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country palace with a pension; and that the Duke of Guise | had he wanted to draw his sword, he walked out of the room, should reign in his stead. First a presentiment, then a more saying “Adieu, Messieurs !" as he went. direct caution, warned the duke of the existence of a plot In the guard-room the soldiers stood up as the duke came and against his life. He spoke to his friends about it, and talked saluted him, and he passed on to the narrow, crooked passage of going to Orleans. It was, however, the general opinion that which led to the old cabinet. Some of the guards followed him no attempt would be made, and the Archbishop of Lyons re- close, and he, turning round at the entrance to the passage, as monstrated warmly against the duke's absence at the critical if to see why he was followed, was struck in the breast by the time of the fortunes of the League.

dagger of Montlhéry, a soldier of the guard, who cried out at On the 22nd of December, as the Duke of Guise sat down to the same time, "Traitor, thou diest !" Other men threw themdinner, he saw a note in his napkin. Opening it he read, selves on the duke's limbs to hold him from defending himself, “ Take care ; an evil turn is about to be played on you." He and he was struck again and again by the poniards of the wrote underneath it, “ They dare not,” and flung the paper murderers. One man drove his sword into his back. The poor under the table. On the same day the Duc d'Elbæuf told him man at each blow cried out, “Eh, my friends! eh, my friends." there would be an attempt on his life the next morning, upon and shouted "Miséricorde" when Loignac thrust his sword into which Guise said, smiling, “I see, cousin, you have been look- him. Notwithstanding his many wounds and the weight of the ing at your almanack. All the almanacks this year are stuffed men clinging to him, the duke, who was a powerful man, full of such threats."

dragged himself along into the king's bed-chamber, where, erHenry retired early on the evening of the 22nd of December, but hausted by loss of blood, he fell on the bed and died. not to rest. After two hours spent in completing his own arrange The Cardinal of Lorraine, seated at the table, heard his ments, he sent for Larchant, captain of his body-guard. To him he brother's cries, and jumped up, saying, " They are murdering my gave orders that, with a few of the guard, he should next morning brother!" and he made as though he would run to the duke's wait upon the Duke of Guise as he came to the council, and ask assistance. The Maréchal d'Aumont stopped him, saying, "Do him to supplicate the king that the soldiers' arrears of pay might not move, my lord. The king has something to say to you." be given to them. As soon as the duke should have come in, That night the Cardinal rejoined his brother whithersoever he Larchant was to seize the outer door and the staircase, and not had gone, being hacked to pieces in his prison by the axes of to suffer any one to pass in or out. By special request the Henry's minions. Cardinal of Lorraine was to be with the king an hour before the “At length you are king,” said Catherine de Medicis to her rest of the council. Larchant was ordered to place twenty more son when she came to congratulate him on his murders. guards on the staircase leading to Henry's own cabinet.

For a time, a very short time, Henry was king, because he sucThe Duke of Guise, returning to his lodgings from those of the ceeded in enlisting on his side the strong arm and stout heart of Marchioness de Noirmoutiers, found his servants waiting up to Henry of Navarre, by whose aid he overcame the armies of the beseech him not to attend the council at the castle. They gave League, and even brought the rebellious city of Paris to his feet. him two notes of warning which had been left for him; and he, But he was excommunicated by the Pope for his crimes, and for impatient of his friends' importunity, thrust the notes under his his alliance with a heretic. He no longer had the subtle guard pillow, and dismissed his servants to bed.

of his lynx-eyed mother, for Catherine died at Blois on the 5th On the 23rd of Decembor, when the persons summoned to the of January, 1589, within a fortnight of the murdered brothers ; council had arrived, Captain Larchant secured the outer door and he held what he did hold, not by his own right hand, but and the staircase, according to his orders. Henry, when by the strong arm of one who might think it convenient to he knew his councillors were waiting for him, fetched the shake him off at any moment. On the 1st of August, 1589, guards who had been posted on the staircase to the old cabinet, Jacques Clement, a monk, in the guilty favour of Madame de and some others, whom he had concealed, into his room. He Montpensier, sister of the new chief of the League, struck a reminded them of the many benefits he had conferred upon them, knife into Henry III. at St. Cloud, where he was preparing a and how that there was not a man present who was not person descent upon Paris. ally indebted to him. He spoke of what he had done, of what “The bloodthirsty and deceitful men shall not live out half he would do,; and then he told them what unbearable insults he their days." had to put up with from the Guise, and that there was a plot laid against his honour and his life. “I am reduced to this extremity," he said, "that either I die or he must, and that this

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-XII. morning. Will you not serve me, and avenge me ?"

MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS. The guards clamoured their desire to serve the king. Eight 141. By the definition of multiplication, to multiply by s of them who had poniards were instructed to line the entrance fraction is to take a part of the multiplicand as many times as to Henry's cabinet, and to strike the duke as he entered, for the there are like parts of a unit in the multiplier. king meant to send for him. One more assassin, named Loignac,

3 was deputed to finish the duke with a sword, if the daggers

Thus : Suppose a is to be multiplied by

Here, a fourth should not succeed to the utmost. Henry awaited alone in his

part of e is cabinet the announcement of his enemy's arrival.

and this taken three timos is + + 4

4 4 The Duke of Guise was late. Weary with pleasure, in which

3a

'; and so of other cases. he indulged as a voluptuary, he overslept himself. Not till eight o'clock did he wake, when, hurriedly dressing himself in a suit

142. To multiply one fraction by another. of grey satin, he strode off to the castle. Nine missives of warn Multiply their numerators together, and also their demonsing reached him before he started, and twice on the castle nators; the products are respectively the numerator and denomiterrace he was accosted by those who begged him not to proceed. nator of the answer. But confident in his own strength, and in the known cowardice

143. The multiplication may often be shortened, by rejecting of Henry, he turned a deaf ear, and, going on, was met by the same factors from the numerators and denominators of the Captain Larchant, who presented the guards' petition. Arrived given fractions.

d in the council-chamber, Guise saluted the members, and, sitting EXAMPLE.—Multiply down at the table, complained of feeling unwell. His nose began to bleed, and he complained of cold. He rose from the table,

Here, a being in one of the numerators, and in one of the and went to the fireplace to warm himself. His handkerchief denominators, may be omitted. The answer is then dropped from his hand, and he told the page who picked it up

adh to go to his secretary, and tell him to come at once with another. i be retained, the product will be ; and this reduced to lower It is supposed this was some pre-arranged signal ; but, anyhow, terms, will become

dh

ary the page going out was stopped by the guard, so that the duke's

the same answer as before.

ry mossage never reached its destination. Presently a page entered 144. To multiply a fraction and an integer together. the room and said to Guise, “ My lord, the king desires to see Rule.--Multiply the numerator of the fraction by the integer, yon. He is in the old cabinet.”

and the product with the same denominator is the answer ; or Still apparently confident, the duke did not hesitate ; but, divide the denominator by the integer, and the quotient with the twisting lus cloak under his left arm, an act which shackled him same numerator is the answer.

a

a

and together.

a

dhe fa

[ocr errors]
[graphic]

x

[ocr errors]

am

am

=q; and

[ocr errors]

24ab 3xy 3 12. Find the product

Х 3. 8a

a3 - 23

22 - 4a 13. Multiply by

2-a 2 + 2a

32 14. Multiply by

bx - ab

1+4 +4 1 da 15. Multiply

by 1 - 0 + b2

1+ 16. Multiply 1

2y
by 2 +
*+y
623

4 17. Multiply

9x + 6 323 + 204 + 9 + 6

by 6:23 + 4x** 92 +6 6 . 4x2 + 3x + 2

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ат

m

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auc

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EXAMPLES.-(1.) Multiply by a.

Here, "Xa=

For a=i

and i * Ans. y y

Y (2.) Multiply

by a.

ar Here, dividing the denominator by a, we have which is the answer. Or, by the former part of the rule, multiplying the nomerator by a, we have

ат
But

which is the same result as before.

145. A fraction is multiplied by a quantity equal to its denominator, by cancelling the denominator. EXAMPLE.—Multiply by b.

b' b is both the numerator and denominator, it may be cancelled, and we have a for the product as before.

