ページの画像
PDF
ePub
[graphic]

"Are you at ease now, is your heart at rest,

but I have several ladies with me, who at their first entrance could not Now you have got a shadow, in umbrella,

give a pop loud enough to be heard at the farther end of the room, who To keep the scorching world's opinion

can now “discharge a fan" in such a manner that it shall make a From your fair credit ?"

Bea-mont and Fletcher. report like a pocket-pistol. I have likewise taken care, in order to The latter passage makes it very clear that the umbrella, at hinder young women from letting off their fans in wrong places or unthe time it was written, was intended not, as now, to keep off the come in properly. I have likewise invented a fan with which a girl of

suitable occasions, to show upon what subject the crack of a fan may rain, but to cover the face from the sun. But what are we to sixteen, by the help of a little wind which is inclosed about one of the say of the description in the former quotation, in which it clearly largest sticks, can make as loud a crack as a woman of fifty with an appears that the umbrella was "flat" when "spread ?” The ordinary fan. explanation is offered in the fact that the first kind of parasol When the fans are thus "discharged," the word of command in was a large fan. I cite a few words from Miss Strickland's course is to "ground their fans." This teaches a lady to quit her "Queens of England” (Vol. VIII., p. 355): "The courtly belles fan gracefully when she throws it aside in order to take up a pack of ased the gigantic green shading-fans which had been introduced cards, adjust a curl of hair, replace á fallen pin, or apply herself to by the Queen (Catherine) and her Portuguese ladies, to shield only consists in tossing a fan with an air upon a long table (which

any other matter of importance. This part of the exercise, as it their complexion from the sun, when they did not wish wholly stands by for that purpose), may be learned in two days' time as well to obscure their charms by putting on their masks. Both the as in a twelvemonth. mask and the fan, or umbrella, were in general use in this reign. When my female regiment is thus disarmed, I generally let them The green shading-fan is of Moorish origin, and for more than walk about the room for some time; when on a sudden, like ladies 1 centary after the marriage of Catherine of Braganza was that look upon their watches after a long visit, they all of them hasten considered an indispensable luxury by our fair and stately to their arms, catch them up in a hurry, and place themselves in their ancestral dames, who used them in open carriages, in the pro- proper stations upon my calling out-"Recover your fans!” This menade, and at prayers, when they ostentatiously screened their part of the exercise is not difficult, provided a woman applies her

thoughts to it. devotions from public view, by spreading them before their faces

The "fluttering of the fan" is the last, and indeed the masterwhen they knelt. The India trade, opened by Catherine's piece of the whole exercise; but if a lady does not mis-spend her time, marriage treaty, soon supplied the ladies of England with fans she may make herself mistress of it in three months. i generally lay better adapted, by their lightness and elegance, to be used as aside the dog-days and the hot time of the summer for the teaching weapons of coquetry at balls and plays. Addison has de- this part of the exercise, for as soon as ever I pronounce-"Flatter voted several papers in the Spectator to playful satire on these your fans,” the place is filled with so many zephyrs and gentle breezes toys, from whence the now general terms of Airt and flirtation as are very refreshing in that season of the year, though they might have been derived."

be dangerous to ladies of a tender constitution in any other. Undoubtedly the practice of Alirtation grew and prevailed in and «futter of a fan :” there is the angry flutter, the modish flutter, the

There is an infinite variety of motions to be made use of in the before the days of Addison : but as to the origin of the word timoroas flatter, the confused flutter, the merry flutter, and the firt Miss Strickland is in error. Derived from to fleer, flirt or amorous flutter. Not to be tedious, there is scarce any emotion in Plurt, signifying a light and silly tossing, is of Saxon origin, and the mind which does not produce a suitable agitation in the fan, may be found in some of our earliest writers. This flirting of insomuch that if I only see the fan of a disciplined lady, I know very lhe fan is termed by Addison, flutter. The piece in which he well whether she laughs, frowns, or blushes. I have seen a fan so describes this flutter is in his best style for quiet satire, and I very angry, that it would have been dangerous for the absent lover shall therefore transcribe it as your lesson in composition, re- who provoked it to have come within the wind of it; and at other questing you to send to some friend an account both of the times so very languishing, that I have been glad, for the lady's sake, ensuing and of my observations on the umbrella, the parasol, fan is either a prude or a coquette, according to the name of the person

the lover was at a sufficient distance from it. I need not add that a and the fan.

