B; the air being thus spile-peg, the pressure is equalised, and the beer flows evenly. partly removed from the For the same reason a small hole is usually made in the lid of a tube, the water rises and teapot, so that when the water standing round the lid makes it flows over the bend. The nearly air-tight the tea may still flow in an even stream. principle on which it acts

If we invert a wine-bottle, the liquid will flow out in a very is simply this: Let the syirregular way; the air has to pass in by the neck at the same phon be full of water, and

Fig. 6. time as the contents flow out, and the meeting of the two pro- let us imagine a layer of duces the well-known gurgling sound. If, however, the bottle water across the highest point of the bend to become solid. The be slightly inclined, so that the air may enter at the upper forces which act on this layer and force it towards c are the part of the neck while the liquid flows out at the lower part, all pressure of the air acting upwards at B and the weight of a this gurgling is avoided, and the liquid flows better and more column of water equal in height to D c, for it is clear that this rapidly.

column has to be supported by the layer. The forces which We have another illustration of the pressure of the air in the drive it in the other direction, or towards B, are the pressure of common sucker, so well known to every boy. A piece of string, the air on the surface of the liquid in c, which pressure is transwith a knot at the end of it, is passed through the centre of a mitted along the

tube, and is just equal to the pressure at B, and circular piece of thick leather, which has been soaked in water the weight of a column of water equal in height to A B. It will till it has become quite soft and pliable. It is then pressed thus be seen that the liquid will be moved along the syphon to

πέντε.

Οκτω.
εννεα.

Fards B with a force equal to the pressure of a column of water the elements of words. Hence, with the Greeks, the four-andThose height is equal to the difference between the two columns twenty letters of the alphabet are so many ciphers. In the & B and C D. Hence, the greater the difference of level between series, however, three obsolete forms are introduced, namely, the liquid in the vessel c and the open mouth B of the tube, the after e the letter Bav or digamma, r, or Ti, that is, s, as the sign grester will be the speed at which the liquid will flow; if both for 6 ; also kotta, that is, 9, as the sign for 90; and Sauri, X come to the same level, it will cease to run. In order to avoid as the sign for 900. the risk of drawing some of the liquid into the mouth while The first eight letters, from alpha to theta, bau or sti included, sucking out the air, a small tube is frequently attached near the make the first series consisting of units; the ensuing eight, end of the lower limb of the syphon; the finger may then be from iota to pi, including koppa, form the second series, or the placed over the end to close it, and the air drawn out by this succession of tens; and the remaining eight, from tho to omėga, inbe, in which the rise of the liquid will be plainly seen.

together with sampi, make up the hundreds. Eleven is id', or An arrangement, designed to avoid trouble in filling the tube, 10 and 1; twelve is ', 10 and 2, etc. is known as the Wurtemberg syphon. In this both limbs are of Up to 999, the letters when used as figares have an accent the same length, and are turned up so that, when once filled, it over them each, thus a'. When more than one sign stand towill remain so, and thus is always ready for use. As, however, gether, the mark is over the last, thus cy'. With 1000 the the only difference in the effective length of the limbs arises from alphabet begins afresh. In order to indicate this the mark is the distance to which one is immersed in the liquid, only a small placed under the letter—thus é = 1, but ,a = 1000; i = 10, but head of water can be obtained, and thus the liquid flows but = 10,000. The year 1869 in Greek numerals is written thus, slowly.

awte', 1869. Since it is the pressure of the atmosphere which causes the I here subjoin lists of the cardinals and the ordinals, accomliquid to rise in the bend of the syphon, the highest point in it panied by our numbers and the corresponding Greek signs. most not exceed 34 feet if water is used, or 30 inches if it be The English words, one, two, three, etc., need scarcely be mercury; for, as we have seen, the pressure of the air is only added, and of course first second, third, tenth, etc., will readily Infficient to balance columns of these heights.

be supplied by the student. In carrying on extensive drainage operations, as is frequently

Cardinals.

Ordinals. done in the low parts of Holland, or, on a smaller scale, in the

1. á eis, pla, év.

πρωτος, , -ον. fan district of our own country, a drain is frequently constructed

2. β' δυο, οι δυω.

