« 前へ次へ »
f! :-:f !m':-:
mrl :m?:d? It:-:1.s I :S :flm :f :S hours have passed with stealth y flight; We needs must part,
Good t:-:t Id? :-:d
: fe is :-:f.mf:m:rld :r :m
1:-:s Isi night, good night. f:-:
Il ne s'y entend pas.
RÉsurré of ExAMPLEs.
L'auteur d'un bienfait est celui qui The author of a good deed is the one en recoit les plus doux fruits. who receives its sweetest fruits, Wotre jardin est magnifique; les Your garden is magnificent; itstrees arbres en sont superbes. are very beautiful. La vie a ses plaisirs et ses peines. Life has its pleasures and its troubles. L'étude a ses charmes. Study has its charms. Entendez-vous bien le latin! Do you understand Latin troll! Cet avoué n'entend rien aux af. That attorney has no knowledge of faires. business. He is not expert in this. I gave him to understand that he was in the tray here. What do you mean by that? There was so much noise, that to could not make ourselves heard. Keep to yourself that which you would wish to have kept secret. Why are you not silent? We made him hold his tongue (i. lenced him).
Je lui ai donné à entendre, qu'il était de trop ici. Qu'entendez-vous par la P Il y avait tant de bruit, que nous n'avons pu nous faire entendre. Taisez le premier, ce que vous voulez qu'on taise. Pourquoi ne vous taisez-vous pas? Nous l'avons fait taire.
1. Est-ce un habit neuf que votre fils porte? 2, C'est um habit neuf, le drap en est très-fin. 3. Les manches n'en sont elles pas trop courtes? 4. Je crois que les manches en son: trop courtes et les basques trop longues. 5. La campagnen's t-elle passes avantages? 6. J'aime la campagne; j'en connai les avantages. 7. Paris a ses agréments. 8. J'aime Paris j'en connais les agréments. 9. Ce chirurgiea sentendil Al médecime? 10. Iln'y entend rien du tout. 11. Entendez-vou la médecine P 12. Je ne m'y entends pas. 13. Je ne l'entend pas. 14. Je n'y entends rien. 15. Avez-vous réussi A von faire entendre P 16. Nous n'yavons pas réussi. 17. Mon voisi est un brave homme et je m'entends fort bien avec lui li Faire taire certaines gens estun plus grand miracle que de fail parler les muets. 19. Savez-vous de quel pays est cet homme 20. Il tait son pays et sa naissance. 21. Par la force del raison, elle apprit l'art de parler et de se taire. 22. Woulez-vo vous taire, impertinente, vous venez toujours mêler vos imper nences à toutes choses. 23. Qui se tait consent.
1. Have you a very good garden P 2. We have a very lar one, but its soil (terre, f.) is not good. 3. Is your brother's ed new P 4. He has a new coat, but its sleeves are too short. Are not its skirts too long P 6. No, Sir, its skirts are too sho 7. Have you not heard that preacher (prédicateur)? 8. Th was so much noise that I could not hear him. 9. Does o country have its pleasures? 10. The country has its pleasm 11. Does not your brother like the city P 12. He likes the coi try; he knows its pleasures. 13. What does your brothermo by that? 14. He means what he says. 15. Is your fat experti business? 16. My father has no knowledge of bo ness. 17. Does that young man understand English well ? He understands French and English very well. 19. Do I agree well with your partner? 20. My partner is an hon man [$86]; I agree very well with him. 21. Does that you man conceal his age? 22. He conceals his age and his couns 23. Does your father understand medicine? 24. He does understand it. 25. He has no knowledge of it. 26. Besili my child. 27. Tell that child to be silent. 28. Silence g consent. 29. Will you not be silent P 30. What have given him to understand? 31. We gave him to underst that study has its charms. 32. Have you silenced hi 33. Yes, Sir, we silenced him. 34. Tell him to be sil 35. I have already (déjà) told him to be silent. 36. Let be silent.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCEi.
