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COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.—XI. of insects, to have expended her most exquisite workmanship INSECTA-CLASSIFICATION.

in the architecture of their superficies, or the boundary between

themselves and the outer world. The character, the capabilities, ENTOMOLOGY, or the study of insects, has always been a and the efficiency of insects depend mainly on the framework favourite branch of natural history. The great beauty, both of of their external casing. This external casing is the resisting form and colouring, to be found in many of the species of this and supporting structure upon which all the soft parts are class has always commended it to the attention of all who have built. From this peculiarity of structure it follows that when any bent towards such studies. Probably the hues of the an insect is dried—when the muscles have withered and its gorgeously-tinted butterfly, or the elegance and graceful ac- nervous, nutritive, and reproductive organs have shrivelled tivity of the dragon-fly, have been the first incitement to many or decayed-since they are all internal, not only is its beauty a youth to the study of living creatures. Besides these, many left intact, but all the essential features by which its habits thousands who have no claim to be called naturalists have and relationships may be determined are undestroyed. Morefound great pleasure in collecting and preserving insects. "A over, it is found that when any class has any great pecuthing of beauty is a joy for ever,” and whether the external liarity, any part specially well developed, the modifications of

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HEXIPTERA :-1, CICADA (AN HOMOPTEROUS INSECT); 2, HALYS; 3, HYDROMETRA. DIPTERA :-4, ASILUS CRABRONIFORMIS; 5, ERISTALIS.

LEPIDOPTERA :-6, EUCLIDIA Mi. HYMENOPTERA :-7, APATHUS; 8, AN ICHNEUMON FLY, COLEOPTERA :-9, CICINDELA; 10, GEOTRUPES. NEUROFTEBA :-11, PHRYGANEA. ORTHOPTERA :—12, MANTIS RELIGIOBA.

stamp of excellence called beauty induces men to examine and that part furnish the best means of classifying the members appreciate the other excellences of Nature or not, it is good that of that class into minor divisions. Thus, the gills of fish, the the great God should receive the praise of a thousand joyous breast-bone of birds, and the intra-uterine connection of mother hearts for this alone. The collection and study of insects is and offspring in brutes, all of which are peculiar or peculiarly pursued with greater ease than that of any other class. Found developed structures, are made use of severally to divide fish, everywhere in almost infinite variety, they offer an unlimited birds, and brutes into minor sub-divisions. Hence it follows field in which every lover of Nature can occupy himself. Their that though in our insect cabinets we have only the dry and size, ranging as it does between a very few inches in length lifeless husks of insects, yet we have in them a means of comdown to an almost limitless minuteness, enables them to be paring and classifying insects which probably would not be stored, notwithstanding their great multitude, in a space which much increased if the whole of the organs were preserved. is at the command of every one. All these facilities for the These advantages have no doubt largely tended to make the collection and study of insects would, however, be nugatory study of entomology popular. A class which can be studied if it were not for the peculiarities of their structure. As we with any degree of completeness without recourse to the diffi. have seen in our last lesson, the great peculiarity and excellence cult process of dissection, is sure to receive attention. A simple of insects is the perfection of the organs of relation, as they lens, or at most a microscope of low power, directed upon the are called. By organs of relation is meant the organs through exterior of a set specimen, is quite sufficient to determine not which the animal acts apon, or is brought into contact with, the only its place in all existing classifications, but even to furnish outer world, such as organs of sense, locomotion, and prehen all the information on which the reasons for the adoption of sion; of attack and defence. Hence Nature seems, in the case the several systems of classification are based. Nevertheless, VOL. 111.