who bears it. To conclude my letter, I must acquaint you that I have EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION.

from my own observations compiled a little treatise for the use of my Mr. SPECTATOR, — Women are armed with fans, as men with swords, scholars, entitled " The Passions of the Fan;" which I will communi. and sometimes do more execution with them. To the end, therefore, cate to you, if you think it may be of use to the public. I shall have that ladies may be entire mistresses of the wenpons which they bear, I

a general review on Thursday next, to which you shall be very welcome, have erected an academy for the training up of young women in the if you will honour it with your presence. I am, etc. exercise of the fan,” according to the most fashionable airs and

P.S. I teach young gentlemen the whole art of gallanting a fan. motions that are now practised at eourt. The ladies who "carry "fans

N.B. I have several little plain fans made for this use, to avoid under me, are drawn up twice a day in my great hall, where they are

expense.
instructed in the use of their arms, and exercised by the folowing
words of command :-
Handle your fans!

READINGS IN FRENCH.-XI.
Unfurl your fans !

JACOPO.
Discharge your fans !

SECTION I.
Ground your fans !
Recover your fans !

On aime à recueillir, comme un religieux souvenir, tout ce qui
Flutter your fans !

appartient (a) à la vie des hommes illustres. À ce titre l'anecBy the right observation of these few plin words of command, a

dote suivante ne sera pas sans intérêt, car vous connaissez tous Toman of tolerable genius, who will apply herself diligently to her

son principal héros : Napoléon ! exercise for the space of but one half-year, shall be able to give her fan

Par un beau jour d'été, deux jeunes enfants, un garçon et une all the graces that can possibly enter into that little modish machine. petite fille s'amusaient à courir dans un magnifique jardin

But to the end that my readers may form to themselves a right a'Ajaccio en Corse. Tous les deux, armés d'un filet pour prendre notion of this exercise, I beg leave to explain it to them in all its parts. des papillons," se livraient avec ardeur à la poursuite de ces jolis When my female regiment is drawn up in array, with every one her insectes. Weapon in her hand, upon my giving the word “to handle their fans," each of them shakes her fan at me with a smile, then gives her Lætitia Ramolini, et la petite Élisa, sa sæur.

C'étaient Napoléon, l'un des fils de Charles Bonaparte et de right-hand woman a tap upon the shoulder, then presses her lips with the extremity of her fan, then lets her arms fall in an easy motion, and

Les deux enfants se dirigèrent vers un bouqnet (6) de lilas stands in a readiness to receive the next word of command. All this situé à l'extrémité du jardin, qu'une simple haie séparait de la is done with a close fan, and is generally learned in the first week. campagne. Presque au même instant, les deux filets se posè

The next motion is that of "unfurling the fan,” in which are com- rent (c) sur un branche où venait de s'arrêter un papillon ;' mais prehended several little flirts and vibrations, as also gradual and celui-ci, faisant un ricochet, s'échappe, et, s'élevant en zigsdeliberate openings, with many voluntary fallings asunder in the fan zags dans les airs, prend sa course par-delà la haie et s'élanco itseli, that are seldom learned under a month's practice. This part of dans la campagne. the exercise pleases the spectators more than any other, as it discovers on a sudden an infinite number of cupids, garlands, altars, birds, beasts,

“Ah ! Napoléon, qu'est-ce donc que tu viens de faire po 10 rainbows, and the like agreeable figures, that display themselves to