δευτερος, , -ον. which has to discharge itself into a tidal river, or the sea, but is,

3. γ τρεις, τρια.

τριτος, , -ον.
at high water, below its level. Means have, therefore, to be
slopted to prevent the tidal water flowing up the drain and

4. δ' τετταρ-ες, , Or τεσσαρ-. τεταρτος, , -ον.
5. é

TEUTTOS, -7, -ov. fooding the land, and floodgates are frequently used for this

6.5

εκτος, , -ον. purpose. They are, however, very expensive to make and keep repair on account of the great pressure they have to sustain

7. ' επτα.

έβδομος, , -ον. 8. '

ογδοος, , -ον. from the water being higher on one side than on the other; and

9. O

evvaros, -9), -ov. I a channel, however small, be formed by the water under their

10.1 дека.

δεκατoς, -η, -ον. foundations, its pressure will soon be sufficient to blow up the

11. ια' ενδεκα. .

ενδεκάτος, , -ον. cinice. This happened a few years since at the “ Middle Level,”

12. ιβ' δωδεκα.

δωδεκάτος, , -ον. one of the drains which empties into the Ouse near King's Lynn,

13. ιγ' τρισκαιδεκα.

τρισκαιδεκάτος, , -ον. and a great loss of property was the result. To guard against

14. ιδ' τεττ-αρεσκαιδεκα, Or τεσσ., τετταρακαιδεκάτος, , -ον. these difficulties syphons are now sometimes used instead of

15. ιε' πεντεκαιδεκα.

πεντεκαιδεκάτος, -η, -ον. gates, and are found to answer well. Piles are driven across the

16. is! ÉKKODeka.

εκκαιδεκάτος, , -ον. drain, and a strong embankment formed, so as to resist the pressure on either side. Large syphons are then placed over

17. ιζ' επτακαιδεκα.

επτακαιδεκάτος, -η, -ον. 18. ιη' οκτωκαιδεκα.

οκτωκαιδεκάτος, , -ον. his, and small pipes are brought from the highest point of each

19. ιθ' εννεακαιδεκα. .

εννεακαιδεκάτος, , -ον. syphon to a large air-pump, by which the air is removed, and the

20. κ' εικοσι(ν).

εικοστος, , -ον. [-η, -ον. wyphons set to work. When the water rises higher on the river

21. καεικοσιν είς, μια, έν. εικοστος, , -ον, πρωτος, side, air is re-admitted above, and the syphons cease to act.

30. λ' τριακοντα.

τριακοστος, , -ον.

40. μ' τεττ-αρακοντα, Or τεσσ-, τετταρακοστος, , -ον. LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXI.

50. ν' , πεντηκοντα.

πεντηκοστος, , -ον. 60. ξ' εξηκοντα. .

εξηκοστος, , -ον. THE NUMERALS.-RECAPITULATORY EXERCISES.

70, ο έβδομηκοντα.

εβδομηκοστος, , -ον. Taz mumerals express the relation of number. According to

80. π ογδοηκοντα.

ογδοηκοστος, , -ον. their import they may be divided into five classes : 1, the

90. Φ' ενενηκοντα. .

ενενηκοστος, , -ον. Cardinals ; 2, the ordinals; 3, the multiplicatives ; 4, the pro

100. ρ' εκατον. .

εκατοστος, -η, -ον. portionals; and 5, the substantive numerals.

200. σ' διακοσιοι, -αι, -α.

διακοσιοστος, , -ον. The foundation of the whole are the cardinals, or the chief, so

300. τ' τριακόσιοι, -αι, -α. τριακοσιοστος, , -ον. alled because they are the hinge (in Latin, cardo) on which the

400. v

τετρακόσιοι, -αι, -α. τετρακοσιοστος, , -ον. others turn. The cardinals answer to the question how many?

500. Φ' πεντακοσιοι, -αι, -α.