55

though all that has been stated is true, though the museums 5. Coleoptera (sheath-winged).-Insects with perfect metaof Europe contain vast collections gathered from all parts of morphosis, biting jaws, free, strongly-developed prothorax, and the earth, though the class itself is so rich in species that in hard, horny fore-wings (Flytra). it, if anywhere, we might hope to find a complete series which 6. Neuroptera (net-winged).-Insects with perfect metamorwould throw light on the general principles of classification-phosis, biting jaws, free prothorax, and membranous fore and yet the arrangement of insects into minor groups is by no hind wings. means placed on a satisfactory footing. The external parts 7. Orthoptera (straight-winged).-Insects without or with of insects have been examined with a minuteness and described imperfect metamorphosis, biting jaws, and the first segment of with a care which strikes the uninitiated with wonder. Not the thorax united to the second segment. only the shape of all the plates composing the rings of the One thing should be noted in this ordinal arrangement which body, and the number and form of the joints of the legs and otherwise might perplex the student. The Dragon-fly family, antennæ, have been made to yield characters for classification, with its nearly allied families of the Ephemeridæ (May-flies) but even the number and shape of the joints of the appendages and the Perlidæ, are transferred from the Neuroptera to the of the mouth-organs, and the direction and number of the Orthoptera on account of their having a free prothorax. Now nervures of the wings, together with the shape of the cells the dragon-fly was once considered to be the very type of a which they circumscribe, have been impressed into the service neuropterous insect, and it seems probable that Linnæus of 'taxonomy. Yet naturalists are far from agrceing in the intended that it should be the type of the order he constituted; arrangement of insects into their larger groups. Some classi- nevertheless, it is certain that the dragon-flies and the may-flies fiers place all insects under seven groups or orders, and some show a nearer relationship to the Orthoptera than the rest of are not contented with less than double that number. Con the so-called Neuroptera. cerning the more conspicuous and independent insects there The Hemiptera are so named from the fact that many of seems to be a considerable agreement as to classification, and them have their fore-wings distinctly divided into two parts; these are comprised under seven orders. The additional orders the anterior and outer half being horny, like the wing-cases of those who make more orders than seven are made of minute of a beetle, while the inner and hind half is membranous, like and generally parasitic insects. These, owing to the peculiarity the wing of a bee. of their method of life, constitute what may be called aberrant As this peculiarity only belongs to one large division of the groups--that is, groups which depart considerably from the order, some naturalists have given to it the name Rhynchota, or ordinary typical forms of insects. This idea of aberrant forms beaked insects, on account of the long rostrum or sucking will become clearer when we come to describe the several orders. snout which is found in every member of the order. These aberrant groups of insects have been constituted into new The order is divided into two tribes, the Homoptera and the orders, or included under the older and better established orders Heteroptera. In the Homoptera (like-winged) the wings are of the more conspicuous insects, according as each classifier of the same consistency throughout. One of the largest and is more prone to dwell on the differences or the resemblances most celebrated of these insects is shown in the illustraof animal forms.

tion. The insect represented is the female. The male is Without going into the merits of the several systems, we larger, and is furnished underneath with two large plates shall adhere to that classification by which all insects are covering in a musical apparatus, which it plies most vigorously arranged into seven orders, because this system will probably both during the day and night. The writer took this insect in give to the reader a clearer idea of the different groups of Italy, where it abounds, and has been known since classical insects than the ampler system. We have therefore to dis- times. The ancients called the cicada happy, because it had a tribute the aberrant groups among these seven orders, but in dumb wife. The cochineal insect, the aphides——whose periodical so doing we shall call attention to them, so that the reader presence in vast multitudes on plants is commonly called a may not be perplexed when he refers to other systems of blightthe Chinese lantern-fly, and the froghopper, all belong classification.

to this sub-order. Lice and bird-lice (Pediculina and MalloThe class Insecta is well defined by the following characters. phaga) may also be considered to be aberrant families of this subThey are animals with well-developed jointed limbs, one pair order, though some have made separate orders for each of them. of antennæ or head-feelers, compound eyes, feelerless upper The Heteroptera (unlike-winged) have wings such as have jaws (mandibles), a distinct head, a trisegmented thorax, to been described as giving their name to the Hemiptera. The which is attached three pairs of legs, and (normally) two pairs insect marked 2 in the illustration may be taken as a type of wings, limbless abdomen, and respiration by tracheæ.