ExERCISE 142 (Vol. II., page 365).
1. Croyez-vous que le concertait eu lieu ? 2. Je crois qu'il a eu 3. Croyez-vous que la robe de Mlle. votre sour dure bien? 4
ExERCISE 143 (Wol. II., page 366). 1. Would you wish me to buy a coat half worn out? 2. I wish that you should buy a new one. 3. Did they wish that sick soldier to repair to his post? 4. They wished that he might repair to his regiment. 5. * Would it be necessary for me to dwell on the sea-shore? 6. It would * necessary, for the recovery of your health, that you should repair * Switzerland. 7. Do you not think that this child resembles his other? 8, I do not think he resembles her. 9. Whom does he *able? 10. He resembles his eldest sister. 11. Would you conof to your daughter's marriage with that drunkard P 12. Would *have us die with want? 13. I feared lest those ladies might die with the cold. 14. Will you not fire at that hare P 15. I would fire at out woodcock, if my gun were loaded. 16. How many shots would * hare me fire P 17. If you had powder, I would have you fire at *Partridge. 18. Do you wish me to cast a glance upon that letter? * I would have you read it. 20. What would you have me do? 21. Jould have you pay attention to your studies. 22. Would it be | *ary for me to go out P 23. It would be necessary for you to othin at home. 24. What would you that I should do to that horse? * I would have you strike it with the whip.
- ExERCIs E 145 (Vol. II., page 386). How many rooms do you intend to take P 2. We intend to rent or on the ground floor and two closets in the third story. 3. * not prefer renting a bedroom on the second floor? 4. We living on the ground floor. 5. Can you not remain and dine osto day F 6. I thank you, I prefer coming to-morrow. 7. Will *her come and breakfast with us to-morrow P 8. He intends *to-morrow early. 9. What do you wish to say to them P 10. *wber them to do me that favour. 11. Do you intend to do my * that favour? 12. I hope so. 13. Do you prefer living up-stairs *stairs? 14. we prefer living down-stairs. 15. What do you of doing with that young pheasant? 16. We think of sending For brother-in-law. 17. Can you not play on the violin P 18. I 747 on it. 19. Can your cousin play on the piano? 20. She on the piano and on the harp. 21. Can you not write P * = read, write, and cipher. , 23. Can you play the guitar P
LESSONS IN GEOLOGY..—VIII. ATMOSPHERIC, ORGANIC, AND CHEMICAL AGENCIES.
THE direct action which the atmosphere exercises in the alteration of the earth's crust is through the agency of wind. The atmosphere also acts widely and continually upon rocks, attacking them chemically; but this action must be reserved for its proper place. The power of wind can only be felt by movable particles—that is, by sand. As the winds sweep over the deserts, they urge before them clouds of fine sand, which drift here and there, continually altering the features of the landscape, and extending the desert domain by covering the fertile tracts which border on the sandy waste. But the changes which occur in such regions are of little or no moment, for the absence alike of water and vegetation precludes the possibility of these sand-hills ever becoming fixed. But this is not the case with that belt of sand which lines the coasts of many maritime countries. Here considerable and permanent changes are effected by the alteration of the sand dunes by the wind. The shores of the Bay of Biscay are celebrated for these dunes; the wind blows the particles of sand over the crest of the hill in constant succession, and thus the hill is moved. The dunes of Biscay often advance sixty or seventy feet in a year, covering with irresistible encroachments farms and villages, and are sometimes as much as 300 feet high. In many parts of the world this process is in action. When a covering of vegetation springs up on the surface of the hill, all further advancement is prohibited, and the dune becomes permanently fixed. Such hills are distinguished by the name of sub-aērial or Æolian accumulations (so called from AEolus, the god of the winds, according to the old Greek and Roman mythology). Frost is generally reckoned an atmospheric agent. Its power is very great, and it would be difficult to limit the geological work it effects. When water freezes, at the moment of its solidification it expands, with an almost irresistible force, one-tenth of its volume—that is, ten measures of water, when frozen, would become eleven measures of ice. The first frost of winter solidifies all the particles of water with which the rocks are soaked, forcing the particles of rock from