πεντακοσιοστος, , -ον. asyre, two, five, etc. Of the cardinals, the four that come first,

600. χ εξακόσιοι, -αι, -α. εξακοσιοστος, , -ον. End the round numbers from 200 (διακοσιοι) ap to 10,000 (μυριοι), 700. Ψ' επτακόσιοι, -αι, -α. επτακοσιοστος, , -ον. well as the compounds of pupioi, have the inflections of adjec

800. ω' οκτακοσιοι, -αι, «α. οικτακοσιοστος, , -ον. time, all the rest are indeclinable. The thousands are formed the help of numeral adverbs: for example, Tpus-X1A101, 3,000.

900. Δ' εννακόσιοι, -αι, «α. εννακοσιοστος, , -ον. The ordinals denote the order in which the numbers follow, or

1000. α χιλιοι, -αι, «α.

χιλιοστος, , -ον.

2000. β δισχιλιοι, «αι, -α. δισχιλιοστος, , -ον. Sea place in the series held by a particular number; as the fourth,

3000. γ τρισχιλιοι, «αι, -α. τρισχιλιοστος, , -ον. 72gros. They are all inflected like adjectives of three termi

4000. δ τετρακισχιλιοι, -αι, -α. τετρακισχιλιοστος, , -ον.

πεντακισχιλιοι, -αι, -α. πεντακισχιλιοστος, , -ον. The multiplicatives denote how often a quality is repeated, as

6000. 5 εξακισχιλιοι, «αι, -α. εξακισχιλιοστος, , -ον. fold, fornerfold; they are compounds of #lovs, and have three

7000. επτακισχιλιοι, «αι, -α. επτακισχιλιοστος, , -ον. djectival terminations, -ous, -1, -ovy, as dit dous. Then there are

8000. η οκτακισχιλιοι, «αι, -α. οκτακισχιλιοστος, , -ον. menal adverbs in -akts, which answer to the question how en 7 as ékaTOVTakis, a hundred times.

9000. θ εννακισχιλιοι, -αι, -α. εννακισχιλιοστος, , -ον.

10,000. ,! The proportionals are compounds of marios, -a, -ov, and

μυριοι, -αι, “α.

μυριοστος, -η, -ον. 20,000. κ δισμυριοι, -αι, -α.

δισμυριοστος, , -ον. insote so much the more than some other object, as dit Aaolos, Pro us much

100,000. ρ δεκακισμυριοι, «αι, «α. δεκακισμυριοστος, , -ον. The substantive numerals express the abstract idea of number, In forming compound numbers you may put the smaller first bei sicas, gen. -años, duality.

and the larger second, interposing kai, and; as, TEVTE KAL ELKOOLV, Taa alphabet furnishes signs for numbers, as well as supplies five-and-twenty; or you may reverse the order, still, however,

mations.

5000. €

Ν.

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N.

μια,

Nom. τρεις,

or

keeping the conjunction, as εικοσι και πεντε, twenty and five, 25. | of the time eight months. 4. The number of the army is 39,850. Thus, 345 will be either πεντε και τετταρακοντα και τριακόσιοι, 5. (There) are four generals of the army, each of the four of Οι τριακόσιοι και τετταρακοντα και πεντε,

(that is, commanding) 30,990 soldiers. 6. In the battle (there) DECLENSION OF THE FOUR FIRST NUMERALS,

were present 96,650 soldiers and 150 scythe-bearing chariots. Namely, είς, one; δυο, two ; τρεις, three ; τετταρες, jour.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-XX. Nom. είς, μια, δυο.

EXERCISE 68.-GREEK-ENGLISH. Gen. ενος, μιας, , ενος ; δυοιν.

1. This man is good. 2. This judgment is just. 3. This woman is Dat. . ένι,

ενι;
δυοιν.

beautiful. 4. That man is a king. 5. The king himself is general. Acc. ενα,

δυο.