of this sub-order. The water-scorpion, the water-boatman, and The terms used in this classification will be understood by the hydrometra each represent families of this sub-order. The those who have read the last lesson. The whole definition last-named is represented in the engraving. It may be seen is necessary, in order to cut off the insects from all the neigh- skating over the surface of every piece of water in summer and bouring classes. - Thas they possess jointed limbs in common autumn. with centipedes, spiders, and crustaceans, but they are by their The Diptera may be divided into the flies proper and two character cut off from the worms. Contipedes (Myriapoda) aberrant families. The lowest of these families is well known have one pair of antennæ, as insects have, but this peculiarity to us, being represented by the almost ubiquitous flea. The severs these classes from the spiders, which have no antenne, mouth-organs of this insect are very different from the genuine and also from the crustaceans, which have two pairs. On the flies, and in the place of wings they have only four scales, which other hand, the absence of limbs on the last division of the body, appear to be quite useless. Nevertheless, they appear from while it is likewise characteristic of the spiders, completely their metamorphosis, and for other reasons, to be more nearly separates them from the myriapods and crustaceans. The allied to the Diptera than to any other order. The Pupipera possession of two pairs of wings is peculiar to insects, but still is the name given to other insects which are also parasitic and this is not a good distinctive character, because wings are not wingless. These pass the whole of their larva state in the body found in all insects.

of the mother. Insects as thus defined may be divided into the following The genuine flies may be divided into two great divisions, orders, to each of which we affix the ordinal definition:

one of which, the Brachycera (short-horned), have short antenne 1. Hemiptera (half-winged).--Insects with imperfect meta- composed of three joints, while the palpi are of one or two joints; morphosis, free prothorax, and suctorial mouths.

the other sub-order, named Nemocera (thread-horned), have their 2. Diptera (two-winged).--Insects with perfect metamorphosis, whip-like antennæ (sometimes beaded) in many joints, while the suctorial mouths, membranous naked fore-wings, and aborted maxillary feelers are four or five-jointed. The antenne also hind-wings.

often have fine secondary hairs springing from each joint, which 3. Lepidoptera (scale-winged).--Insects with perfect meta- gives them the appearance of a plume. This, in the common morphosis, suctorial mouthed organs, and membranous fore gnat, is a very pretty object. The common daddy-longlegs and hind wings, covered with close-set coloured scales.

(Tipula) is a good example of this order. Both of the flies in 4. Hymenoptera (membrane-winged).-Insects with perfect the illustration belong to the Brachycera. The hornet-fly is metamorphosis, biting jaws, small ring-shaped prothorax, firmly one of the largest of our British Diptera, and while in flight is fastened by its upper part to the succeeding segment, and mem- very like the insect from which it derives its specific name. branous fore and hind wings, of which the latter are the smaller. The Lepidoptera have been variously divided into groups.

The sub-order, Macrolepidoptera, includes the day-flying butter- Physopoda and Thysanura. The earwigs (Dermoptera) are flies, with knobbed antennæ, the hawk-moths (Sphingidæ), the distinguished by their short, leathery, unveined elytra or forethiek-bodied moths (Bombycidæ), the nocturna, and the loopers wings, which cover the membranous hind-wings. These latter (Geometridæ); while the other sub-order, Microlepidoptera, are folded when at rest, first in a longitudinal direction, and comprises the pearl-moths (Pyralidæ), the bell-moths (Tortri- then doubled up transversely, so as to occupy but little space. cidæ), the cloth-moths (Tineina), and the plume-moths (Ptero- When extended, these membranous wings are in shape like the phoridæ). The moth in the engraving belongs to the Nocturna, human ear, hence the name ear-wing, and its corruption earand is called Euclidia on account of the pattern of geometrical wig. The pincers at the end of the body, the uses of which figures formed by the coloured scales of the wings.

are so little known, furnish another character which is conspi'The Hymenoptera are divided into the Aculeate, or stinging; cuous to all. Two more aberrant sub-orders, the Corrodentia the Entomophagous, or insect-eating ; and the Phytophagous, and Physopoda (bladder-footed), are of little importance. or plant-eating, sub-orders. Some species of the latter sub- Another, called the Thysanura, is remarkable for having long orders can prick, but the Aculeata are those which have a per- bristles at the end of the body, which in the Podura are bent forated sting leading from a poison-bag. The males of these under the body, and serve as springs to jerk the insect into the hare thirteen joints, and the females twelve joints, to their air when it wishes to leap, much after the manner of the toy antennæ. The abdomen is connected with the thorax by a very leaping-frog. These creatures have their bodies covered with thin stalk. The females, or workers, usually feed the larvæ scales, which are so small yet so beautifully symmetrical in of grubs, which are walled up in cells. The bee, the wasp, and their markings as to make excellent test objects for the high the ant each represent different families of this order.