each other, and when the thaw comes, much of its surface crumbles down. This action is not very visible, because the rain easily transports the fine particles thus separated from the mass. Yet when we consider the vast surface which is annually exposed to a temperature below freezing point, we shall have some idea of the great effect which frost has in assisting the general degrading action which the surface of the earth is ever undergoing ; and our estimate will be increased when we know the force which is exercised by the solidifying ice. If a hole be bored in a cannon-ball, then filled with water and plugged with a fine-threaded screw, upon causing this water to freeze by immersing the ball in a freezing mixture, the expansive force will be found sufficient to break the ball. In the Canadian forests, often the stillness of the night is broken by a loud report, as some giant tree is rent by the united power of the watery particles expanding on their solidification, under the influence of the first frost of winter. Frost also acts geologically by means of avalanches, glaciers, and icebergs. An avalanche does not play a very prominent part, seeing the sphere of its action is very limited. When large masses of ice and snow collect on the inaccessible heights, and become either overbalanced by their own weight, or loosened by the warm sun of the spring, the mass falls into the valley beneath, bearing with it rocks, etc.; and the traveller, as he passes through the mountain valleys in Switzerland, often finds piles of débris which have been brought down by an avalanche from the heights above. This the valley stream carries down into the lake or river, and thus material from the summit of the chain mingles with the sediment which the stream erodes from the valley through which it passes. It occasionally happens that an avalanche in its fall dams up the channel of a stream; the pentup waters gather in great volume, and at last burst their barrier, ploughing the valleys in their course, thus doing great geological work. Glaciers are some of the most interesting features of Alpine scenery. They are, in fact, rivers of ice, not frozen rivers, but vast quantities of ice, which is formed amid the eternal snows, and by a peculiar motion, known as that of a vis"--
annot play it. 25. We wish to find an apartment on the tour.
body, descends down the valleys until it reaches such a
that the temperature meits the ice. Thus glaciers are, in fact, be accounted for ? It is of little avail to assert that the overflow-channels, by which the accumulation of snow, which is cretaceous seas were overladen with chalk. They could only continually increasing above the snow-line, discharges itself. have been so by wearing down some already existing chalk cliffs, Were it not for the glaciers, the snows would increase without so that the difficulty is not solved, but only placed back in an any limit, and the summits of elevated mountain-chains would earlier period. The solution is offered by our observing the great be an anomaly in nature-continual recipients of condensed and accumulation of chalky material which composes the coral reefs. frozen aqueous vapour, without any means of giving it off again. The coral zoophyte has, in common with all shell-fish, the power Many of the Swiss glaciers are thirty or forty miles long, of separating from the sea-water its carbonate of lime, with in somo places as much as three miles wide, and often 600 feet which it builds its domain. It is in vain to attempt to conthick. The cause of their motion was for many years a subject ceive the number of these little animals on one reef ; and yet of debate. Many theories were broached only to be refuted. there are reefs on the Australian coast 1,000 miles long, and The discovery of what is believed to be the true explanation of the from ten to ninety broad! The “bottom " around these reefs motion is due to Principal J. D. Forbes. He carefully measured was found to be covered sometimes with broken shells, but in the progress of the different points of the glacier, and found other places with fine mud, which proved, on microscopic ex. that its flow corresponded very closely to that of a river. The amination, to be minute foraminifera. Several similar accumu. motion was greater in the centre than at the sides, and at lations have been discovered to be in progress in many other the surface than at the bottom. It did not vary day or night, parts of the world. From these facts, and from an examination and therefore whatever might be the cause of its motion, that of the chalk