146. On the same principle, a fraction is multiplied into any factor in its denominator, by cancelling that factor.

EXERCISE 21.

a 1. Multiply by

с 2m

Q + d
2. Multiply by

y

m - 2

(a + m) Xh 4 3. Multiply

3

(a - n)
+h
4. Multiply by

3+d C+y

1 3 5. Multiply by

a + 3r

8

a 6. Multiply

and

together. 3. d

y 2a 1 - db

1 7. Multiply

and

together.

1-1
3 + 61 a
3. Multiply

and together.

+ 2
ad a-6 3
9. Multiply

and together.
hy' 2 + 1

7
am
10. Multiply

and

together. in 3a

20 a +d

my 11. Multipl, by

y

ah
am + dn 3r

and
12. Multiply

together.

50
im
13. Multipi by la - y).

[ocr errors]

by

4 - m

с

-hr

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

EXERCISE 18.
3hm - 2rd - da
1.

9. a+c + xy +

at + bx + 4d. 32h 2. ay - bd + md

26

10. 42 + 2a
dy

с
3.
am -
- dy

40 + 4ab
my

11. y + a2 + 82

2c
4.

12. 2a + 2x + 1.
5.
ar - am - dh

b

am + b 13. a +

+b.

or dm - dr

m 6.

h + d 'dm-3dy +h+d 4adx + 6bcx + bdre 7.

14. 30 +

or
m - Y

m - y
bds
8. xy +
achæ + a2xy + 2cy

a +36 5cx + a + 3b

15. 5y + or acy

EXERCISE 19.
ad + dy -

178 - la
1.
dr

12
ay - dm + bm

by - dy + lom 2.

5. my

my cdb -d

am + m - đ + 4

6. ab

EXERCISE 20. 1 h - my 2.c + 3dy

az - 62x
1. - mor
8. a-

14.
Y
2y

XY.
bd + ch
2. a +

-6 9. + y

15. cd

2363 2b

с - 2c 3. 1+

1 d

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

4* - 42 -10a+10b 16.

10.

52 - 56 4. 4h - 2a

10x + 10y 6

ab - a 11. C-Q.

17. 4x -
5.

- bd - by
be
y - 2x

4ory

18.
6.
ay + by — cx + dr.

-
bo + cx

13.
2y -

19.
bd + by

cy
24

2 + y2

12.

"في - فيه

ad + ay

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXIV. SECTION XCVIII.-MAGNOLIACEÆ, OR MAGNOLIADS.

Characteristics : Sepals three, rarely two, or four, or six ; petals hypogynous at the base of an elongated receptacle, six or more in number, and free; stamens indefinite; ovaries numerous, either free or partially coherent; bi- or pluri-ovulate ; ovales pendent, reflexed; fruit various in character; carpels pedicelled, free, or coherent into a spike; dehiscent or indehiscent, dry or fleshy; seeds having an elongated funiculus; embryo very small at the base of a fleshy albumen.

The Magnolias are beautiful trees of South America and tropical Asia, possessing large, often persistent leaves, and magnificent flowers. The Magnolia glauca is a rustic shrub about twenty feet high, having leaves yellow beneath, and very odorous white flowers. The Magnolia Thompsoniana (Fig. 257), a variety of the preceding, is a fine pyramidal tree of about the same height, and differing from the Magnolia glauca in the circumstance of possessing larger leaves, and flowers five inches in diameter.

SECTION XCIX.-DILLENIACEÆ, OR DILLENIADS. Characteristics : Sepals free; petals free, hypogynous; stamens indefinite ; ovaries several, free, or nearly free; ovules one or

10. Multiply
11. Find the product of a x

X 6,
32

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

1

starch, and oxalate of lime; the latter material constituting or distant; as :-Ich hoffe, in der nächsten Woche dieses Buch beentigen one-third of its entire weight. The botanical origin of rhubarb zu können, I hope to be able by (in the) next week to finish this is still enveloped in great obscurity. The Arabs received it book. Er wird in fünftigen Jahren vorsichtiger sein, in coming years in the tenth century from the Chinese, and made it known in he will be more careful. Europe ; but the Chinese indicated with considerable vagueness

VOCABULARY. the locality of the plant, and altogether refused to supply any Befor'gen, to manage, Himmlisch, heavenly, \ Lebensmittel, pl. proof its seeds or cuttings, even though an equal weight of gold attend to, take celestial.

visions, victuals. was frequently offered as a premium. Three sorts of medicinal

care of.