powers of a microscope. In the entomophagous Hymenoptera, the females are fur The tribe to which

the white ants belong is called Orthoptera nished with a ovipositor, placed between two side-plates, socialia, because they live in communities. Although they which are usually stretched freely out from the end of the belong to quite a different order from the true ants, yet the abdomen, and are often of great length. This complex instru- popular name is justified by the fact that their habits are ment is made use of to insert the eggs deep into the bodies closely similar to them. It is a singular coincidence that in of the larvæ of other insects, in the abdominal cavity of both the cases of the true and the white ants there are not which the footless larvæ live parasitically, and there change only males and females in the community, but also neutral into pupæ. Hence the enthusiastic lepidopterist who breeds wingless forms, which, though themselves sterile, are highly his moths from caterpillars is often woefully disappointed instrumental in presiding over the reproduction and rearing of by having a brood of ichneumon-flies emerge from the chrysalis, the young from the other fertile forms, and also in the defence whose once living tenant they have entirely consumed. No. 8 of the nest and community. In the case of the Termites, the in the illustration represents an entomophagoas insect. In the neaters are called soldiers, because of their immense jawa, phytophagous Hymenoptera, the abdomen is joined to the thorax wherewith they attack all intruders. The larvæ and pupäe are by its whole width, and not by a stalk. These insects are active, and do the work of the community. The female has called saw-flies, because they are furnished with a double saw wings which have only a temporary use. When pregnant, she at the end of the body, with which they saw into wood, and is placed in a royal apartment, and fed while she increases to there deposit their yonng, which, when hatched, are herbivorous. an enormous size, preparatory to the production of some

The beatles (Coleoptera) form a well-defined order, with 80,000 eggs. scarcely any other approach to other orders among any of their The Praying Mantis is a good example of another family umerous families ; and none of these families can be called The cognomen is applied on account of the bent fore-legs of aberrant—that is, they cannot be said to stray far away from the animal, which are supposed to represent the attitude of the true beetle type. By some, the Brachelytrawhich have prayer. The mantis, however, uses them to inflict painful short wing-cases (as their name implies), under which their wounds by the aid of the sharp-pointed tibiæ. This insect is flexible wings are closely doubled up, thus leaving the rings an excellent example of the Gressorial Orthoptera. The salta of the hind part of the body exposed to view-are related to torial Orthoptera are well known as grasshoppers and crickets the Forficulidæ, an orthopterous order. Certainly there is much external likeness between the devil's coach-horse and an earwig, which two insects represent the two families named, LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--XXVIII. bat this is rather a spurious resemblance than a true affinity.

THE LATIN ELEMENT. The main divisions of the beetles have been founded on the mamber of the joints of the foot below the tibia. Thus the In our last lesson (Vol. II., page 409) we finished our inquiry Pentamera have five joints to all their feet; the Heteromera into the influence that the ancient language of the Greeks has have four joints to the feet of the third pair of legs, and five exerted on our tongue, and we now pass on to the Latin element to the others. The Cryptopentamera have apparently four in the English language. joints to all their feet. This appearance is occasioned by the That element can by the ordinary student be appreciated and great reduction in size, or, as it might be called, the abortion acquired but imperfectly. I will, however, do what I can to aid of one of the joints of each foot. The Trimera, similarly, have him. Had I had the direction of his studies from the first, I apparently three-jointed feet. Both the beetles in the engraving would have done my best to make him at the beginning master belong to the Pentamerous division. The Cicindela is a car- of the Latin language. As it is, I must content myself with nivorous beetle, and the Geotrupes is an herbivorous lamellicorn offering to his diligent attention the chief Latin roots which -.e, the last joints of the antennæ are produced into flat, enter into the body of our tongue. Possessed of these, together appressed plates.