“ Je viens de franchir un défilé pour gagner la bataille. Suisview, whilst every one in the regiment holds a picture in her hand, Upon my giving the word to " discharge their fans,” they give one

Alors écartant les branches, prenant sa seur par la main, il general crack that may be heard at a considerable distance when the lui facilite le passage de l'autre côté du jardin. * Libres alors, wind sets fuir. This is one of the most difficult parts of the exercise ; ils s'élancent à la poursuite du fugitif et ne tardent pas à se

moi.” 11

[graphic]
[graphic]

ments are large and spacious, including the guard-room and of failure when she could make certain of the result? Why council-chamber. As in other rooms of ancient date, the ceilings should she be at the vast trouble and expense of doing that Are low, and massive beams, the support of the roof, obtrude openly which might be done easily and at slight cost in a private into the chamber; and the windows, being so many large arrow. way? The idea of assassination naturally presented itself to slits in exceedingly thick walls, admit but a scanty light. But Catherine; but then the proposed victim also naturally suspected the place was quite suitable to the purpose for which it was her of entertaining the idea. This she knew, and that any plot intended; and its elegant founder, Francis I., did his best to to be really effective must be deeply laid. combine the elegance of the palace with the strength of the She resolved first to cast the suggestion into the mind of the fortress.

king, her son ; not to propose any definite plan, for she knew his The inmates of the castle at the time represented in this nature, how it would shrink from the first proposal of so resketch were Henry III., his wife, his mother, the famous or in- sponsible an act; and that he must be gradually worked upon, famous Catherine de Medicis, the celebrated Maréchal d'Aumont, and incited by appeals; now to his own fears for himself; now the Seigneur Ornano, and a few more of that small section of to his hatred for the Guises; now to the feasibility of a wellthe French nobility which remained faithful to the fortunes of planned murder. Catherine, bold as she was bad, when she had Henry of Valois. The royal guard, which had been strengthened some master-stroke of villany to make, had not given the quality materially, was under the command of Captain Larchant, who of courage to her son. Henry must be accustomed to the thought, Fas considered to be entirely devoted to his master. In the town and then accustomed to the idea of working it out. were lodged the Duke of Guise; his brother, the Cardinal of Contrary to expectation, Henry took in his mother's suggesLorraine; the Archbishop of Lyons; the President de Neuilly; tion with some energy, and only began to tremble when he saw Mandreville, and others of the adherents of the Duke of Guise. the risks he ran of the plot being discovered before it could be Henry had withdrawn secretly from Paris when barricades had executed ; but, as his mother urged, these were only additional been thrown up to resist his authority, and when the people reasons for taking the utmost precaution, and for not suffering clamoured loudly for his deposition, and for the elevation of their execution to lag. The king saw no way but that of murder by favourite, Guise. He fled to Blois, where his influence was pretty which he could rid himself of his enemies; he felt he had lost strong, and where he announced his intention of calling a grand the confidence of France; and he knew he had not in himself the council to settle the affairs of the nation; for the nation had, genius of command to win it back again. The only statesmanfor a long while past, been in a disastrously unsettled condition. like feature in the whole of his conduct was where he reckoned There was a party in the state called the League, consisting of on terrifying his rebels into submission by suddenly striking all the ultra-Catholics of France, that is to say, men who are down their chiefs, and on gathering up the reins of authority wholly devoted to the interests of the Church, and completely before the people could recover from their confusion. It was under the domination of the churchmen. They did not consider determined to do away with the Duke of Guise, and with his Henry of Valois sound in the faith; they feared and hated brother, the Cardinal of Lorraine. Let us see how that deterCatherine de Medicis, his mother, as an enemy to the supremacy mination was pursued. of the Church over the State ; and they wished, not only to sup The king gave out that, because of his sins, and in order to plant Henry by their chief, the Duke of Guise, but to prevent, show his contrition for them, he would spend the vigil of Christmas by one and the same action, the accession of the heretic heir at the shrine of Notre Dame de la Noue, in the forest of that presumptive, Henry of Navarre.