itself, which reveals under the microscope many cause resided in itself, and did not depend on any external cir- thousand perfect shells in a cubic inch, the conclusion is drawn cumstances. All theories had hitherto looked for some motive that the limestone rocks have been built up by the agency of power either in gravitation, or the expansion of the ice, conse- living creatures. quent on the heat of the sun, and its clinging to the sides of the Professor Ehrenberg, of Berlin, was the first to turn the valley prevented a return to its former position, and so it crept attention of the geological world to the accumulation of matter down to the lower regions. However, Forbes showed that by minute organisms. He examined the tripoli, or polishing ice is a viscous or plastic body, capable of yielding to great slate, which occurs near Bilin, in Bohemia, in beds many fathoms pressure, so that the mass of ice on the incline of the mountain thick and many miles in extent, and found it to be wholly comslope flowed downwards. But although ice in one sense is posed of the siliceous coverings of organic beings. They are not viscous--that is, it cannot bear a strain, and will not allow so minute that, in a single grain of the tripoli, there are no itself to be pulled out into threads-yet it possesses another fewer than 187 millions of individuals! It is still a disputed remarkable property which compensates for this. When two point whether these are animal or vegetable organisms. Those pieces of ice are pressed together, they freeze to each other. who place them in the animal kingdom term them Infusoria, They will eren do this in warm water; so that when the glacier because they are generated in any infusion which is left un. comes to a narrow part in the valley, it does not refuse to disturbed for some time. Those naturalists who believe in pass the projecting point, but the enormous pressure behind their vegetable origin call them Diatomaceæ. From the Berlin forces it through, the ice breaking to accommodate itself to its Professor we learn that, in the harbour of Wismar in the Baltic, constrained position, and then joining anew. After the narrow no less than 17,946 cubic feet of these siliceous organisms place is passed, the glacier spreads out again just as a river are produced annually, though it takes 100 millions of them would do, and again occupies the whole of the valley. Most to weigh a single grain! However, their extreme minute. glaciers progress at the rate of 400 or 500 feet a year. The ness is in some measure compensated by their extraordinary termination always occupies much the same position, though power of production. " A single one of these animalcules can in winter the glacier.comes down further into the valley. Yet in increase to such an extent during one month, that its entire summer it is melted off. As the ice-river flows down from the descendants can form a bed of silica twenty-five square miles in heights, it brings rocks and débris which fell upon it as it extent and a foot and three-quarters thick!” The mountaintore the flanks of the valley. These lines of rocks are termed meal of the Swedes and the edible clay of the North-American in Switzerland moraines. When two valleys meet each other, Indians are accumulations of this kind. From these remarks, their glaciers unite; one of the lateral moraines of each joining probably, the reader will gather some idea of the geological together become the medial moraine of the main glacier. By organic agent. this means boulders are brought down from the inaccessible
THE CHEMICAL AGENCY. heights, and piled up in huge heaps at the termination of the
The chemical agent is not great in accumulating, but it would glacier. The rocks of the valley over which the ice passes be impossible to over-estimate the work which this power does are all smoothened and scratched, thus indicating the direction in altering the earth's surface. in which the glacier flowed. We shall find many rocks exhibit First, the gases in the atmosphere--that is, the oxygen and this grooving, thus telling of the existence of a glacier many the carbonic acid-are constantly employed in weathering rocks ages after the last vestige of the ice had melted.
--that is, in attacking the exposed surface, and so affecting it as Icebergs.
When there are glaciers in the Arctic regions, it is to render it capable of being acted on by the rain and gradually evident that they can never melt, the snow-line being at the worn away. sea-level. Therefore the flow continues until the sea is reached, or long-exposed rock will show this.