6. O boy, bear him the key. 7. Some do not know the same things conμιαν,

cerning the same people on the same day. 8. To speak and to act is τρια και τετταρες, τετταρα. not the same thing. 9. These roses which bloom in the garden are Gen. τριών, τετταρων.

lovely. 10. Man is a certain clever contrivance, 11. If you cultivate Dat. τρισι,

τετταρσι. Poet. τετρασι. the friendship of any man, examine carefully into his character. 12. Aco. τρεις,

τρια και τετταρας, τετταρα. Who writes this letter ? 13. Tell me who writes this letter ? 14. Το Like eis, decline its compounds, ovdels and unders, no one : thus, who has kind children. 16. That man is most happy who has no

others communicate of the things which you have. 15. He is happy ουδεις, ουδεμια, ουδεν; gen., ουδενος, ουδεμιας, etc. Plural, ουδενες, | calamity. 17. Why do you take anxious thought ? 18. I cannot tell ουδεμιαι, ουδενα, ουδεμων, ουδεσι, etc. ; the δ is euphonic.

why I take anxious thought. 19. As is the disposition of each, such Avo is often used as an indeclinable word for all cases. The is his manner of life. 20. Who is that woman yonder? 21. Tell me numeral auow, both, has, like dvo, in the genitive and dative oi ν-- who is that woman yonder. . thus, aupowv; the accusative is the same as the nominative ; like

EXERCISE 69,-ENGLISH-GREEK, dvo, auow is sometimes used as an indeclinable.

1. Οι ανδρες ουτοι εισιν αγαθοι. 2. Εκειναι αι δοξαι εισι δικαιαι, 3. Τα VOCABULARY.

τεκνα ταυτης της γυναικος εστι καλα, 4. Εκεινα τα ροδα εστι καλα, 5. Ο Αναβάσις, εως, ή, a | Κυδνος, -ου, δ, the Πους, πoδoς, o (Lat. πατηρ αυτος γραφει την επιστολην. 6. Ο υίος αυτου εστι σοφος. 7. Αυτου ή going up, an expe Cydnus.

pes) a foot.

θυγατηρ εστι καλη. 8. Εκεινα τα καλα ροδα θαυμαζω, αυτα φερε μοι. 9. Τα dition.

Μυριας, «αδος, ή, the “Ρωμαιος, -ου, ο, ο τεκνα των αυτων τοκεων πολλακις εισιν έτερα. 10. Τουτο το ροδων και εν τω κηπο Αριθμος, -ου, δ, number 10,000. Roman.

θαλλει, εστι καλον. number. ,

| Οπλιτης, •ου, 6, Σαρος, -ου, o, the Αρμα, αρμάτος, το, 8 a heavy - armed river Sarus.

ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-XVII. carriage.

soldier.
Σταδιον, -ου, το, 8

ENERGY.
Βαβυλων, -ωνος, -η, Παρασαγγης, -ου, και, stadium 600
Babylon.

LAZINESS is the cause of more failures in life than incapacity a parasang, a Per

Greek or 606) EnΒαρβαρος, o, a bar sian measure of glish feet.

or want of opportunity. There are multitudes who want neither barian, every one length =30 stadia. Σταθμος, -ου, o, a

the ability to do, nor the occasion to succeed, who yet lose the not a Greek. Παρειμι, I am pre station, a day's prizes in life's race simply through sheer indolence and in

attention. Βημα, -άτος, τo, a sent.

march, stage = 5

Indolence takes many forms, such as sloth, love step, stride. Πελοποννησος, -ου, ή, parasangs

of ease, the dislike of all kinds of trouble; and the succumbing Δρεπανηφορος, Peloponnesus. leagues.

-ΟΥ,

also to ghosts of the imagination tends to affright with diffiscythe-bearing. Πελταστης, -ου, ο, ο Στρατευμα, -άτος, τo, Indolence is, therefore, a danger to character which ought to

culties, and so weaken energy at the outset of the career. Ενιαυτος, ου,o, a year. shield-bearer, tar an army. Ευρος, •ους, το, geteer.

be fought and fenced with in earliest days; and certainly of the

Συγγραφω, I describe breadth.

Πελτη, -ης, ή, a small (ypadw, I engrave, things not necessary for the young, we may class all kinds of Ευφρατης, -ου, o, the light shield.

write).

narcotics whatsoever. They only serve to help the most morally river Euphrates. Περσικος, , -ον, Per- Συμπας, -άσα,

debilitating tendencies of human nature, and very often prevent Καταβάσις, εως, ή,

sian.

all, all together,

the commencement of life being such as to ensure future honour

and success. a going down, re- Πλεθρον, -ου, το, 8 total.