name, about eight miles from Blois. Ostentatious preparations The League had an organisation far-reaching and deep-rooted, were made for the departure of the court, which was all to share and it did not disguise either its power or its objects, which could in the fast and humiliation which the king proposed to himself not of course avoid collision with the power and authority of the as acceptable to God. The Guises, and their party, while affectking. The king, indeed, was not master in something like one- ing to admire the pious devotion of the king, secretly scoffed at half of his dominions; and over the other half, his influence held it, and thought it furnished another proof, if one was wanted, cf the people as much through the principle and ideal of loyalty to Henry's insanity. They did not propose to join the party, bat the institution of monarchy, as through any love or respect to they smiled approvingly on its purpose, and they kept their him personally. From Paris, as has been mentioned, the king jokes about it till they could crack them over their dinner and and his household had been driven in haste; and now at Blois, supper tables. the Duke of Guise and his friends presented themselves, osten It was scarcely a laughing matter, however. Henry sent sibly under colour of waiting upon their sovereign, really to out summonses the day before Christmas Eve, requiring the connteract him in anything he might attempt towards regaining attendance of those persons named at a council in the castle his authority. The better to conceal their real aim, the Guisards, next morning at six a.m. He was to set out to La Noue at as they were called, at least the chiefs of them, affected devoted nine o'clock. Several of the nobility who were temporarily loyalty to the king, and professed to be shocked when the people resident at Blois were summoned, and among them the cried "Long live the Guise !" instead of " Long live the King !” Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine. Finance, it was There was not any doubt, however, as to their veritable inten- understood, was the subject to be debated at the council. tions, and the king knew them; so did his mother, the deviser of Previously to issuing the summonses, a private council had been the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and the author of many a good held by Henry with the Seigneurs de Rieux, Alphonse Ornano, man's death ; and she knew that the position of her son, and of the secretaries of state, and some other friends. At this her family, was a desperate one. For a woman like Catherine council Henry is reported to have said : “ It is now a long while de Medicis to get the notion into her head that anything affect that I have been under the tutelage of the Messieurs de Guise. ing herself, or those whom she controlled for her own purposes, I have had ten thousand reasons to distrust them, but never so was in desperate case, was the same thing as devising mis many as since the opening of the States Parliament (at Blois). chief of a deadly kind towards those who made the case I am resolved to call them to account, but not by the ordinary

way of justice ; for M. de Guise has so much power in this place To the dark, unscrupulous mind of Catherine, which could that, if he were brought to trial, he would proceed himself to try nevertheless sum up with exactness the probabilities and the his judges. I am resolved to have him killed, as speedily as may facts of a case, and their mutual bearing the one upon the other, be, in my room. It is time I was sole king. The king who has and which was practised also in all the tortuous ways of plots, it an equal, has a master.” appeared certain that out of the present difficulty there was only When Henry had finished, several members of the council proone way, and that a violent one. She knew that so long as the posed, by way of amendment, that the duke should be arrested Duke of Guise and his brother remained at the head of the and openly tried in due form of law; but the others opposed, League, Henry's crown could never be safe, and she

knew that saying that in high treason punishment ought to precede trial to dislodge them by fair means would require a force infinitely and Henry overruled the objections to his plan, the execution of greater than was at her disposal; indeed, she could not reckon which was fixed for the morning of the 23rd of December. with confidence on what was nominally on her side, and she A council had also been held by the chiefs on the opposite feared as a fatal thing any catastrophe or mistake which might side, at which it had been determined that the person

of the king happen in the prosecution

of regular war with inadequate should be seized and taken to Paris, and that the states being strength. A plan more congenial to her crooked ways of thought there entirely under the control of the Guise faction, Henry soon developed itself in her brain. Why should she run the risk should be deposed as unfit to reign; be dismissed to some

desperate.