Hin'länglich, enough, Un'überlegt, inconsiderhubarb are known in commerce; that of China, which comes Erst. (See R. 1, sufficiently.

rate, rash. to us from Thibet and Canton; that which comes to us through

above.)

| Hin'leßen (sich), to sit Bersor'gen, to proRussia (commonly known as Turkey rhubarb); and the rhu. Gelin'gen, to succeed, down.

vide. barb of Persia. Of the various species which have been

prosper, speed. Irdisch, brought to Europe and planted in our gardens, the Rheum Beschafftig, busy, bu

terrestrial, Vorbei', past, gone. earthly.

Zeitlich temporal, palmatum is the only one which yields a result at all like

sied, active. Künftig. (See R. 2, earthly, timely. that of the Oriental rhubarb; but it is still distinguishable Häuslich, domestic. above.)

zu geben. (See above.) from the latter. The Rheum australe, procured originally from the mountains of Thibet, and cultivated in Calcutta, still more

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. closely resembles the Chinese rhubarb; probably, therefore, So geht es in der Welt zu. So the world goes. the medicinal root is obtained from this species, though the Es geht seit vierzehn Tagen besser For a fortnight past it goes subject is enveloped in much donbt.

mit ihm.

better with him. The Rheum Rhaponticum, another species of rhubarb, grows Erst über's Jahr fann es geschehen. It can only take place a year spontaneously in Thrace and on the shores of the Black Sea.

hence. This is the species which was known to the ancient Greek Sie ist erst gestern an gekommen. She arrived only yesterday. and Roman physicians, who gave to it the name of Rha. Subse- Niemand weiß, was der nächste Tag No one knows what the next quently this name was expanded into Rha-ponticum, for the mit sich bringt.

day) morrow may bring with purpose of distinguishing the vegetable from another Rha, the

it. produce of Scythia, and designated Rha-barbarum, whence our Niemand weiß, was die nächsten No one knows what the next modern word rhubarb. A representation of the Rheum Rha Tage mit sich bringen.

days may bring with them. ponticum is annexed (Fig. 260).

In tem fünftigen Jahre be'suche ich (In) the coming year I shal! SECTION CV.-LAURACEÆ, OR LAURELS.

wahr'scheinlich die Schweiz. probably visit Switzerland. Characieristics : Perianth calycoidal, four to six partite,

Dies war die nächste Ur'sache seiner This was theimmediate(nearest) bi-serial, iri-nerved, imbricate ; stamens perigynous, inserted | Er hat den Auftrag besorgt

Ab'reise.

cause of his departure.

He has attended to (done) the upon a fleshy disc, springing from the base of the perianth, and persistent, in number double, or triple, or quadruple that Er besorgt' seine Geschäf'te selbst.

commission. of the sepais, sometimes equal and then opposite to the sepals;

He attends to (does) his busi

ness himself. filaments free, the internal ones provided with two lateral Man versorgʻte ten Fremten mit The stranger was provided (supglands; anthers adnatant, bi-locular, or quadri-locular, some

Allem, was er nöthig hatte plied) with all that he needed. times all introrsal ; sometimes the interior ones introrsal, the others extrorsal; carpels, three united into one; ovary uni

EXERCISE 178. locular; ovule single, pendent, reflexed; style simple; stigma 1. Erst nabm er Papier und Federn, dann septe er sich hin, um zu schreiben. tri-lobed; fruit bacciform, protected by the base of the perianth; ' 2. Er hat eben erst angefangen zu arbeiten. 3. Es ist erst fieben Uhr ver: seed dicotyledonous, straight, exalbuminous; stem ligneous; bei. 4. Dieser sinabe ist erst treizehn Jahre alt. 5. Nun ging es erf bark aromatic; leaves alternate, aromatic; flowers axillary, or ređít arg zu. 6. Es ist eine halbe Stunde weit bis zum nächsten Derit

. in a cyme, panicle, or umbel.