with their signification, he will in general bo at no loss, even The Neuroptera, narrowed by the transference of the dragon without the aid of a dictionary, for the meaning of a word of flies and the may-flies to the Orthoptera, is divided into the Latin parentage. Seldom, however, do the words in English Planipennia-in which the hind-wings are like the fore ones, which may be traced back to the Latin, come into our tongue and not folded-and the Trichoptera, in which the wings are directly from the Roman soil. They have generally passed hairy or scaly, and the hind pairs folded. To these divisions, through intermediate countries. also, must be added the aberrant sub-order, called Strepsiptera From the Latin are formed several modern languages, namely, (screw-winged). The males of these have curious twisted and the French, the Italian, the Portuguese, and the Spanish. These aborted organs to represent the fore-wings and widely expanded are called the Romance languages, because they are essentially hind-wings; while the females are wingless, and inhabit the Roman in their origin. Some say they received the name because bodies of bees, between the segments of whose abdominal rings in them the first romances were written; more probably is it they thrust forth their heads.

that the fictions so called were denominated from the languages The Orthoptera, as defined above, comprise not only the in which they appezred. gennine Orthoptera represented by the cockroaches, walking. It is not immediately from the pure Latin of the Latin leaves, grasshoppers, and crickets-whose main characteristic classics, such as Livy, Cicero, Virgil

, Horace, and Tacitus, that is the folding of their broad hind-wings longitudinally, after the Romance languages are derived, but rather from these so the manner of a lady's fan-but also the white ants, the ear- far as they were found in the vernacular tongue, the spoken wigs, and dragon-flies, etc., and also two aberrant groups, called language of the population in the great centres of intercourse

and in rural districts. This vernacular tongue would be regarded new impulses of development, and given birth to new modes by the Roman purists as a corrupted form of the Latin. Cor- of utterance conformably with the progress of our modern rupt, doubtless, it was, for it contained many words of merely civilisation; and even produced new languages, any one of local prevalence, of low origin, and of no authority. Neverthe- which would not suffer in comparison with classio Latin. less, in it were preserved both terms and forms which, being of I have already intimated that the Saxon did not receive any a very early origin, like our English dialects, belonged to the very large inheritance immediately from the confused mass of very substance of the language.

words and tongues which ensued from the social collision of the Already in the bloom of the Roman power, the Latin language North and the South. Yet do we owe to the Romance languages had received a very large infusion of foreign elements from the so much, that I am not at liberty to pass on until I have given several nations which lay around it as a centre, and over which some particulars, the rather that without the facts that ensue, a it had established its sway—the countries which we now term knowledge of the English lacks an important element. France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Though the original popu Out of an original Latin term two or more English words lation of these wide districts had, in common with the Romans, were formed, either by some change in the body of the word, or a Celtic basis for their language, yet, from locality and diverse some change in its termination. Of those newly-coined words, culture, they had each for themselves formed a different tongue; one will be found to bear a close resemblance to its original; and these diversities, when the Roman authority became supreme, another will have departed from it in form and in meaning to a and the Roman language was introduced under the wing of that greater or less extent: the former is the older, probably the authority, readily blended themselves with the more refined more scholar-like; the latter is the more recent and the more diction of the metropolis and of the great Roman writers. popular. I subjoin a few instances, annexing contractions to Causes of diversity did not fail to appear on the establishment, show whence the terms have come to us, thus : Fr. shows that in a land, of the Roman otism. Those causes went on in the word is derived directly from the French ; It, from the their operation. At last a new cause, a cause of tremendous Italian; and Sp. from the Spanish. When the English word power, came into play—the invasion of the northern Barbarians. seems to come to us immediately from the Latin the contraction The blow broke the Roman empire in pieces. Out of the conse- Lat. is prefixed :quent ruins arose new forms of government--the forms of our Blasphemare, to revile,

Fr. to blaspheme, blame. present European kingdoms. With the formation of new centres Cals, limestone,

Fr. to calcine, calcination. of political power and social influences, new languages were Calculus, a pebble,

Fr. to calculate, calculous formed—the French, the Italian, the Spanish, the Portuguese;

Campus, a plain,

Fr. camp, champaign. at least, these are the main branches that shot forth from the