country palace with a pension; and that the Duke of Guise | had he wanted to draw his sword, he walked out of the room, should reign in his stead. First a presentiment, then a more saying “Adieu, Messieurs !" as he went. direct caution, warned the duke of the existence of a plot In the guard-room the soldiers stood up as the duke came and against his life. He spoke to his friends about it, and talked saluted him, and he passed on to the narrow, crooked passage of going to Orleans. It was, however, the general opinion that which led to the old cabinet. Some of the guards followed him no attempt would be made, and the Archbishop of Lyons re- close, and he, turning round at the entrance to the passage, as monstrated warmly against the duke's absence at the critical if to see why he was followed, was struck in the breast by the time of the fortunes of the League.

dagger of Montlhéry, a soldier of the guard, who cried out at On the 22nd of December, as the Duke of Guise sat down to the same time, "Traitor, thou diest !" Other men threw themdinner, he saw a note in his napkin. Opening it he read, selves on the duke's limbs to hold him from defending himself, “ Take care ; an evil turn is about to be played on you." He and he was struck again and again by the poniards of the wrote underneath it, “ They dare not,” and flung the paper murderers. One man drove his sword into his back. The poor under the table. On the same day the Duc d'Elbæuf told him man at each blow cried out, “Eh, my friends! eh, my friends." there would be an attempt on his life the next morning, upon and shouted "Miséricorde" when Loignac thrust his sword into which Guise said, smiling, “I see, cousin, you have been look- him. Notwithstanding his many wounds and the weight of the ing at your almanack. All the almanacks this year are stuffed men clinging to him, the duke, who was a powerful man, full of such threats."

dragged himself along into the king's bed-chamber, where, erHenry retired early on the evening of the 22nd of December, but hausted by loss of blood, he fell on the bed and died. not to rest. After two hours spent in completing his own arrange The Cardinal of Lorraine, seated at the table, heard his ments, he sent for Larchant, captain of his body-guard. To him he brother's cries, and jumped up, saying, " They are murdering my gave orders that, with a few of the guard, he should next morning brother!" and he made as though he would run to the duke's wait upon the Duke of Guise as he came to the council, and ask assistance. The Maréchal d'Aumont stopped him, saying, "Do him to supplicate the king that the soldiers' arrears of pay might not move, my lord. The king has something to say to you." be given to them. As soon as the duke should have come in, That night the Cardinal rejoined his brother whithersoever he Larchant was to seize the outer door and the staircase, and not had gone, being hacked to pieces in his prison by the axes of to suffer any one to pass in or out. By special request the Henry's minions. Cardinal of Lorraine was to be with the king an hour before the “At length you are king,” said Catherine de Medicis to her rest of the council. Larchant was ordered to place twenty more son when she came to congratulate him on his murders. guards on the staircase leading to Henry's own cabinet.

For a time, a very short time, Henry was king, because he sucThe Duke of Guise, returning to his lodgings from those of the ceeded in enlisting on his side the strong arm and stout heart of Marchioness de Noirmoutiers, found his servants waiting up to Henry of Navarre, by whose aid he overcame the armies of the beseech him not to attend the council at the castle. They gave League, and even brought the rebellious city of Paris to his feet. him two notes of warning which had been left for him; and he, But he was excommunicated by the Pope for his crimes, and for impatient of his friends' importunity, thrust the notes under his his alliance with a heretic. He no longer had the subtle guard pillow, and dismissed his servants to bed.

of his lynx-eyed mother, for Catherine died at Blois on the 5th On the 23rd of Decembor, when the persons summoned to the of January, 1589, within a fortnight of the murdered brothers ; council had arrived, Captain Larchant secured the outer door and he held what he did hold, not by his own right hand, but and the staircase, according to his orders. Henry, when by the strong arm of one who might think it convenient to he knew his councillors were waiting for him, fetched the shake him off at any moment. On the 1st of August, 1589, guards who had been posted on the staircase to the old cabinet, Jacques Clement, a monk, in the guilty favour of Madame de and some others, whom he had concealed, into his room. He Montpensier, sister of the new chief of the League, struck a reminded them of the many benefits he had conferred upon them, knife into Henry III. at St. Cloud, where he was preparing a and how that there was not a man present who was not person descent upon Paris. ally indebted to him. He spoke of what he had done, of what “The bloodthirsty and deceitful men shall not live out half he would do,; and then he told them what unbearable insults he their days." had to put up with from the Guise, and that there was a plot laid against his honour and his life. “I am reduced to this extremity," he said, "that either I die or he must, and that this

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-XII. morning. Will you not serve me, and avenge me ?"

MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS. The guards clamoured their desire to serve the king. Eight 141. By the definition of multiplication, to multiply by s of them who had poniards were instructed to line the entrance fraction is to take a part of the multiplicand as many times as to Henry's cabinet, and to strike the duke as he entered, for the there are like parts of a unit in the multiplier. king meant to send for him. One more assassin, named Loignac,

3 was deputed to finish the duke with a sword, if the daggers

Thus : Suppose a is to be multiplied by

Here, a fourth should not succeed to the utmost. Henry awaited alone in his

part of e is cabinet the announcement of his enemy's arrival.

and this taken three timos is + + 4

4 4 The Duke of Guise was late. Weary with pleasure, in which

3a

'; and so of other cases. he indulged as a voluptuary, he overslept himself. Not till eight o'clock did he wake, when, hurriedly dressing himself in a suit

142. To multiply one fraction by another. of grey satin, he strode off to the castle. Nine missives of warn Multiply their numerators together, and also their demonsing reached him before he started, and twice on the castle nators; the products are respectively the numerator and denomiterrace he was accosted by those who begged him not to proceed. nator of the answer. But confident in his own strength, and in the known cowardice

143. The multiplication may often be shortened, by rejecting of Henry, he turned a deaf ear, and, going on, was met by the same factors from the numerators and denominators of the Captain Larchant, who presented the guards' petition. Arrived given fractions.

d in the council-chamber, Guise saluted the members, and, sitting EXAMPLE.—Multiply down at the table, complained of feeling unwell. His nose began to bleed, and he complained of cold. He rose from the table,

Here, a being in one of the numerators, and in one of the and went to the fireplace to warm himself. His handkerchief denominators, may be omitted. The answer is then dropped from his hand, and he told the page who picked it up

adh to go to his secretary, and tell him to come at once with another. i be retained, the product will be ; and this reduced to lower It is supposed this was some pre-arranged signal ; but, anyhow, terms, will become

dh

ary the page going out was stopped by the guard, so that the duke's

the same answer as before.

ry mossage never reached its destination. Presently a page entered 144. To multiply a fraction and an integer together. the room and said to Guise, “ My lord, the king desires to see Rule.--Multiply the numerator of the fraction by the integer, yon. He is in the old cabinet.”

and the product with the same denominator is the answer ; or Still apparently confident, the duke did not hesitate ; but, divide the denominator by the integer, and the quotient with the twisting lus cloak under his left arm, an act which shackled him same numerator is the answer.

a

a

and together.

a

dhe fa

[ocr errors]
[graphic]

x

[ocr errors]

am

am

=q; and

[ocr errors]

24ab 3xy 3 12. Find the product

Х 3. 8a

a3 - 23

22 - 4a 13. Multiply by

2-a 2 + 2a

32 14. Multiply by

bx - ab

1+4 +4 1 da 15. Multiply

by 1 - 0 + b2

1+ 16. Multiply 1

2y
by 2 +
*+y
623

4 17. Multiply

9x + 6 323 + 204 + 9 + 6

by 6:23 + 4x** 92 +6 6 . 4x2 + 3x + 2

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ат

m

[ocr errors]

auc

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

EXAMPLES.-(1.) Multiply by a.

Here, "Xa=

For a=i

and i * Ans. y y

Y (2.) Multiply

by a.

ar Here, dividing the denominator by a, we have which is the answer. Or, by the former part of the rule, multiplying the nomerator by a, we have

ат
But

which is the same result as before.