There is a large amount of latent energy in most treat.

plethron 101 Συνετος, -η, -ον, intel- human beings. It is impossible, indeed, to read the lives or Κιλικια, ας, ή, Cilicia. feet English, or ligent.

successful men without being marvel-struck with the record of Κοτύωρα, ων, τα, of a stadium.

Φρυγια,

their energy. When we study such works as Smiles' " Self

ή,

ας, Cotyora, 8 town Πληθος, -ους, το, και Phrygia.

Help,” we are made sensible of the possibilities inherent in most in Pontus. maltitude.

human lives; and when we contrast such special histories with

lives in general, we can but be made alive to the fact that what EXERCISE 70.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

is wanted to ensure more general success in human history is 1. Ο Ευφρατης ποταμος εστι το ευρος τετταρων σταδιων. 2. To not so much skill, genius, or even opportunity, as that which δε σταδιον εχει παρα τους Ρωμαιοις πεντε και εικοσι και εκατον is expressed in this one word, ENERGY. Spasmodio eforts βηματα, η πεντε και εικοσι και εξακοσιους ποδας. 3. Kυρω παρησαν | are common to multitudes, and although much strength is αι εκ Πελοποννησου νηες τριακοντα πεντε. 4. Του Σαρου, Κιλικιας | on such occasions put forth, it cannot be truly denominated ποταμου, το ευρος ην τρια πλεθρα. 5. Το δε πλεθρον εχει | energy. This expression comes from the Greek word ενεργεια, εκατον ποδας. 6. Κυδνος, Κιλικιας ποταμος, ευρος εστι δυο πλεθ- | which means internal or inherent power, and its opposite in

7. Του Μαιανδρου, φρυγιας ποταμου, το ευρος εστιν εικοσι | our language is enervate, which means to unnerve, to weaken πεντε ποδων. 8. Ο παρασάγγης, Περσικον μετρον, εχει τριακοντα | or debilitate. This energy is supposed to be in a very large σταδια η πεντηκοντα και επτακοσιους και οκτακισχιλιους και degree the property of the Anglo-Saxon race. This is manifested μυριους ποδας. 9. Αριθμος συμπασης της οδου της αναβασεως | amid the wild prairies of Australia and America, where the και καταβασεως, η υπο Ξενοφωντος συγγραφεται, ησαν σταθμοι | sound of the axe and the hammer has been heard, and where διακοσιοι δεκα πεντε, παρασαγγαι χιλιοι έκατον πεντηκοντα | the homes of civilisation have been erected amidst what once πεντε, σταδια τρισμυρια τετρακισχιλια εξακόσια πεντηκοντα, were most desolate wilds. Circumstances, it is true, called this χρονου πληθος της αναβασεως και καταβασεως ενιαυτος και τρεις | energy out, and developed it in manifold ways ; and it becomes μηνες. 10. Eνος φιλια συνετου κρειττων εστιν ασυνετων απαντων. | us, therefore, to remember that the circumstances of our civi11. Του Κυρον στρατευματος ην αριθμος των μεν Ελληνων οπλιται lised life sometimes tend to the deadening of our activities. μυριοι και τετρακοσιοι, πελτασται δε δισχιλιοι και πεντακοσιοι, των | One more danger lies in the fact that success is difficult in δε μετα Κυ Βαρβαρων δεκα μυριάδες και άρματα δρεπανηφορα | densely-populated nations, where every trade and profession αμφι τα εικοσι.

seems to have more than its full complement of competitors. EXERCISE 71.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

Energy is apt to die out where there are few avenues of ad. 1. It is better to have one intelligent friend than many unin. vancement, and the heart gets wearied of disappointed hopes. telligent ones. 2. Seventy years produce about (auoi and acc.) But this is only the case with those who forget that the 25,555 days. 3. The sum total of the way from the battle at highest pinnacles of success gained by the few are not, after (ev) Babylon to (ELS) Cotyora, of the retreat, which Xenophon all, perhaps, the happiest; and that to succeed in securing describes, is 122 stages, 620 parasangs, 18,600 stadia, the length a happy home and a sphere of honest duty is well worth the

•αν,

ρων.

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