Canalis, a pipe,

Fr, canal, channel, kennel. Cantus, a song,

Fr. chant, enchant, canticle. old trunk and grew, until in separate literatures they each pro

Fr, chap. chapter, cap, captain, duced fruit. Our English was not without an influence from Caput, a head,

capital, chief. the general shock ; but chiefly from the Romance languages, Cansa, a cause,

Fr, cause, causation, accuse. when they had received each its individual form and character, Charta, paper,

Fr, chart, charter. did the Saxon basis of the English tongue receive additions Clamare, to shout,

Fr. claim, exclaim, reclaim. and incorporate elements. Latin came to us in the conquering Commendare, to entorust,

Sp. commend, recommend. train of William of Normandy. His Norman-French, a Romance Comparare, to get together, Sp. compare, prepare. tongue, like his bold barons, and generally his superior culture,

Consuetudo, custom,

Fr. costume, custom, made war on the old Saxon element of our land, defeated it, took

Divinus, divine,

Fr. divine, a divine, a diviner.

Sp. don, duenna; it prisoner, and went far to make it do its own bidding. So Dominus, a master,

Fr. dominate, dominion. overpowering was the influence of the court, and so imperious

It. donbt; was the sway of fashion, that the first accents of our English Dubitare, to doubt,

Fr. dubitation. literature were compelled to take a Gallic shape and tone, Dubius, uncertain,

Lat. dubious, dubiety. retaining their mother Saxon as best they might, and uttering

Sp. donation ;

Donum, a gift, the native sounds "with 'bated breath."

Fr. donative. The Italian branch of the Romance language inoculated our

s a leading;

Fr. duchy;

Ducatus, Med. Lat, a duchy } It. duke, doge. English through the medium of the Roman Catholic Church, whose Latin, of universal prevalence, was a sort of medium,

Factio, a making,

Fr. faction, fashion.
Fragilis, easily broken,

Fr. fragile, frail. and as a medium, so a stepping-stone, between the classic purity

Gravis, heavy,

Fr. grave, gravity, gravitate. of the olü Latin language and the new languages of mediæval Hospes, a host,

Fr. hospital, spital, hospitable. Europe ; and whose forms, ceremonies, officers, laws, and courts

It, implicate; combined to infuse into English a copious and pervading Latin

Implicare, to fold in,

Fr. imply, implicit. element.

Sp. ingenious ;

Ingenium, genius, As the Spaniards and Portuguese made their conquests in

Fr. engine. foreign climes, and, becoming masters of the ocean, held com

Magister, master,

Sp. mister, mistress, master. Major, greater,

Fr, major, majority, mayor, merce in their hands, so they, in conducting their maritime and

Fr. operate, operator, operation; commercial transactions, gave to all modern languages words Opera, work belonging to their tongue, and the names by which, with more Pietas, piety,

Fr. piety, pity. or less accuracy, they denominated the articles of foreign pro Potio, drink,

Fr. potion, poison. duce which formed the staple of their trade.

Redimo, to buy off,

Fr. redeemed, redemption. At later periods, too, the Romance languages have exerted an Romanus, Roman,

Fr. Roman, Romance. influence over the English, and left bequests which remained

Securitas, security,

Fr, security, surety. after the source of that influence had ceased to exist. I may

Senior, older,

Fr, sire, sir. instance the reign of the profligate Charles II., when, with a

Salvo, I save,

Fr. save, safe, salutary.
Separo, I put apart,

Fr. separate, sever.
Portuguese princess for his queen, that monarch, dependent on

Servio, I serve,

Fr. serve, servant, serf. French bounty, allowed French writers and French tailors to set

s Sp. specie, species ; the fashion in England, and the language of high life, and partly

Species, a kind,

1 Fr. special, especially, of books, became a mongrel of bad French and worse English. Superficies, a surface,

Fr. surface, superficies, superAbbreviation is one of the forms through which languages

ficial pass in their natural development. By abbreviation has the This list pretends to nothing more than to give instances in Latin passed into the Romance languages. The abbreviation which two or more words accrued from one Latin term. In some has not been in the structure of sentences; for in the structure instances it is not easy to determine whether our English word of sentences expansion has taken place, and fulness ensued, so came immediately from the Latin, or through some one of the that it is difficult to render by the same number of words a Romance languages. If, however, the facts above set forth are passage from a Latin classic into a Romance tongue. The ab. correct in the main, then we learn how much our language has breviation has been in the forms of the words: the inflexions been enriched by the Romance tongues, and that we are chiefly have been curtailed ; case-endings and person-endings, even to under obligations to the French. some extent tense and mood-endings, have been diminished or Were this the place to enter into a statement and comparison done away. The words thus set free from bonds have followed of the words and forms in the Romance languages borrowed

It. opera.

FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES,

cap,

}

from the Latin, we should be able to do much to enforce on our press their gratitude by a faint cheer, but their voices utterly failed pupils the study of the Latin as the mother tongue, and as the them; and, overcome by weakness and a revulsion of feeling, the key to the French, the Italian, the Spanish, and the Portuguese; soldier of the 71st sauk prostrate on the ground between the cofias.nor do we doubt that the knowledge of comparative philology

"Memorials of the Castle of Edinburgh," pp. 257-259. which, thanks to German scholarship, is now rapidly spreading

A WHALER IN A STORM. over the civilised world, will ere long lead to what may be termed the genealogical study of languages. Instead of spending many my life saw what the ocean looks like in a storm. I could see nothing all

About eleven o'clock, I ventured on deck, and for the first tiine in years in learning some little Latin and less Greek, after the round but heaving mountains of water; each succeeding wave seemed as tedious and almost futile plan of our ancient grammar-schools, if it would swallow up the labouring vessel, but it always appeared to the young will be led to study languages in their natural groups: melt away gently under us, except when one more rapid, or "cross," the Indo-European group; tho Shemitic group; the Celtic group; would send water and spray washing over her decks and high up into and in subordinate classes, the Greek, the Latin, and the Ger- the rigging. The motion of the ship was not uncomfortable, being man group. With a good knowledge of Latin, which ought not very different from the short cross-pitching we had experienced in the to cost a boy above three years, a student, if rightly directed, North Sea. I remained on deck about a quarter of an hour, gazing could acquire the French, the Italian, the Spanish, and the hitherto harmless waves were upon the very eve of proving their

about me in silent wonder and admiration, little thinking that the Portognese within two years, and at the same time receive great might over man's puny bolts and beams. Feeling it chilly, I went aid toward a minute and accurate knowledge of the English, below. I had just entered the cabin and taken my seat, when the especially if at the same time he was studying German together ship became motionless, as it were, and seemed to tremble in every with its cognato tongues.

beam. A report, like thunder, mingled with the rending and crashEXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

ing of timber; sudden and complete darkness, with a rush of

water through the skylight, and the ship thrown on her beam-ends, Form each of the ensuing words into a sentence.

showed me what one has to expect occasionally at sea. I scrambled Words with their proper Prepositions.

on deck after the captain, as I best could, scarcely knowing what had

happened. Here nothing was to be seen but wreck and destruction. To call on, at, for, on a per

The quarter-deck was literally swept of everything-rails and bulwarks, son; at a house, Lat. cal, to call.

almost all the stanchions, the binnacle, the compasses, dog's couchCapable of, Lat. to receive.

and nothing could be seen of the wheel but the nave. But the worst Care for,

was still to come; two poor fellows were missing. One had perished Careful of, for, Sax. car, solicitude.

unnoticed; he must have been killed amongst the wreck, washed overCareless of,

board, and sunk like a stone. The other had been seen by the mate Carp at, Lat. carp, to pluck,

--for an instant only-floating on the binnacle and just sinking. No Catch at, up, Dut. ketz, to catch.

human assistance could have been rendered to them with such a sea Caution against,

Lat. caut, to guard against. running. Two other poor fellows were rather seriously injured, and Certify of, Lat, certus, certain.

took up my attention for some time. The captain, cool and collected, Change for, with, Fr, change, to change.

soon restored confidence to his men, and, in a short time, had the Charge on, or against a per

wreck cleared away, a long tiller shipped, and the vessel again hove son; with a thing, Fr. charge, to load.