The most casual examination of any old
building and then as the glacier proceeds over the coast cliffs, enormous blocks of ice fall into the sea and are borne away; but these chemical result. In all volcanic countries this species of depo
Deposits from mineral springs may fairly be considered a bergs carry on them part of the glacier moraine, and by this sition is carried on to some extent. In Italy the well-known means the fragments of the rocks of the Northern regions building stone, travatine, or Tiber stone, is of this kind of are dropped in warmer seas, where the berg melts. Of this deposit. This is the stone of which the Coliseum is built
. The operation we shall find many illustrations in the Pleistocene Carlstab springs, it is calculated, produce 200,000 cubic feet epoch.
of calcareous matter every twenty-four hours. THE ORGANIC AGENCY.
Stalactites and stalagmites are formed on much the same It is difficult to realise the prominent part which life has principle
. The water is charged with carbonate of lime, which played in the formation of rocks. We do not allude only to the is held in solation by the presence of free carbonic acid gas. beds of coal which represent the forest growth of vast lapses When this water drops from the roof of a cavern, the gas of time, but to the limestone rocks and many of the siliceous escapes, and the water being no longer capable of supporting deposits. The reader may be aware that chalk or carbonate of the carbonate of lime, deposits it, forming a stalagmite, an lime is not soluble in water, but it becomes so if carbonic icicle-like pendant from the roof, acid gas be present. Now Bischof states that there is so much All saline deposits are to be ascribed to chemical agency, of this gas in sea-water, that five times more chalk could be such as the beds of sulphate of lime, the layers of common contained in it than it at present holds in solution. Hence it is salt, the deposits of nitrate of soda and potash. evident that no chalk could ever
be precipitated from the sea head also some geologists would class all such exudations as in the ordinary manner. How, then-presuming the present petroleum or rock-oil. We shall treat of these various matestate of the sea to have existed with but slight alteration in rials more particularly when we speak of the formations in past ages-can the deposition of the chalk and limestone rocks I which they severally occur.
LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-XVII.
form the roof, as well as to tie or bind the walls in their proper
position. The apex of the roof, formed by the meeting of the RAILWAY ARCHITECTURE.—III.
rafters, is supported by vertical rods of iron called king-posts, HAVING described the chief features of a railway line, with its which are securely fastened to the tie-beams below. To give viaducts, etc., we come now to its stations and terminal points. additional support to the roof, and to relieve the sides of the Here we find endless variety in construction, according to the building from too great pressure, other rods, termed struts, are wants of the traffic and the means available for the work. Common fixed diagonally between the
bottom of each king-post and the
roof railway stations of brick or of wood differ so little from ordinary above, as seen in the illustration. Thus the weight of the roof buildings as to require no particular
is divided between the pillars at the sides comment; but the use of iron has given
and the tie-beams which run across, and rise to some distinctive features in rail.
the different members of the truss or way architecture, quite as striking in
framework mutually support each other. their way as the bridges before described.
The meeting-points of all the rods are proCommencing with the simplest forms
vided with plates and sockets, which are of construction in which iron is the ma
fastened with bolts and nuts. terial employed, we give in the annexed
A similar method is adopted in the conengraving an illustration of the frame
struction of all roofs of the ridged form, work of an ordinary station available for
whether the material be wood or iron, the stoppage of trains. The walls of the
and the chief portions of the truss always building consist of iron pillars more or
bear the names here mentioned. More less ornamental, and either entirely open
complicated arrangements are frequently at the sides, or with the spaces between
seen, double rafters and additional struts the pillars filled in with brickwork, etc. FRAMEWORK OF AN ORDINARY IBON RAILWAY STATION. or braces being employed; but in ridged It is in the formation of the roof that
roofs of larger dimensions the general the skill and knowledge of the architect are displayed, it being principles of construction are in all cases the same. necessary to combine durability with lightness, and the greatest In some of the more important stations, and especially for tho possible saving of material with perfect strength in the structure. termini of our principal lines,
the arched form of roof is freIn the ridged roof before us, rods of wrought iron, called the quently employed, and in some instances, as in the termini of tie-beams, are placed horizontally from the pillars on one side to the Great Northern and Midland Railways at King's Cross, those on the other, and serve as a support for the rafters which these roofs are of great span and proportions. One of the two