145. A fraction is multiplied by a quantity equal to its denominator, by cancelling the denominator. EXAMPLE.—Multiply by b.

b' b is both the numerator and denominator, it may be cancelled, and we have a for the product as before.

146. On the same principle, a fraction is multiplied into any factor in its denominator, by cancelling that factor.

EXERCISE 21.

a 1. Multiply by

с 2m

Q + d
2. Multiply by

y

m - 2

(a + m) Xh 4 3. Multiply

3

(a - n)
+h
4. Multiply by

3+d C+y

1 3 5. Multiply by

a + 3r

8

a 6. Multiply

and

together. 3. d

y 2a 1 - db

1 7. Multiply

and

together.

1-1
3 + 61 a
3. Multiply

and together.

+ 2
ad a-6 3
9. Multiply

and together.
hy' 2 + 1

7
am
10. Multiply

and

together. in 3a

20 a +d

my 11. Multipl, by

y

ah
am + dn 3r

and
12. Multiply

together.

50
im
13. Multipi by la - y).

[ocr errors]

by

4 - m

с

-hr

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

EXERCISE 18.
3hm - 2rd - da
1.

9. a+c + xy +

at + bx + 4d. 32h 2. ay - bd + md

26

10. 42 + 2a
dy

с
3.
am -
- dy

40 + 4ab
my

11. y + a2 + 82

2c
4.

12. 2a + 2x + 1.
5.
ar - am - dh

b

am + b 13. a +

+b.

or dm - dr

m 6.

h + d 'dm-3dy +h+d 4adx + 6bcx + bdre 7.

14. 30 +

or
m - Y

m - y
bds
8. xy +
achæ + a2xy + 2cy

a +36 5cx + a + 3b

15. 5y + or acy

EXERCISE 19.
ad + dy -

178 - la
1.
dr

12
ay - dm + bm

by - dy + lom 2.

5. my

my cdb -d

am + m - đ + 4

6. ab

EXERCISE 20. 1 h - my 2.c + 3dy

az - 62x
1. - mor
8. a-

14.
Y
2y

XY.
bd + ch
2. a +

-6 9. + y

15. cd

2363 2b

с - 2c 3. 1+

1 d

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

4* - 42 -10a+10b 16.

10.

52 - 56 4. 4h - 2a

10x + 10y 6

ab - a 11. C-Q.

17. 4x -
5.

- bd - by
be
y - 2x

4ory

18.
6.
ay + by — cx + dr.

-
bo + cx

13.
2y -

19.
bd + by

cy
24

2 + y2

12.

"في - فيه

ad + ay

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXIV. SECTION XCVIII.-MAGNOLIACEÆ, OR MAGNOLIADS.

Characteristics : Sepals three, rarely two, or four, or six ; petals hypogynous at the base of an elongated receptacle, six or more in number, and free; stamens indefinite; ovaries numerous, either free or partially coherent; bi- or pluri-ovulate ; ovales pendent, reflexed; fruit various in character; carpels pedicelled, free, or coherent into a spike; dehiscent or indehiscent, dry or fleshy; seeds having an elongated funiculus; embryo very small at the base of a fleshy albumen.

The Magnolias are beautiful trees of South America and tropical Asia, possessing large, often persistent leaves, and magnificent flowers. The Magnolia glauca is a rustic shrub about twenty feet high, having leaves yellow beneath, and very odorous white flowers. The Magnolia Thompsoniana (Fig. 257), a variety of the preceding, is a fine pyramidal tree of about the same height, and differing from the Magnolia glauca in the circumstance of possessing larger leaves, and flowers five inches in diameter.

SECTION XCIX.-DILLENIACEÆ, OR DILLENIADS. Characteristics : Sepals free; petals free, hypogynous; stamens indefinite ; ovaries several, free, or nearly free; ovules one or

10. Multiply
11. Find the product of a x

X 6,
32

« 前へ次へ »