to. Spare spars were lashed to the stanchions that remained, so Report the following anecdotes to another person, cr write out that we had again something like bulwarks, but for many a day afteryour own version of them after having read them through care-wards the ship had a sadly-damaged and wrecky appearance.-Goodsir's

Arctic Voyage. fully:

A PARDON AT THE RIGHT MOMENT.
On the 29th of May, the whole garrison was paraded on the Castle

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXVII,
Hill at Edinburgh, and formed in three sides of a hollow square, facing
inwards. With drums muffled and rolling, while the band played a

THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. solemn dead march, three of the Highland recrnits, each stepping THIRTY years of war! Thirty years of battle, murder, and sudslowly behind his open coffin, were brought by an armed escort down den death; thirty years of anarchy and bad-blood-making; thirty the winding pathway from the citadel, and placed in the vacant space of the square, opposite a numerous firing party under the orders of years in which two strenuously opposed hosts did their utmost to the propost-marshal. It was a bright and beautiful summer morning, mar so much of God's image in one another as thirty such but there was a dark cloud on every face, for no ceremony is more im- years had left remaining in them. Why all this bloodshed ? pressive and terrible than a military execution--and on that morning The conquerors and the conquered called themselves Christians, three soldiers were to die. They were desired to kneel down beside professed to be guided by the teaching of Him who bade his their open coffins, while the following paper was read by the adjutant- follower put up his sword into its sheath, and ordered the smitgeneral :

ten on one cheek to turn the other cheek also to the smiter. It is “Garrison Orders. "Head-Quarters, 6th May, 1779.

true that he said so, true also that he warned his followers " At a general court-martial, held in Edinburgh Castle, on Thursday, sword—that is to say, that though he himself taught his dis

that he was come not to bring peace upon the earth but a the 6th May, and two following days, whereof Lieut.-Colonel Dundas, of the 11th Dragoons, was president, for the trial of Charles William ciples, by his own precept and example, not to resist evil

, he son and Archibald Mac-Ivor, soldiers of the 42nd Regiment, and Robert knew that what he taught would so divide men az for a time, Badge, soldier of the 71st

Regiment, accused of mutiny, at Leith, on and even, perhaps, at recurring times, to put the sword of strife the 20th April, and instigating others to do the same, the court unani- between them. The parents were to be divided against their mously found the prisoners guilty of mutiny, being a breach of the children, the wife against her husband; and a man's foes were 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th articles of war; and having duly considered to be they of his own household. the evil tendency of mutiny and sedition, especially when carried to

This state of things had been seen in Christendom on more such enormous lengths as in the present case, do adjudge you, the than one occasion, but not accompanied by any great convulaforesaid Charles Williamson, Archibald Mac-Ivor, and Robert Budge, sion. It had been rather local than general, showing itself in to be alot to death!The poor prisoners remained on their knees while a Highland officer than in any universal outbreak.

the form of heresies with their attendant persecutions, rather

In early days the circumbat the last, who was suffering from severe wounds received at Leith; stances of the Christian Church were such, that union amongst his countenance was emaciated and ghastly, and he was sinking

from its members was indispensable to its existence, surrounded as excessive debility. Their eyes were bound up; the officer retired; the it was on all sides with implacable foes, and overlooked from its prorost-marshal approached, and ordered his party to load. They midst by an irresistible pagan master, who looked conwere in the act of taking aim at the prisoners, who were praying temptuously on its practices, and derided its principles as intently in Gaelic, when Sir Adolphus Oughton stepped forward, and, unmanly. When, in the course of time, the Christian Gospel displaying three pardons, commauded them to recover arms." made its splendid but bloodless victories, and the master who, "Soldiers," said he, "in consequence of the distinguished valour erewhile oppressed, became its champion and supporter, while of the Royal Highlanders, to which two of these unfortunate men all the nations of Europe heard its message gladly, the Church all

. Prisoners ! rise, resume your arms, and re-join your companies." was too much occupied in consolidating its power, the people An officer repeated these words in Gaelic. The scene and the whole were too ignorant in the newness of their conversion, for any proccedings were so solemn and affecting that the prisoners were serious disturbances to take place. Occasionally, indeed, as incapable of speech. Raising their bonnets, they endeavoured to ex- time grew older, and corruptions which had crept in began to

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