7. Dies ist der nächste Weg bahin. 8. Ich will ihm mit der nächsten Best The bay tree (Laurus nobilis), indigenous to Central Europe, schreiben. 9. Ein unüberlegtes Wort ist zuweilen tie nächste Ursache ju is a tree or shrub, with persistent leaves, coriaceous, smooth, Streit und Hater. 10. Mein Freund kommt die nächste Woche hierber and possessing an agreeable odour. The sassafras (Laurus 11. Im fünftigen Jahre getenft er nach Umerita zu reisen. 12. In fünf sassafras) is a native of Virginia, Florida, and Brazil. Every 'tigen Jahren wirte ic versichtiger sein. 13. Künftige Woche gebe ici part of this tree is endowed with a peculiar odour, something einige Tage auf's Land. 14. An das fünftige Leben sollten wir mehr denlike a combination of fennel and camphor. The wood of this 'fen, ale an das zeitliche. 15. Mein fünftig & Leben soll dir gewidmet fein. tree is employed in medicine. The Cinnamomum dulce (Fig. 16. Ich befürchte, es wird auf diese Weise nicht gelingen. 17. Er stegt 264), or true cinnamon, furnishes the aromatic hark known by mehr für irt ise, ale für himmlische Reichthümer. 18. Die gelýäftige the name of cinnamon. It is cultivated in Ceylon and other Frau besorgt alle Händlichen Arbeiten selbst. 19. Der Nachbar besorgte mir inter-tropical countries. The cassia (Cinnamomum cusia) is ten Brief auf die Poft. 20. Der Au trag wurde von dem Fleinen Snaben a native of Cochin-China, Malabar, and some parts of Chine rünfelich besorgt. 21. Die Festung wurte hinlänglich mit Lebensmitteln Proper. Its bark is thicker than that of the true cinnamon 'versorgt. 22. Der Bruter versorgte mich zeitig mit guten Büchern. 23. tree, and its colour deeper. Camphor is another valuable pro- Der arme Mann hat sechs Kinder zu versorgen. duction from one of the laurel tribe, the Camphora officinalis (Fig. 263), a native of Japan. The substance known as camphor,

EXERCISE 179. however, is not found in this vegetable only. In small quan 1. First I shall read, then I shall write. 2. I returned from tities it exists in many plants of the natural order Labiatæ. my journey only yesterday. 3. I shall not see him till to

morrow. 4. I have received only half of my books. 5. We

ought first to avoid doing evil, and then to do good. 6. Next LESSONS IN GERMAN.—XLIV.

spring I shall probably go into the country for a few days. 7. SECTION XCII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continud).

Are you sufficiently acquainted with the circumstances of his

immediate departure ? 8. That errand was punctually perGchen and zugehen (in the sense " to succeed or get on") are formed by this man. 9. This poor woman has five children to often used impersonally like the English "go ;” as :-Wie geht provide for. 10. I sometimes provide him with an instruetivo cs? how goes it? Es geht recht munter zu, they are making very book. 11. Next time I shall be more careful. merry.

1. Erft (first) often answers to the English "only, not before, SECTION XCIII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). no more than, just," etc.; as :--Es sieht noch so neu aus, als wenn es Ginholen (from ein, in, and holen, to fetch) signifies "to go to erst gefauft wäre, it still looks as new as though it had just been moet, to overtake, to outrun," etc.; as :-Gine Derutation holte ben bought.' Die Schule gebst erst um zehn Uhr an, the school does not | Mesandten ein, a deputation went out to meet the ambassador. begin before ten o'clock. Sie ist erst dreizehn Jahre alt, she is only Nach drei Tagen batte unsere Fregatte das feindliche Saiff eingeholt, after thirteen years old.

three days our frigate had overtaken the hostile ship. 2. Macit (next), applied to time, denotes the period nearest at 1. Heute, to-day (Latin, hodie), is sometimes best rendered "hand; tünftig (future, next, coming) applies to future time, near“ at the present, now,” etc.; as :-- Geut zu Sage, or beutiges Tages,

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